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Optical Methods for Solid Mechanics: A Full-Field Approach

Pramod K. Rastogi (Editor), Erwin Hack (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-41111-5
446 pages
March 2013
Optical Methods for Solid Mechanics: A Full-Field Approach (3527411119) cover image
Unique within the field for being written in a tutorial style, this textbook adopts a step-by-step approach to the background needed for understanding a wide range of full-field optical measurement techniques in solid mechanics.
This method familiarizes readers with the essentials of imaging and full-field optical measurement techniques, helping them to identify the appropriate techniques and in assessing measurement systems. In addition, readers learn the appropriate rules of thumb as a guide to better experimental performance from the applied techniques.
Rather than presenting an exhaustive overview on the subject, each chapter provides a concise introduction to the concepts and principles, integrates solved problems within the text, summarizes the essence at the end, and includes unsolved problems.
With its coverage of topics also relevant for industry, this text is aimed at graduate students, researchers, and engineers involved in non-destructive testing for acoustics, mechanics, medicine, diagnosis on artwork and construction, and civil engineering.
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Preface XIII

List of Contributors XV

1 Basic Optics 1
Krishna Thyagarajan and Ajoy Ghatak

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Light as an Electromagnetic Wave 1

1.2.1 Reflection and Refraction of Light Waves at a Dielectric Interface 7

1.3 Rays of Light 9

1.4 Imaging through Optical Systems 11

1.5 Aberrations of Optical Systems 17

1.6 Interference of Light 19

1.7 Coherence 25

1.8 Diffraction of Light 27

1.9 Anisotropic Media 33

1.10 Jones Calculus 35

1.11 Lasers 38

1.12 Optical Fibers 42

1.13 Summary 44

2 Electronic Image Sensing and Processing 47
Thomas Baechler

2.1 Introduction 47

2.2 Image Formation 49

2.3 Image Sensing: From Photons to Electrons 56

2.4 Image Processing 70

2.5 Conclusions 79

3 Phase Decoding and Reconstruction 83
Jan Burke

3.1 Introduction 83

3.2 Basic Concepts 85

3.3 Methods of Phase Shifting 101

3.4 Designing and Analyzing Phase-Shift Methods with the Complex-Polynomial Method 115

3.5 Sources and Removal of Errors 124

3.6 Phase Unwrapping 129

4 Experimental Stress Analysis – An Overview 141
Krishnamurthi Ramesh

4.1 Introduction 141

4.2 Concept of Stress and Strain 141

4.3 Stress-Strain Relations 146

4.4 Rudiments of a Tension Test 147

4.5 Principal Stress and Strain 148

4.6 Concept of Stress Concentration 151

4.7 Birth of Fracture Mechanics 153

4.8 Peculiarities of Experimental Approach 154

4.9 Information Directly Obtainable from Various Experimental Techniques and Their Typical Applications 155

4.10 Selection of an Experimental Technique 161

4.11 Case Studies 165

4.12 Experimental Study on Investigation of Random Failure of Chain Plates 165

4.13 Comprehensive Experimental Study on a MEMS Pressure Sensor 172

4.14 Conclusions 178

Acknowledgements 179

5 Digital Image Correlation 183
François Hild and Stéphane Roux

5.1 Introduction 183

5.2 Correlation Principles 185

5.3 2-D Digital Image Correlation 199

5.3.1 Multiscale Analyses and Sequences of Pictures 199

5.4 3-D Digital Image Correlation 216

5.5 Digital Volume Correlation 220

5.6 Summary 225

5.7 Problems 225

6 Rough Surface Interferometry 229
Kay Gastinger, Pierre Slangen, Pascal Picart, and Peter Somers

6.1 Introduction 229

6.2 Speckle 230

6.3 Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry–ESPI 235

6.4 Low-Coherence Speckle Interferometry–LCSI 246

6.5 Speckle Pattern Shearing Interferometry – Shearography 262

6.6 Digital Holography 278

6.7 Summary 298

7 Fringe Projection Profilometry 303
Jan Buytaert and Joris Dirckx

7.1 General Introduction 303

7.2 Grid Projection Profilometry: the Basics 310

7.3 Fourier Transform Profilometry 311

7.4 Moiré profilometry 316

7.5 Noncontinuous Surfaces 337

7.6 Summary 342

8 Thermoelastic Stress Analysis 345
Janice M. Dulieu-Barton

8.1 Introduction 345

8.2 The Thermoelastic Effect 345

8.3 Infrared Thermography 348

8.4 Obtaining Thermoelastic Measurements from an Infrared System 352

8.5 Temperature Dependence of Thermoelastic Response 354

8.6 Derivation of the Thermoelastic Constant 354

8.7 Nonadiabatic Conditions 356

8.8 Paint Coatings 358

8.9 Temperature Dependence of the Material Elastic Properties 359

8.10 Progress, Applications, and Prospects 363

Acknowledgements 365

9 Photoelasticity 367
Eann A. Patterson

9.1 Introduction 367

9.2 Polariscope Theory and Design 369

9.3 Isoclinic and Isochromatic Fringes 373

9.4 Fractional Fringe Analysis Using Compensation Techniques 376

9.5 Digital Fringe Analysis 379

9.6 Material and Load Selection 383

9.7 Stress Analysis 386

9.8 Conclusions 390

Color Plates 393

References 405

Abbreviations and Notations 421

Index 427

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Pramod Rastogi received his M.Tech. degree from the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, and his doctorate degree from the University of Franche Comté in France. He started his research at the EPFL in Switzerland in 1978. He is the author or coauthor of many scientific papers and the author of book chapters and Encyclopedia articles, and has edited several books in the field of optical metrology. Professor Rastogi is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America (1993) and a Fellow of the Society of the Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (1995). He is also a recipient of the "Hetényi Award" for the most significant research paper published in Experimental Mechanics (1982).

Erwin Hack holds a diploma in theoretical physics and a Ph.D. in physical chemistry, both from the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Since 1998, he is deputy laboratory head at Empa, the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology. His research interest is in full-field optical measurement techniques including speckle interferometry and thermography. He coordinated and participated in European research projects on optical techniques. Dr. Hack regularly publishes in peer-reviewed journals and conferences. He lectures at ETH Zurich on optical methods in experimental mechanics. He is a member of VAMAS TWA26 on full field optical stress and strain measurement, vice-president of the Swiss Society for Non-destructive Testing, and a member of EOS and OSA.
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