Fundamentals of Ionizing Radiation DosimetryISBN: 9783527409211
1000 pages
August 2017

Description
A new, comprehensively updated edition of the acclaimed textbook by F.H. Attix (Introduction to Radiological Physics and Radiation Dosimetry) taking into account the substantial developments in dosimetry since its first edition. This monograph covers charged and uncharged particle interactions at a level consistent with the advanced use of the Monte Carlo method in dosimetry; radiation quantities, macroscopic behaviour and the characterization of radiation fields and beams are covered in detail. A number of chapters include addenda presenting derivations and discussions that offer new insight into established dosimetric principles and concepts. The theoretical aspects of dosimetry are given in the comprehensive chapter on cavity theory, followed by the description of primary measurement standards, ionization chambers, chemical dosimeters and solid state detectors. Chapters on applications include reference dosimetry for standard and small fields in radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology and interventional procedures, dosimetry of unsealed and sealed radionuclide sources, and neutron beam dosimetry. The topics are presented in a logical, easytofollow sequence and the text is supplemented by numerous illustrative diagrams, tables and appendices.
For senior undergraduate or graduatelevel students and professionals.
Table of Contents
Preface xix
Quantities and symbols xxiii
Acronyms xxxix
1 Background and Essentials 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Types and Sources of Ionizing Radiation 1
1.3 Consequences of the Random Nature of Radiation 4
1.4 Interaction Cross Sections 6
1.5 Kinematic Relativistic Expressions 9
1.6 Atomic Relaxations 11
1.7 Evaluation of Uncertainties 22
Exercises 28
2 ChargedParticle Interactions with Matter 29
2.1 Introduction 29
2.2 Types of ChargedParticle Interactions 31
2.3 Elastic Scattering 36
2.4 Inelastic Scattering and Energy Loss 55
2.5 Radiative Energy Loss: Bremsstrahlung 95
2.6 Total Stopping Power 103
2.7 Range of Charged Particles 104
2.8 Number and Energy Distributions of Secondary Particles 106
2.9 Nuclear Stopping Power and Interactions by Heavy Charged Particles 112
2.10 TheWValue (Mean Energy to Create an Ion Pair) 114
2.11 Addendum –Derivation of Expressions for the Elastic and Inelastic Scattering of Heavy
Exercises 139
3 UnchargedParticle Interactions with Matter 143
3.1 Introduction 143
3.2 Photon Interactions with Matter 143
3.3 Photoelectric Effect 145
3.4 Thomson Scattering 154
3.5 Rayleigh Scattering (Coherent Scattering) 157
3.6 Compton Scattering (Incoherent Scattering) 161
3.7 Pair Production and Triplet Production 178
3.8 Positron Annihilation 188
3.9 Photonuclear Interactions 191
3.10 Photon Interaction Coefficients 193
3.11 Neutron Interactions 204
Exercises 211
4 Field and Dosimetric Quantities, Radiation Equilibrium – Definitions and InterRelations 215
4.1 Introduction 215
4.2 Stochastic and Nonstochastic Quantities 215
4.3 Radiation Field Quantities and Units 216
4.4 Distributions of Field Quantities 219
4.5 Quantities Describing Radiation Interactions 220
4.6 Dosimetric Quantities 229
4.7 Relationships Between Field and Dosimetric Quantities 233
4.8 Radiation Equilibrium (RE) 239
4.9 ChargedParticle Equilibrium (CPE) 242
4.10 Partial ChargedParticle Equilibrium (PCPE) 248
4.11 Summary of the InterRelations between Fluence, Kerma, Cema, and Dose 252
4.12 Addendum – Example Calculations of (Net) Energy Transferred and Imparted 252
Exercises 256
5 Elementary Aspects of the Attenuation of Uncharged Particles 259
5.1 Introduction 259
5.2 Exponential Attenuation 259
5.3 NarrowBeam Attenuation 261
5.4 BroadBeam Attenuation 263
5.5 Spectral Effects 270
5.6 The Buildup Factor 271
5.7 Divergent Beams –The Inverse Square Law 273
5.8 The Scaling Theorem 276
Exercises 277
6 Macroscopic Aspects of the Transport of Radiation Through Matter 279
6.1 Introduction 279
6.2 The Radiation Transport Equation Formalism 280
6.3 Introduction to Monte Carlo Derived Distributions 286
6.4 Electron Beam Distributions 287
6.5 Protons and Heavier Charged Particle Beam Distributions 296
6.6 Photon Beam Distributions 301
6.7 Neutron Beam Distributions 309
Exercises 313
7 Characterization of Radiation Quality 315
7.1 Introduction 315
7.2 General Aspects of Radiation Spectra. Mean Energy 316
7.3 Beam Quality Specification for Kilovoltage xray Beams 318
7.4 Megavoltage Photon Beam Quality Specification 326
7.5 HighEnergy Electron Beam Quality Specification 331
7.6 Beam Quality Specification of Protons and Heavier Charged Particles 335
7.7 Energy Spectra Determination 339
Exercises 346
8 The Monte Carlo Simulation of the Transport of Radiation Through Matter 349
8.1 Introduction 349
