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Fusion Plasma Physics, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-3-527-41134-4
666 pages
October 2012
Fusion Plasma Physics, 2nd Edition (3527411348) cover image
This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics.
The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral atom recycling and transport, impurity ion transport, the physics of the plasma edge (diffusive and non-diffusive transport, MARFEs, ELMs, the L-H transition, thermal-radiative instabilities, shear suppression of transport, velocity spin-up), etc. -- are comprehensively developed and related to the experimental evidence. Operational limits on the performance of future fusion reactors are developed from plasma physics and engineering constraints, and conceptual designs of future fusion power reactors are discussed.
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1 Basic Physics 1

1.1 Fusion 1

1.2 Plasma 7

1.3 Coulomb Collisions 10

1.4 Electromagnetic Theory 17

2 Motion of Charged Particles 23

2.1 Gyromotion and Drifts 23

2.2 Constants of the Motion 33

2.3 Diamagnetism* 38

3 Magnetic Confinement 43

3.1 Confinement in Mirror Fields 43

3.2 Closed Toroidal Confinement Systems 51

4 Kinetic Theory 67

4.1 Boltzmann and Vlasov Equations 68

4.2 Drift Kinetic Approximation 68

4.3 Fokker–Planck Theory of Collisions 71

4.4 Plasma Resistivity 78

4.5 Coulomb Collisional Energy Transfer 80

4.6 Krook Collision Operators* 84

5 Fluid Theory 87

5.1 Moments Equations 87

5.2 One-Fluid Model 91

5.3 Magnetohydrodynamic Model 95

5.4 Anisotropic Pressure Tensor Model* 98

5.5 Strong Field, Transport Time Scale Ordering 100

6 Plasma Equilibria 105

6.1 General Properties 105

6.2 Axisymmetric Toroidal Equilibria 107

6.3 Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Equilibria 113

6.4 Safety Factor 119

6.5 Shafranov Shift* 122

6.6 Beta* 125

6.7 Magnetic Field Diffusion and Flux Surface Evolution* 127

6.8 Anisotropic Pressure Equilibria* 130

6.9 Elongated Equilibria* 132

7 Waves 141

7.1 Waves in an Unmagnetized Plasma 141

7.2 Waves in a Uniformly Magnetized Plasma 144

7.3 Langmuir Waves and Landau Damping 149

7.4 Vlasov Theory of Plasma Waves* 152

7.5 ElectrostaticWaves* 158

8 Instabilities 165

8.1 Hydromagnetic Instabilities 168

8.2 Energy Principle 175

8.3 Pinch and Kink Instabilities 179

8.4 Interchange (Flute) Instabilities 183

8.5 Ballooning In stabilities 189

8.6 Drift Wave Instabilities 193

8.7 Resistive Tearing Instabilities* 196

8.8 Kinetic Instabilities* 202

8.9 Sawtooth Oscillations* 211

9 Neoclassical Transport 215

9.1 Collisional Transport Mechanisms 215

9.2 Classical Transport 222

9.3 Neoclassical Transport – Toroidal Effects in Fluid Theory 225

9.4 Multifluid Transport Formalism* 231

9.5 Closure of Fluid Transport Equations* 234

9.6 Neoclassical Transport–Trapped Particles 241

9.7 Extended Neoclassical Transport–Fluid Theory* 247

9.8 Electrical Currents 251

9.9 Orbit Distortion* 253

9.10 Neoclassical Ion Thermal Diffusivity 256

9.11 Paleoclassical Electron Thermal Diffusivity 258

9.12 Transport in a Partially Ionized Gas* 259

10 Plasma Rotation* 263

10.1 Neoclassical Viscosity 263

10.2 Rotation Calculations 272

10.3 Momentum Confinement Times 281

10.4 Rotation and Transport in Elongated Geometry 283

11 Turbulent Transport 293

11.1 Electrostatic Drift Waves 293

11.2 Magnetic Fluctuations 299

11.3 Wave–Wave Interactions* 301

11.4 Drift Wave Eigenmodes* 304

11.5 Microinstability thermal diffusivity models* 306

11.6 Gyrokinetic and Gyrofluid Theory* 315

11.7 Zonal Flows* 321

12 Heating and Current Drive 323

12.1 Inductive 323

12.2 Adiabatic Compression* 326

12.3 Fast Ions 329

12.4 Electromagnetic Waves 339

13 Plasma–Material Interaction 355

