Fusion Plasma Physics, 2nd EditionISBN: 9783527411344
666 pages
October 2012

The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research  fluctuationdriven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral atom recycling and transport, impurity ion transport, the physics of the plasma edge (diffusive and nondiffusive transport, MARFEs, ELMs, the LH transition, thermalradiative instabilities, shear suppression of transport, velocity spinup), etc.  are comprehensively developed and related to the experimental evidence. Operational limits on the performance of future fusion reactors are developed from plasma physics and engineering constraints, and conceptual designs of future fusion power reactors are discussed.
1 Basic Physics 1
1.1 Fusion 1
1.2 Plasma 7
1.3 Coulomb Collisions 10
1.4 Electromagnetic Theory 17
2 Motion of Charged Particles 23
2.1 Gyromotion and Drifts 23
2.2 Constants of the Motion 33
2.3 Diamagnetism* 38
3 Magnetic Confinement 43
3.1 Confinement in Mirror Fields 43
3.2 Closed Toroidal Confinement Systems 51
4 Kinetic Theory 67
4.1 Boltzmann and Vlasov Equations 68
4.2 Drift Kinetic Approximation 68
4.3 Fokker–Planck Theory of Collisions 71
4.4 Plasma Resistivity 78
4.5 Coulomb Collisional Energy Transfer 80
4.6 Krook Collision Operators* 84
5 Fluid Theory 87
5.1 Moments Equations 87
5.2 OneFluid Model 91
5.3 Magnetohydrodynamic Model 95
5.4 Anisotropic Pressure Tensor Model* 98
5.5 Strong Field, Transport Time Scale Ordering 100
6 Plasma Equilibria 105
6.1 General Properties 105
6.2 Axisymmetric Toroidal Equilibria 107
6.3 Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Equilibria 113
6.4 Safety Factor 119
6.5 Shafranov Shift* 122
6.6 Beta* 125
6.7 Magnetic Field Diffusion and Flux Surface Evolution* 127
6.8 Anisotropic Pressure Equilibria* 130
6.9 Elongated Equilibria* 132
7 Waves 141
7.1 Waves in an Unmagnetized Plasma 141
7.2 Waves in a Uniformly Magnetized Plasma 144
7.3 Langmuir Waves and Landau Damping 149
7.4 Vlasov Theory of Plasma Waves* 152
7.5 ElectrostaticWaves* 158
8 Instabilities 165
8.1 Hydromagnetic Instabilities 168
8.2 Energy Principle 175
8.3 Pinch and Kink Instabilities 179
8.4 Interchange (Flute) Instabilities 183
8.5 Ballooning In stabilities 189
8.6 Drift Wave Instabilities 193
8.7 Resistive Tearing Instabilities* 196
8.8 Kinetic Instabilities* 202
8.9 Sawtooth Oscillations* 211
9 Neoclassical Transport 215
9.1 Collisional Transport Mechanisms 215
9.2 Classical Transport 222
9.3 Neoclassical Transport – Toroidal Effects in Fluid Theory 225
9.4 Multifluid Transport Formalism* 231
9.5 Closure of Fluid Transport Equations* 234
9.6 Neoclassical Transport–Trapped Particles 241
9.7 Extended Neoclassical Transport–Fluid Theory* 247
9.8 Electrical Currents 251
9.9 Orbit Distortion* 253
9.10 Neoclassical Ion Thermal Diffusivity 256
9.11 Paleoclassical Electron Thermal Diffusivity 258
9.12 Transport in a Partially Ionized Gas* 259
10 Plasma Rotation* 263
10.1 Neoclassical Viscosity 263
10.2 Rotation Calculations 272
10.3 Momentum Confinement Times 281
10.4 Rotation and Transport in Elongated Geometry 283
11 Turbulent Transport 293
11.1 Electrostatic Drift Waves 293
11.2 Magnetic Fluctuations 299
11.3 Wave–Wave Interactions* 301
11.4 Drift Wave Eigenmodes* 304
11.5 Microinstability thermal diffusivity models* 306
11.6 Gyrokinetic and Gyrofluid Theory* 315
11.7 Zonal Flows* 321
12 Heating and Current Drive 323
12.1 Inductive 323
