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Optical Imaging and Metrology: Advanced Technologies

Wolfgang Osten (Editor), Nadya Reingand (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-41064-4
502 pages
October 2012
Optical Imaging and Metrology: Advanced Technologies (3527410643) cover image
A comprehensive review of the state of the art and advances in the field, while also outlining the future potential and development trends of optical imaging and optical metrology, an area of fast growth with numerous applications in nanotechnology and nanophysics. Written by the world's leading experts in the field, it fills the gap in the current literature by bridging the fields of optical imaging and metrology, and is the only up-to-date resource in terms of fundamental knowledge, basic concepts, methodologies, applications, and development trends.
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Preface XV

List of Contributors XVII

1 LCOS Spatial Light Modulators: Trends and Applications 1
Grigory Lazarev, Andreas Hermerschmidt, Sven Krüger, and Stefan Osten

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 LCOS-Based SLMs 2

1.3 Some Applications of Spatial Light Modulators in Optical Imaging and Metrology 12

1.4 Conclusion 23

References 23

2 Three-Dimensional Display and Imaging: Status and Prospects 31
Byoungho Lee and Youngmin Kim

2.1 Introduction 31

2.2 Present Status of 3D Displays 32

2.3 The Human Visual System 47

2.4 Conclusion 48

Acknowledgments 50

References 50

3 Holographic Television: Status and Future 57
Małgorzata Kujawinska and Tomasz Kozacki

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 The Concept of Holographic Television System 60

3.3 Holographic Display Configuration 63

3.4 Capture Systems 71

3.5 Display System 77

3.6 Linking Capture and Display Systems 85

3.7 Optical Reconstructions of Real Scenes in Multi-SLM Display System 88

3.8 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 91

References 92

4 Display Holography –Status and Future 95
Ventseslav Sainov and Elena Stoykova

4.1 Introduction 95

4.2 Types of Holograms 97

4.3 Basic Parameters and Techniques of Holographic Recording 99

4.4 Light-Sensitive Materials for Holographic Recording in Display Holography 102

4.5 Diffraction Efficiency of Discrete Carrier Holograms 108

4.6 Multicolor Holographic Recording 111

4.7 Digital Holographic Display: Holoprinters 115

4.8 Conclusion 117

References 117

5 Incoherent Computer-Generated Holography for 3D Color Imaging and Display 121

Toyohiko Yatagai and Yusuke Sando

5.1 Introduction 121

5.2 Three-Dimensional Imaging and Display with CGHs 122

5.3 Theory of this Method 123

5.4 Imaging System and Resolution 127

5.5 Experiments 129

5.6 Biological Specimen 131

5.7 Conclusion 133

Acknowledgments 133

References 133

6 Approaches to Overcome the Resolution Problem in Incoherent Digital Holography 135
Joseph Rosen, Natan T. Shaked, Barak Katz, and Gary Brooker

6.1 Introduction 135

6.2 Digital Incoherent Protected Correlation Holograms 136

6.3 Off-Axis Optical Scanning Holography 142

6.4 Synthetic Aperture with Fresnel Elements 147

6.5 Summary 159

Acknowledgments 160

References 160

7 Managing Digital Holograms and the Numerical Reconstruction Process for Focus Flexibility 163
Melania Paturzo and Pietro Ferraro

7.1 Introduction 163

7.2 Fresnel Holograms: Linear Deformation 165

7.3 Fresnel Holograms: Quadratic and Polynomial Deformation 168

7.4 Fourier Holograms: Quadratic Deformation 170

7.5 Simultaneous Multiplane Imaging in DH 172

7.6 Summary 175

References 176

8 Three-Dimensional Particle Control by Holographic Optical Tweezers 179
Mike Woerdemann, Christina Alpmann, and Cornelia Denz