13.1 Sheath 355

13.2 Recycling 358

13.3 Atomic and Molecular Processes 359

13.4 Penetration of Recycling Neutrals 364

13.5 Sputtering 365

13.6 Impurity Radiation 367

14 Divertors 373

14.1 Configuration, Nomenclature and Physical Processes 373

14.2 Simple Divertor Model 376

14.3 Divert or Operating Regimes* 382

14.4 Impurity Retention 385

14.5 Thermal Instability* 388

14.6 2D Fluid Plasma Calculation* 391

14.7 Drifts 393

14.8 Thermoelectric Currents 396

14.9 Detachment 400

14.10 Effect of Drifts on Divertor and SOL Plasma Properties* 402

14.11 Blob Transport* 422

15 Plasma Edge 425

15.1 H-Mode Edge Plasma 425

15.2 Transport in the Plasma Edge 426

15.3 Differences Between L-Mode and H-Mode Plasma Edges 439

15.4 Effect of Recycling Neutrals 443

15.5 E x B Shear Stabilization of Turbulence 444

15.6 Thermal Instabilities 449

15.7 Poloidal Velocity Spin-Up* 461

15.8 ELM Stability Limits on Edge Pressure Gradients 467

15.9 MARFEs 476

15.10 Radiative Mantle 480

15.11 Edge Operation Boundaries 482

16 Neutral Particle Transport 485

16.1 Fundamentals* 485

16.2 PN Transport and Diffusion Theory* 493

16.3 Multidimensional Neutral Transport* 500

16.4 Integral Transport Theory* 504

16.5 Collision Probability Methods* 514

16.6 Interface Current Balance Methods 517

16.7 Extended Transmission-Escape Probabilities Method* 525

16.8 Discrete Ordinates Methods* 533

16.9 Monte Carlo Methods* 536

16.10 Navier–Stokes Fluid Model* 541

16.11 Tokamak Plasma Refueling by Neutral Atom Recycling 542

17 Power Balance 549

17.1 Energy Confinement Time 549

17.2 Radiation 554

17.3 Impurities 559

17.4 Burning Plasma Dynamics 561

18 Operational Limits 565

18.1 Disruptions 565

18.2 Disruption Density Limit 567

18.3 Nondisruptive Density Limits 576

18.4 Empirical Density Limit 581

18.5 MHD Instability Limits 581

19 Fusion Reactors and Neutron Sources 587

19.1 Plasma Physics and Engineering Constraints 587

19.2 International Tokamak Program 597

19.3 Fusion Beyond ITER 600

19.4 Fusion-Fission Hybrids? 603

Appendices

A Frequently Used Physical Constants 611

B Dimensions and Units 613

C Vector Calculus 617

D Curvilinear Coordinates 619

E Plasma Formulas 627

F Further Reading 629

G Attributions 633

Subject Index 641

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Weston M. Stacey is Callaway Regents’ Professor of Nuclear Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. His career spans almost 50 years of research and teaching in nuclear reactor physics, fusion plasma physics and fusion and fission reactor conceptual design. He led the IAEA INTOR Workshop (1979-88) that led to the present ITER project, for which he was awarded the US Department of Energy Distinguished Associate Award and two Department of Energy Certificates of Appreciation. Professor Stacey is a Fellow of the American Nuclear Society and of the American Physical Society. He is the recipient of several prizes, among them the American Nuclear Society Seaborg Medal for Nuclear Research and the Wigner Reactor Physicist Award, and he is the author of eight previous books and numerous research papers.

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Extensions and updates on the following chapters and sections:
Collective Effects; Alternative Confinement Concepts; Gyrokinetic Theory; Gyrofluid Theory; Analytical Equlibrium Model; Poloidal Rotation; Neutral Recycling; Fluid Plasma Calculations; Plasma Edge; Plasma Force Balance; Pinch-Diffusion; Thermal Instabilities; Ion Orbit Scrapeoff; Tokamak Application; Fusion-Fission Hybrids
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“This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research.”  (ETDE Energy Database, 1 November 2012)

 

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