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Applied Superconductivity: Handbook on Devices and Applications

Paul Seidel (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-41209-9
1336 pages
March 2015
Applied Superconductivity: Handbook on Devices and Applications (3527412093) cover image

Description

This wide-ranging presentation of applied superconductivity, from fundamentals and materials right up to the details of many applications, is an essential reference for physicists and engineers in academic research as well as in industry.

Readers looking for a comprehensive overview on basic effects related to superconductivity and superconducting materials will expand their knowledge and understanding of both low and high Tc superconductors with respect to their application. Technology, preparation and characterization are covered for bulk, single crystals, thins fi lms as well as electronic devices, wires and tapes.

The main benefit of this work lies in its broad coverage of significant applications in magnets, power engineering, electronics, sensors and quantum metrology. The reader will find information on superconducting magnets for diverse applications like particle physics, fusion research, medicine, and biomagnetism as well as materials processing. SQUIDs and their usage in medicine or geophysics are
thoroughly covered, as are superconducting radiation and particle detectors, aspects on superconductor digital electronics, leading readers to quantum computing and new devices.

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Table of Contents

Conductorart by Claus Grupen (drawing) XX

Preface XXI

List of Contributors XXIII

1 Fundamentals 1

1.1 Superconductivity 1

1.1.1 Basic Properties and Parameters of Superconductors 1
Reinhold Kleiner

References 25

1.1.2 Review on Superconducting Materials 26
Roland Hott, Reinhold Kleiner, ThomasWolf, and Gertrud Zwicknagl

References 44

1.2 Main Related Effects 49

1.2.1 Proximity Effect 49
Mikhail Belogolovskii

1.2.2 Tunneling and Superconductivity 66
Steven T. Ruggiero

References 74

1.2.3 Flux Pinning 76
Stuart C.Wimbush

References 90

1.2.4 AC Losses and Numerical Modeling of Superconductors 93
Francesco Grilli and Frederic Sirois

References 102

2 Superconducting Materials 105

2.1 Low-Temperature Superconductors 105

2.1.1 Metals, Alloys, and Intermetallic Compounds 105
Helmut Krauth and Klaus Schlenga

Acknowledgments 127

References 128

2.1.2 Magnesium Diboride 129
Davide Nardelli, Ilaria Pallecchi, and Matteo Tropeano

References 148

2.2 High-Temperature Superconductors 152

2.2.1 Cuprate High-Temperature Superconductors 152
Roland Hott and ThomasWolf

References 163

2.2.2 Iron-Based Superconductors: Materials Aspects for Applications 166
Ilaria Pallecchi and Marina Putti

References 188

3 Technology, Preparation, and Characterization 193

3.1 Bulk Materials 193

3.1.1 Preparation of Bulk and Textured Superconductors 193
Frank N.Werfel

References 219

3.1.2 Single crystal growth of the high temperature superconducting cuprates 222
Andreas Erb

3.1.3 Properties of Bulk Materials 231
Günter Fuchs, Gernot Krabbes, andWolf-Rüdiger Canders

References 245

3.2 Thin Films and Multilayers 247

3.2.1 Thin Film Deposition 247
Roger Wördenweber

Acknowledgment 277

References 277

3.3 Josephson Junctions and Circuits 281

3.3.1 LTS Josephson Junctions and Circuits 281
Hans-Georg Meyer, Ludwig Fritzsch, Solveig Anders, Matthias Schmelz, Jürgen Kunert, and Gregor Oelsner

References 298

3.3.2 HTS Josephson Junctions 306
Keiichi Tanabe

References 324

3.4 Wires and Tapes 328

3.4.1 Powder-in-Tube SuperconductingWires: Fabrication, Properties, Applications, and Challenges 328
Tengming Shen, Jianyi Jiang, and Eric Hellstrom

Acknowledgments 348

References 348

3.4.2 YBCO-Coated Conductors 355
Mariappan Parans Paranthaman, Tolga Aytug, Liliana Stan, Quanxi Jia, and Claudia Cantoni

