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Surfaces and Interfaces of Electronic Materials

ISBN: 978-3-527-40915-0
586 pages
April 2010
Surfaces and Interfaces of Electronic Materials (3527409157) cover image
An advanced level textbook covering geometric, chemical, and electronic structure of electronic materials, and their applications to devices based on semiconductor surfaces, metal-semiconductor interfaces, and semiconductor heterojunctions.

Starting with the fundamentals of electrical measurements on semiconductor interfaces, it then describes the importance of controlling macroscopic electrical properties by atomic-scale techniques. Subsequent chapters present the wide range of surface and interface techniques available to characterize electronic, optical, chemical, and structural properties of electronic materials, including semiconductors, insulators, nanostructures, and organics. The essential physics and chemistry underlying each technique is described in sufficient depth with references to the most authoritative sources for more exhaustive discussions, while numerous examples are provided throughout to illustrate the applications of each technique.

With its general reading lists, extensive citations to the text, and problem sets appended to all chapters, this is ideal for students of electrical engineering, physics and materials science. It equally serves as a reference for physicists, material science and electrical and electronic engineers involved in surface and interface science, semiconductor processing, and device modeling and design.
This is a coproduction of Wiley and IEEE

* Free solutions manual available for lecturers at www.wiley-vch.de/supplements/

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Preface XVII

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Surface and Interfaces in Everyday Life 1

