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Optical 3D-Spectroscopy for Astronomy

ISBN: 978-3-527-41202-0
296 pages
June 2017
Optical 3D-Spectroscopy for Astronomy (3527412026) cover image

Description

Over the last 50 years, a variety of techniques have been developed to add a third dimension to regular imaging, with an extended spectrum associated to every imaging pixel. Dubbed 3D spectroscopy from its data format, it is now widely used in the astrophysical domain, but also inter alia for atmospheric sciences and remote sensing purposes.
This is the first book to comprehensively tackle these new capabilities. It starts with the fundamentals of spectroscopic instruments, in particular their potentials and limits. It then reviews the various known 3D techniques, with particular emphasis on pinpointing their different `ecological? niches. Putative users are finally led through the whole observing process, from observation planning to the extensive ? and crucial - phase of data reduction.
This book overall goal is to give the non-specialist enough hands-on knowledge to learn fast how to properly use and produce meaningful data when using such a 3D capability.
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Table of Contents

Foreword xi

Acknowledgments xiii

The Emergence of 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy 1

Scientific Rationale 1

3D History 4

3D Technology 9

Part I 3D Instrumentation 11

1 The Spectroscopic Toolbox 13

1.1 Introduction 13

1.2 Basic Spectroscopic Principles 18

1.3 Scanning Filters 20

1.4 Dispersers 25

1.5 2D Detectors 31

1.6 Optics and Coatings 36

1.7 Mechanics, Cryogenics and Electronics 45

1.8 Management, Timeline, and Cost 50

1.9 Conclusion 52

2 Multiobject Spectroscopy 61

2.1 Introduction 61

2.2 Slitless Based Multi-Object Spectroscopy 62

2.3 Multislit-Based Multiobject Spectroscopy 64

2.4 Fiber-Based Multiobject Spectroscopy 70

3 Scanning Imaging Spectroscopy 81

3.1 Introduction 81

3.2 Scanning Long-Slit Spectroscopy 81

3.3 Scanning Fabry–Pérot Spectroscopy 83

3.4 Scanning Fourier Transform Spectroscopy 88

3.5 Conclusion: Comparing the Different Scanning Flavors 91

4 Integral Field Spectroscopy 95

4.1 Introduction 95

4.2 Lenslet-Based Integral Field Spectrometer 95

4.3 Fiber-Based Integral Field Spectrometer 102

4.4 Slicer-Based Integral Field Spectrograph 104

4.5 Conclusion: Comparing the Different IFS Flavors 108

5 Recent Trends in Integral Field Spectroscopy 115

5.1 Introduction 115

5.2 High-Contrast Integral Field Spectrometer 115

5.3 Wide-Field Integral Field Spectroscopy 117

5.4 An Example: Autopsy of the MUSEWide-Field Instrument 120

5.5 DeployableMultiobject Integral Field Spectroscopy 123

6 Comparing the Various 3D Techniques 129

6.1 Introduction 129

6.2 3D Spectroscopy Grasp Invariant Principle 129

6.3 3-D Techniques Practical Differences 130

6.4 A Tentative Rating 133

7 Future Trends in 3D Spectroscopy 137

7.1 3D Instrumentation for the ELTs 137

7.2 Photonics-Based Spectrograph 138

7.3 Quest for the Grail: Toward 3D Detectors? 144

7.4 Conclusion 146

7.5 For Further Reading 146

Part II Using 3D Spectroscopy 151

8 Data Properties 153

8.1 Introduction 153

8.2 Data Sampling and Resolution 153

8.3 Noise Properties 158

9 Impact of Atmosphere 167

9.1 Introduction 167

9.2 Basic Seeing Principles 168

9.3 Seeing-Limited Observations 172

9.4 Adaptive Optics Corrected Observations 173

9.5 Other Atmosphere Impacts 189

9.6 Space-Based Observations 192

9.7 Conclusion 194

10 Data Gathering 199

10.1 Introduction 199

10.2 Planning Observations 199

10.3 Estimating Observing Time 200

10.4 Observing Strategy 204

10.5 At the Telescope 206

10.6 Conclusion 209

11 Data Reduction 213

11.1 Introduction 213

11.2 Basics 214

11.3 Specific Cases 216

11.4 Data Reduction Example: The MUSE Scheme 219

11.5 Conclusion 236

12 Data Analysis 237

12.1 Introduction 237

12.2 Handling Data Cubes 237

12.3 Viewing Data Cubes 240

12.4 Conclusion 241

12.5 Further Reading 243

13 Conclusions 245

13.1 Conclusions 245

13.2 General-Use Instruments 245

13.3 Team-Use Instruments 250

13.4 The Bumpy Road to Success 251

References 253

Index 269

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Author Information

Roland Bacon is astrophysicist, directeur de recherche au CNRS and former director of the Lyon Observatory (1994-2004). He has played a pioneering role in the development of integral field spectroscopy as leader of 4 major and innovative instruments for ground based telescope: TIGER and OASIS at the 3.6m Canada France Hawaii telescope, SAURON at the 4.2m William Herschel telescope and MUSE at the 8m ESO Very Large Telescope. His main research field is extragalactic astronomy. He is the owner since 2014 of an advanced grant from the European Research Commission.

Guy Monnet is an astrophysicist, with 50-year experience of developing astronomical instrumentation, on the ground and in space, mostly with a 3D spectroscopic flavor. Successively, he was director of the Marseilles Observatory, Lyon Observatory and the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Corporation. He then took the position of Head of Instrumentation at the European Southern Observatory (1995-2009) and the Australian Astrophysical Observatory (2010-2011). His main scientific domain is the dynamics of stars and ionized gas in galaxies.

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