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The Photophysics behind Photovoltaics and Photonics

ISBN: 978-3-527-41054-5
220 pages
April 2012
The Photophysics behind Photovoltaics and Photonics (3527410546) cover image
From a leading researcher in optical spectroscopy and electronic properties of novel semiconductors comes this much-needed toolbox title to understand the concepts behind the spectroscopy of advanced organic materials and how they work.

The book thus provides basic and practical knowledge on material photophysics for planning, carrying out and understanding experiments in spectroscopy. It contains a collection of simple practical rules for data analysis and interpretation, together with a list of experimental techniques, including the latest methods. Each topic is complemented by examples taken from forefront research on nanomaterials, photovoltaics and photonics, and each chapter includes a discussion, examples, topical boxes, tables and figures. The whole is rounded off by a bibliography for further reading, major references and appendixes containing theoretical derivation and numerical code.

The result is a quick guide for the spectroscopist who needs to grasp the concept of the experiments.
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1 Introduction 1

2 Radiation–Matter Interaction in the Two-Level System 7

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Generality on Radiation–Matter Interaction 7

2.3 Synopsis on the Two-Level Model 12

2.4 Absorption 16

2.5 Nonlinear Absorption 17

2.6 Adiabatic Approximation 21

2.7 Franck–Condon Principle 23

2.8 Beyond Condon Approximation 29

3 Molecular Exciton 35

3.1 The Molecular Exciton in Aggregates 35

3.1.1 Parallel Dipoles (H-Aggregate) 37

3.1.2 In-Line Dipoles (J-Aggregate) 38

3.1.3 Oblique Dipoles 39

3.1.4 Coplanar Dipoles 39

3.1.5 3D Dipole Geometry (θ = 90o) 40

3.2 Vector Model for the Large Aggregate 45

3.3 Interaction Regimes and Vibrational Dynamics 47

3.4 Quick View on Aggregate Multiexciton States 49

3.5 The Role of Disorder 50

4 Excited States in Solids 53

4.1 On the Origin of Bands in Solids 53

4.2 Excitons 58

4.2.1 Frenkel Exciton 59

4.2.2 The Wannier–Mott Exciton 63

4.2.3 1D Excitons 67

5 Photoexcitation Dynamics 71

5.1 Photoexcitation and Relaxation Scenario in Inorganic Semiconductors 71

5.1.1 Link to Photovoltaic 73

5.2 Confined States in Semiconducting Nanocrystals 73

5.3 Carrier Multiplication in Nanocrystals 78

5.4 The Excitation Zoo in Molecular Semiconductors 79

5.4.1 Free Carriers 79

5.4.2 Trapped Carriers 80

5.4.3 Polarons 80

5.4.4 Bipolaron 81

5.4.5 Polaron Pair 81

5.4.6 Charge Transfer State 82

5.4.7 CT Exciton 82

5.4.8 Wannier–Mott Exciton 82

5.4.9 Trion (Charged Exciton) 83

5.4.10 Frenkel Excitons 83

5.4.11 Excited Molecular State 83

5.5 Conjugated Polymers 83

6 Photophysics Tool Box 89

6.1 Jablonski Diagram 89

6.2 Strickler–Berg Relationship 91

6.3 Energy Migration and Transfer 96

6.3.1 Radiative Migration 98

6.3.2 Nonradiative Energy Transfer 99

6.4 The Vavilov–Kasha Rule 103

6.5 The Gap Law and Radiationless Transitions in Molecules 105

6.6 Rate Equations 112

6.7 Triplet Generation 114

6.7.1 Spin Flip 115

6.7.2 Radical Pair Recombination 118

6.7.3 Singlet Fission 120

7 Vibrational Spectroscopy 125

7.1 The Semiclassical Picture of the Interaction of Light with Molecules 125

7.2 Derivation of the Correlation Function 129

7.3 The Full Vibronic Correlator in Time 130

7.4 Raman Scattering 131

7.5 Coherent Phonons 136

8 Charge Transfer and Transport 145

8.1 Adiabatic Electron Transfer: Classical Marcus Theory 145

8.2 Quantum Mechanical Expressions for Electron Transfer: Nonadiabatic Multiphonon Regime 149

8.3 The Donor–Acceptor Interface 151

8.4 Charge Photogeneration in Excitonic Semiconductors 152

8.5 Synopsis on Transport 159

8.5.1 Experiments to Measure Mobility 163

8.5.1.1 Time of Flight (ToF) 163

8.5.1.2 Photoconductivity 164

8.5.1.3 Field Effect Transistor (FET) 166

8.5.1.4 Pump Probe 167

8.5.1.5 Diode 170

8.5.1.6 Optical Transitions 171

8.5.2 Extended versus Localized States 173

9 Pump Probe and Other Modulation Techniques 177

9.1 Electroabsorption 177

9.2 Pump Probe 181

9.3 cw Photoinduced Absorption 193

10 Conclusion 205

Bibliography 209

Index 211

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Prof. Guglielmo Lanzani is Head of the Center for Nano Science and Technology of the Italian Institute of Technology (IIT@POLIMI) and associate professor of Physics at the Politecnico di Milano, Italy. Having obtained his academic degree from the University of Genova, he spent five years as a researcher in Sassari, before taking up his present appointment at Politecnico di Milano, and more recently at IIT. Professor Lanzani has authored over 180 scientific publications, and has given 65 invited talks. He is a member of several conference program boards and chair of international conferences.
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Errata Corrige and Addendum to "The Photophysics Behind Photovoltaics and Photonics"
Errata Corrige and Addendum to "The Photophysics Behind Photovoltaics and Photonics" By G. lanzani, Ed. By Wiley VCH
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