1.2 Surfaces and Interfaces in Electronics Technology 2

2 Historical Background 9

2.1 Contact Electrification and the Development of Solid-State Concepts 9

2.2 High-Purity Semiconductor Crystals 10

2.3 Development of the Transistor 10

2.4 The Surface Science Era 12

2.5 Advances in Crystal Growth Techniques 13

2.6 Future Electronics 15

3 Electrical Measurements 19

3.1 Schottky Barrier Overview 19

3.2 Ideal Schottky Barriers 20

3.3 Real Schottky Barriers 22

3.4 Schottky Barrier Height Measurements 25

3.5 Summary 33

4 Interface States 37

4.1 Interface State Models 37

4.2 Simple Model Calculation of Electronic Surface States 39

4.3 Intrinsic Surface States 42

4.4 Extrinsic Surface States 52

4.5 Chapter Summary 62

5 Ultrahigh Vacuum Technology 67

5.1 Ultrahigh Vacuum Vessels 67

5.2 Pumps 70

5.3 Specimen Manipulators 76

5.4 Gauges 76

5.5 Deposition Sources 77

5.6 Deposition Monitors 79

5.7 Summary 80

6 Surface and Interface Analysis 83

6.1 Surface and Interface Techniques 83

6.2 Excited Electron Spectroscopies 85

6.3 Principles of Surface Sensitivity 88

6.4 Surface Analytic and Processing Chambers 89

6.5 Summary 92

7 Photoemission Spectroscopy 93

7.1 The Photoelectric Effect 93

7.2 The Optical Excitation Process 95

7.3 Photoionization Cross Section 95

7.4 Density of States 96

7.5 Experimental Spectrum 96

7.6 Experimental Energy Distribution Curves 97

7.7 Measured Photoionization Cross Sections 100

7.8 Principles of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy 112

7.9 Excitation Sources 119

7.10 Electron Energy Analyzers 122

7.11 Summary 125

8 Photoemission with Soft X-rays 129

8.1 Soft X-ray Spectroscopy Techniques 129

8.2 Synchrotron Radiation Sources 129

8.3 Soft X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy 132

8.4 Related Soft X-ray Techniques 141

8.5 Summary 143

9 Particle–Solid Scattering 147

9.1 Overview 147

9.2 Scattering Cross Section 147

9.3 Electron Beam Spectroscopies 151

9.4 Auger Electron Spectroscopy 153

9.5 Auger Depth Profiling 163

10 Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy 169

10.1 Overview 169

10.2 Dielectric Response Theory 171

10.3 Surface Phonon Scattering 172

10.4 Bulk and Surface Plasmon Scattering 174

10.5 Interface Electronic Transitions 177

10.6 Atomic-Scale Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy 180

10.7 Summary 181

11 Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry 183

11.1 Overview 183

11.2 Theory of Rutherford Backscattering 184

11.3 Depth Profiling 187

11.4 Channeling and Blocking 190

11.5 Interface Studies 192

11.6 Summary 195

12 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry 197

12.1 Overview 197

12.2 Principles 197

12.3 SIMS Equipment 199

12.4 Secondary Ion Yields 203

12.5 Imaging 206

12.6 Dynamic SIMS 207

12.7 Organic and Biological Species 211

12.8 Summary 211

13 Electron Diffraction 213

13.1 Overview 213

13.2 Principles of Low-Energy Electron Diffraction 213

13.3 LEED Equipment 215

13.4 LEED Kinematics 216

13.5 Surface Reconstruction 217

13.6 Surface Lattices and Superstructures 219

13.7 Silicon Reconstructions 221

13.8 III–V Compound Semiconductor Reconstructions 223

13.9 Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction 227

13.8.1 RHEED Oscillations 232

13.9 Summary 233

14 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy 237

14.1 Overview 237

14.2 Tunneling Theory 239

14.3 Surface Structure 244

14.4 Atomic Force Microscopy 246

14.5 Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy 249

14.6 Atomic Positioning 252

14.7 Summary 253

15 Optical Spectroscopies 257

15.1 Overview 257

15.2 Optical Absorption 257

15.3 Modulation Techniques 260

15.4 Multiple Surface Interaction Techniques 262

15.5 Spectroscopic Ellipsometry 263

15.6 Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy 264

15.7 Surface Photoconductivity 267

15.8 Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy 268

15.9 Summary 276

16 Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy 279

16.1 Overview 279

16.2 Theory 281

16.3 Monte Carlo Simulations 291

16.4 Depth-Resolved Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy 293

16.5 Summary 302

17 Electronic Materials' Surfaces 305

17.1 Overview 305

17.2 Geometric Structure 305

17.3 Chemical Structure 311

17.4 Etching 318

17.5 Electronic Implications 323

17.6 Summary 323

18 Adsorbates on Electronic Materials' Surfaces 327

18.1 Overview 327

18.2 Geometric Structure 327

18.3 Chemical Properties 336

18.4 Electronic Properties 346

18.5 Summary 356

19 Adsorbate–Semiconductor Sensors 365

19.1 Adsorbate–Surface Charge Transfer 365

19.2 Sensors 370

19.3 Summary 379

20 Semiconductor Heterojunctions 383

20.1 Overview 383

20.2 Geometric Structure 383

20.3 Chemical Structure 397

20.4 Electronic Structure 402

20.5 Summary 439

21 Metals on Semiconductors 447

21.1 Overview 447

21.2 Metal–Semiconductor Interface Dipoles 448

21.3 Interface States 449

21.4 Self-Consistent Electrostatic Calculations 467

21.5 Fermi-Level Pinning Models 471

21.6 Experimental Schottky Barriers 471

21.7 Interface Passivation and Control 492

21.8 Summary 514

22 The Future of Interfaces 523

22.1 Current Status 523

22.2 Current Device Applications and Challenges 525

22.3 New Directions 528

22.4 Synopsis 536

Appendices 539

Appendix 1: Glossary of Commonly Used Symbols 541

Appendix 2: Table of Acronyms 544

Appendix 3: Table of Physical Constants and Conversion Factors 548

Appendix 4: Semiconductor Properties 549

Appendix 5: Table of Preferred Work Functions 551

Appendix 6: Derivation of Fermi’s Golden Rule 552

Appendix 7: Derivation of Photoemission Cross Section for a Square Well 555

Index 557

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Leonard Brillson is a professor of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Physics, and Center for Materials Research Scholar at The Ohio State University in Columbus, OH, USA. Prior to that, he was director of Xerox Corporation's Materials Research Laboratory and had responsibility for Xerox's long-range physical science and technology programs at the company's research headquarters in Rochester, N.Y. He is a Fellow of IEEE, AAAS, AVS, and APS, and a former Governing Board member of the American Institute of Physics. He has authored over 300 scientific publications and received numerous scientific awards, including the AVS Gaede-Langmuir Award.
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