8.2 Basics of the Monte Carlo Method (MCM) 350
8.3 Simulation of Radiation Transport 359
8.4 Monte Carlo Codes and Systems in the Public Domain 379
8.5 Monte Carlo Applications in Radiation Dosimetry 386
8.6 Other Monte Carlo Developments 393
Exercises 394
9 Cavity Theory 397
9.1 Introduction 397
9.2 CavitiesThat Are Small Compared to Secondary Electron Ranges 399
9.3 StoppingPower Ratios 413
9.4 CavitiesThat Are Large Compared to Electron Ranges 423
9.5 General or Burlin Cavity Theory 425
9.6 The FanoTheorem 429
9.7 Practical Detectors: Deviations from ‘Ideal’ CavityTheory Conditions 431
9.8 Summary and Validation of CavityTheory 435
Exercises 440
10 Overview of Radiation Detectors and Measurements 443
10.1 Introduction 443
10.2 Detector Response and Calibration Coefficient 444
10.3 Absolute, Reference, and Relative Dosimetry 445
10.4 General Characteristics and Desirable Properties of Detectors 447
10.5 Brief Description of Various Types of Detectors 460
10.6 Addendum –The Role of the Density Effect and IValues in the MediumtoWater Stopping Power Ratio 467
Exercises 471
11 Primary Radiation Standards 473
11.1 Introduction 473
11.2 FreeAir Ionization Chambers 474
11.3 Primary Cavity Ionization Chambers 481
11.4 AbsorbedDose Calorimeters 484
11.5 Fricke Chemical Dosimeter 488
11.6 International Framework for Traceability in Radiation Dosimetry 490
11.7 Addendum – Experimental Derivation of Fundamental Dosimetric Quantities 491
Exercises 493
12 Ionization Chambers 497
12.1 Introduction 497
12.2 Types of Ionization Chamber 498
12.3 Measurement of Ionization Current 504
12.4 Ion Recombination 513
12.5 Addendum –Air Humidity in Dosimetry 524
Exercises 531
13 Chemical Dosimeters 533
13.1 Introduction 533
13.2 Radiation Chemistry inWater 533
13.3 Chemical Heat Defect 538
13.4 Ferrous Sulfate Dosimeters 539
13.5 Alanine Dosimetry 547
13.6 Film Dosimetry 556
13.7 Gel Dosimetry 568
Exercises 574
14 SolidState Detector Dosimetry 577
14.1 Introduction 577
14.2 Thermoluminescence Dosimetry 577
14.3 OpticallyStimulated Luminescence Dosimeters 591
14.4 Scintillation Dosimetry 596
14.5 Semiconductor Detectors for Dosimetry 609
Exercises 628
15 Reference Dosimetry for External Beam Radiation Therapy 631
15.1 Introduction 631
15.2 A Generalized Formalism 632
15.3 Dosimetry Protocols for Kilovoltage Xray Beams Based on AirKerma Standards 638
15.4 Quantities Entering into the Various Formalisms 651
15.5 Accuracy of RadiationTherapy Reference Dosimetry 669
15.6 Addendum – Perturbation Correction Factors 671
Exercises 689
16 Dosimetry of Small and Composite Radiotherapy Photon Beams 693
16.1 Introduction 693
16.2 Overview 694
16.3 The Physics of Small Megavoltage Photon Beams 696
16.4 Dosimetry of Small Beams 701
16.5 Detectors for SmallBeam Dosimetry 714
16.6 Dosimetry of Composite Fields 717
16.7 Addendum—Measurement in Plastic Phantoms 723
Exercises 726
17 Reference Dosimetry for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology 729
17.1 Introduction 729
17.2 Specific Quantities and Units 730
17.3 Formalism for Reference Dosimetry 736
17.4 Quantities Entering into the Formalism 740
Exercises 751
18 Absorbed Dose Determination for Radionuclides 753
18.1 Introduction 753
18.2 Radioactivity Quantities and Units 755
18.3 Dosimetry of Unsealed Radioactive Sources 763
18.4 Dosimetry of Sealed Radioactive Sources 788
18.5 Addendum –The Reciprocity Theorem for Unsealed Radionuclide Dosimetry 804
Exercises 809
19 Neutron Dosimetry 813
19.1 Introduction 813
19.2 Neutron Interactions in Tissue and TissueEquivalent Materials 814
19.3 Neutron Sources 818
19.4 Principles of MixedField Dosimetry 821
19.5 Neutron Detectors 825
19.6 Reference Dosimetry of Neutron Radiotherapy Beams 833
Exercises 838
A Data Tables 841
A.1 Fundamental and Derived Physical Constants 841
A.2 Data of Elements 843
A.3 Data for Compounds and Mixtures 846
A.4 Atomic Binding Energies for Elements 846
A.5 Atomic Fluorescent Xray Mean Energies and Yields for Elements 857
A.6 Interaction Data for Electrons and Positrons (Electronic Form) 863
A.7 Interaction Data for Protons and Heavier Charged Particles (Electronic Form) 868
A.8 Interaction Data for Photons (Electronic Form) 874
A.9 Neutron Kerma Coefficients (Electronic Form) 879
References 881
Index 945
Author Information
The four authors continuing the pioneering work of Frank Attix, Prof Pedro Andreo (Karolinska, Stockholm), Dr David T. Burns (BIPM, Paris), Prof Alan E. Nahum (University of Liverpool) and Prof Jan Seuntjens (McGill University, Montreal), are leading scientists in radiation dosimetry, having published between them more than 600 papers in the field. They have coauthored most of the existing national and international recommendations for radiotherapy dosimetry and received a number of international awards for their contributions.