12.2 Adiabatic Compression* 326
12.3 Fast Ions 329
12.4 Electromagnetic Waves 339
13 Plasma–Material Interaction 355
13.1 Sheath 355
13.2 Recycling 358
13.3 Atomic and Molecular Processes 359
13.4 Penetration of Recycling Neutrals 364
13.5 Sputtering 365
13.6 Impurity Radiation 367
14 Divertors 373
14.1 Configuration, Nomenclature and Physical Processes 373
14.2 Simple Divertor Model 376
14.3 Divert or Operating Regimes* 382
14.4 Impurity Retention 385
14.5 Thermal Instability* 388
14.6 2D Fluid Plasma Calculation* 391
14.7 Drifts 393
14.8 Thermoelectric Currents 396
14.9 Detachment 400
14.10 Effect of Drifts on Divertor and SOL Plasma Properties* 402
14.11 Blob Transport* 422
15 Plasma Edge 425
15.1 HMode Edge Plasma 425
15.2 Transport in the Plasma Edge 426
15.3 Differences Between LMode and HMode Plasma Edges 439
15.4 Effect of Recycling Neutrals 443
15.5 E x B Shear Stabilization of Turbulence 444
15.6 Thermal Instabilities 449
15.7 Poloidal Velocity SpinUp* 461
15.8 ELM Stability Limits on Edge Pressure Gradients 467
15.9 MARFEs 476
15.10 Radiative Mantle 480
15.11 Edge Operation Boundaries 482
16 Neutral Particle Transport 485
16.1 Fundamentals* 485
16.2 P_{N} Transport and Diffusion Theory* 493
16.3 Multidimensional Neutral Transport* 500
16.4 Integral Transport Theory* 504
16.5 Collision Probability Methods* 514
16.6 Interface Current Balance Methods 517
16.7 Extended TransmissionEscape Probabilities Method* 525
16.8 Discrete Ordinates Methods* 533
16.9 Monte Carlo Methods* 536
16.10 Navier–Stokes Fluid Model* 541
16.11 Tokamak Plasma Refueling by Neutral Atom Recycling 542
17 Power Balance 549
17.1 Energy Confinement Time 549
17.2 Radiation 554
17.3 Impurities 559
17.4 Burning Plasma Dynamics 561
18 Operational Limits 565
18.1 Disruptions 565
18.2 Disruption Density Limit 567
18.3 Nondisruptive Density Limits 576
18.4 Empirical Density Limit 581
18.5 MHD Instability Limits 581
19 Fusion Reactors and Neutron Sources 587
19.1 Plasma Physics and Engineering Constraints 587
19.2 International Tokamak Program 597
19.3 Fusion Beyond ITER 600
19.4 FusionFission Hybrids? 603
Appendices
A Frequently Used Physical Constants 611
B Dimensions and Units 613
C Vector Calculus 617
D Curvilinear Coordinates 619
E Plasma Formulas 627
F Further Reading 629
G Attributions 633
Subject Index 641
Weston M. Stacey is Callaway Regents’ Professor of Nuclear Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. His career spans almost 50 years of research and teaching in nuclear reactor physics, fusion plasma physics and fusion and fission reactor conceptual design. He led the IAEA INTOR Workshop (197988) that led to the present ITER project, for which he was awarded the US Department of Energy Distinguished Associate Award and two Department of Energy Certificates of Appreciation. Professor Stacey is a Fellow of the American Nuclear Society and of the American Physical Society. He is the recipient of several prizes, among them the American Nuclear Society Seaborg Medal for Nuclear Research and the Wigner Reactor Physicist Award, and he is the author of eight previous books and numerous research papers.
Collective Effects; Alternative Confinement Concepts; Gyrokinetic Theory; Gyrofluid Theory; Analytical Equlibrium Model; Poloidal Rotation; Neutral Recycling; Fluid Plasma Calculations; Plasma Edge; Plasma Force Balance; PinchDiffusion; Thermal Instabilities; Ion Orbit Scrapeoff; Tokamak Application; FusionFission Hybrids