8.1 Introduction 179

8.2 Controlling Matter at the Smallest Scales 180

8.3 Holographic Optical Tweezers 183

8.4 Applications of Holographic Optical Tweezers 187

8.5 Tailored Optical Landscapes 192

8.6 Summary 200

References 200

9 The Role of Intellectual Property Protection in Creating Business in Optical Metrology 207
Nadya Reingand

9.1 Introduction 207

9.2 Types of Intellectual Property Relevant to Optical Metrology 208

9.3 What Kind of Business Does Not Need IP Protection? 210

9.4 Does IP Protect Your Product from Counterfeiting? 211

9.5 Where to Protect Your Business? 212

9.6 International Patent Organizations 212

9.7 Three Things Need to Be Done Before Creating Business 214

9.8 Ownership Clarification 217

9.9 Patent Filing 219

9.10 Commercialization 220

9.11 Conclusions 222

References 223

10 On the Difference between 3D Imaging and 3D Metrology for Computed Tomography 225
Daniel Weiß and Michael Totzeck

10.1 Introduction 225

10.2 General Considerations of 3D Imaging, Inspection, and Metrology 226

10.3 Industrial 3D Metrology Based on X-ray Computed Tomography 229

10.4 Conclusions 237

References 238

11 Coherence Holography: Principle and Applications 239
Mitsuo Takeda, Wei Wang, and Dinesh N. Naik

11.1 Introduction 239

11.2 Principle of Coherence Holography 240

11.3 Gabor-Type Coherence Holography Using a Fizeau Interferometer 241

11.4 Leith-Type Coherence Holography Using a Sagnac Interferometer 243

11.5 Phase-Shift Coherence Holography 246

11.6 Real-Time Coherence Holography 247

11.7 Application of Coherence Holography: Dispersion-Free Depth Sensing with a Spatial Coherence Comb 248

11.8 Conclusion 252

Acknowledgments 252

References 252

12 Quantitative Optical Microscopy at the Nanoscale: New Developments and Comparisons 255
Bernd Bodermann, Egbert Buhr, Zhi Li, and Harald Bosse

12.1 Introduction 255

12.2 Quantitative Optical Microscopy 257

12.3 Comparison Measurements 268

12.4 Recent Development Trends: DUV Microscopy 271

12.5 Points to Address for the Further Development of Quantitative Optical Microscopy 278

References 279

13 Model-Based Optical Metrology 283
Xavier Colonna de Lega

13.1 Introduction 283

13.2 Optical Metrology 283

13.3 Modeling Light–Sample Interaction 284

13.4 Forward Models in Optical Metrology 287

13.5 Inverse Models in Optical Metrology 290

13.6 Confidence in Inverse Model Metrology 298

13.7 Conclusion and Perspectives 301

References 302

14 Advanced MEMS Inspection by Direct and Indirect Solution Strategies 305
Ryszard J. Pryputniewicz

14.1 Introduction 305

14.2 ACES Methodology 307

14.3 MEMS Samples Used 314

14.4 Representative Results 317

14.5 Conclusions and Recommendations 322

Acknowledgments 323

References 323

15 Different Ways to Overcome the Resolution Problem in Optical Micro and Nano Metrology 327
Wolfgang Osten

15.1 Introduction 327

15.2 Physical and Technical Limitations in Optical Metrology 328

15.3 Methods to Overcome the Resolution Problem in Optical Imaging and Metrology 334

15.4 Exemplary Studies on the Performance of Various Inspection Strategies 343

15.5 Conclusion 360

Acknowledgments 362

References 362

16 Interferometry in Harsh Environments 369
Armando Albertazzi G. Jr

16.1 Introduction 369

16.2 Harsh Environments 369

16.3 Harsh Agents 370

16.4 Requirements for Portable Interferometers 375

16.5 Current Solutions 377

16.6 Case Studies 381

16.7 Closing Remarks 389

References 390

17 Advanced Methods for Optical Nondestructive Testing 393
Ralf B. Bergmann and Philipp Huke

17.1 Introduction 393

17.2 Principles of Optical Nondestructive Testing Techniques (ONDTs) 393

17.3 Optical Methods for NDT 399

17.4 Conclusions and Perspectives 408

Acknowledgments 409

References 409

18 Upgrading Holographic Interferometry for Industrial Application by Digital Holography 413

Zoltán Füzessy, Ferenc Gyímesi, and Venczel Borbély

18.1 Introduction 413

18.2 Representative Applications 414

18.3 Contributions to Industrial Applications by Analog Holography 414

18.4 Contributions to Industrial Applications by Digital Holography 428

18.5 Conclusion and a Kind of Wish List 434

Acknowledgments 434

References 434

Color Plates 439

Index 475

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Wolfgang Osten received his Ph.D. from the Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany, for his thesis in the field of holographic interferometry in 1983. From 1984 to 1991, he was a member of the Central Institute of Cybernetics and Information Processes in Berlin where he headed the Institute for Image Processing from 1988 to 1991. In 1991, he joined the Bremen Institute of Applied Beam Technology (BIAS) to establish and direct the Department of Optical 3D-Metrology. Since 2002 he has been a full professor at the University of Stuttgart and director of the Institute for Applied Optics. Professor Osten’s research is focused on new concepts for industrial inspection and metrology by combining modern principles of optical metrology, sensor technology and image processing. Special attention is paid to the development of resolution enhanced technologies for the investigation of micro and nano structures.

Nadya Reingand holds a Ph.D. in holography and is licensed to practice Patent Law before the US Patent Office. She teaches courses on intellectual property with a special focus on non-profits. Extensive experience of 15 years in science gives her insight of scientists' needs when it comes to the commercialization of their university inventions. Her international experience includes working on International Cooperation in the Russian Academy of Sciences, research positions in several countries, chairing and organizing multiple international scientific conferences, and later managing patent portfolios of international companies.

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