Acknowledgments 364

References 364

3.5 Cooling 366

3.5.1 Fluid Cooling 366
Luca Bottura and Cesar Luongo

References 381

3.5.2 Cryocoolers 383
Gunter Kaiser and Gunar Schroeder

References 392

3.5.3 “Cryogen-Free” Cooling 393
Gunter Kaiser and Andreas Kade

References 401

4 Superconducting Magnets 403

4.1 Bulk Superconducting Magnets for Bearings and Levitation 403
John R. Hull

4.1.1 Introduction 403

4.1.2 Understanding Levitation with Bulk Superconductors 405

4.1.3 Rotational Loss 407

4.1.4 A Rotor Dynamic Issue 411

4.1.5 Practical Bearing Considerations 412

4.1.6 Applications 415

References 416

4.2 Fundamentals of Superconducting Magnets 418
Martin N.Wilson

4.2.1 Windings to Produce Different Field Shapes 418

4.2.2 Current Supply 420

4.2.3 Load Lines, Degradation, and Training 422

4.2.4 Cryogenic Stabilization 423

4.2.5 Mechanical Disturbances and Minimum Quench Energy 426

4.2.6 Screening Currents and the Critical State Model 429

4.2.7 Magnetization and Flux Jumping 431

4.2.8 FilamentaryWires and Cables 434

4.2.9 AC Losses 440

4.2.10 Quenching and Protection 442

References 447

4.3 Magnets for Particle Accelerators and Colliders 448
Luca Bottura and Lucio Rossi

4.3.1 Introduction 448

4.3.2 Accelerators, Colliders, and Role of Superconducting Magnets 448

4.3.3 Magnetic Design 455

4.3.4 Mechanical Design 467

4.3.5 Margins, Stability, Training, and Protection 471

4.3.6 Field Quality 478

4.3.7 Fast-Cycled Synchrotrons 482

Acknowledgments 484

References 484

4.4 Superconducting Detector Magnets for Particle Physics 487
Michael A. Green

4.4.1 The Development of Detector Solenoids 487

4.4.2 LHC Detector Magnets for the ATLAS, CMS, and ALICE Experiments 489

4.4.3 The Future of Detector Magnets for Particle Physics 496

4.4.4 The Defining Parameters forThin Solenoids 498

4.4.5 Thin Detector Solenoid Design Criteria 500

4.4.6 Magnet Power Supply and Coil Quench Protection 505

4.4.7 Design Criteria for the Ends of a Detector Solenoid 509

4.4.8 Cryogenic Cooling of a Detector Magnet 512

References 518

4.5 Magnets for NMR and MRI 523
Yukikazu Iwasa and Seungyong Hahn

4.5.1 Introduction to NMR and MRI Magnets 523

4.5.2 Specific Design Issues for NMR and MRI Magnets 526

4.5.3 Status (2013) of NMR and MRI Magnets 534

4.5.4 HTS Applications to NMR and MRI Magnets 539

4.5.5 Conclusions 540

References 541

4.6 Superconducting Magnets for Fusion 544
Jean-Luc Duchateau

4.6.1 Introduction to Fusion and Superconductivity 544

4.6.2 ITER 546

4.6.3 Cable in Conduit Conductors (CICC) 552

4.6.4 Quench Protection and Quench Detection in Fusion Magnets 557

4.6.5 Prospective about Future Fusion Reactors: DEMO 565

4.6.6 Conclusion 567

References 568

4.7 High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) Magnets 569
Swarn Singh Kalsi

4.7.1 Introduction 569

4.7.2 High-Field Magnets 569

4.7.3 Low-Field Magnets 573

4.7.4 Outlook 580

References 580

4.8 Magnetic Levitation and Transportation 583
John R. Hull

4.8.1 Introduction 583

4.8.2 Magnetic Levitation: Principles and Methods 583

4.8.3 Maglev Ground Transport 592

4.8.4 Clean-Room Application 597

4.8.5 Air and Space Launch 598

References 599

Contents to Volume 2

SQUIDart by Claus Grupen (drawing) XX

Preface XXIII

List of Contributors XXV

5 Power Applications 603

5.1 Superconducting Cables 603
Werner Prusseit, Robert Bach, and Joachim Bock

5.2 Practical Design of High-Temperature Superconducting Current Leads 616
Jonathan A. Demko

5.3 Fault Current Limiters 631
Swarn Singh Kalsi

5.4 Transformers 645
Antonio Morandi

5.5 Energy Storage (SMES and Flywheels) 660
Antonio Morandi

5.6 Rotating Machines 674
Swarn Singh Kalsi

5.7 SmartGrids: Motivations, Stakes, and Perspectives/Opportunities for Superconductivity 693
Nouredine Hadjsaid, Pascal Tixador, Jean-Claude Sabonnadiere, Camille Gandioli, and Marie-Cécile Alvarez-Hérault

6 Superconductive Passive Devices 723

6.1 Superconducting Microwave Components 723
Neeraj Khare

6.2 Cavities for Accelerators 734
Sergey A. Belomestnykh and Hasan S. Padamsee

6.3 Superconducting Pickup Coils 762
Audrius Brazdeikis and JarekWosik

6.4 Magnetic Shields 780
James R. Claycomb

7 Applications in Quantum Metrology 807

7.1 Quantum Standards for Voltage 807
Johannes Kohlmann

7.2 Single Cooper Pair Circuits and Quantum Metrology 828
Alexander B. Zorin

8 Superconducting Radiation and Particle Detectors 843

8.1 Radiation and Particle Detectors 843
Claus Grupen

8.2 Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometers and Transition Edge Sensors 860
Giovanni P. Pepe, Roberto Cristiano, and Flavio Gatti

8.3 SIS Mixers 881
Doris Maier

8.4 Superconducting Photon Detectors 902
Michael Siegel and Dagmar Henrich

8.5 Applications at Terahertz Frequency 930
Masayoshi Tonouchi

8.6 Detector Readout 940
Thomas Ortlepp

9 Superconducting Quantum Interference (SQUIDs) 949

9.1 Introduction 949
Robert L. Fagaly

9.2 Types of SQUIDs 952
Robert L. Fagaly

9.3 Magnetic Field Sensing with SQUID Devices 967

9.3.1 SQUIDs in Laboratory Applications 967
Robert L. Fagaly

9.3.2 SQUIDs in Nondestructive Evaluation 977
Hans-Joachim Krause,Michael Mück, and Saburo Tanaka

9.3.3 SQUIDs in Biomagnetism 992
Hannes Nowak

9.3.4 Geophysical Exploration 1020
Ronny Stolz

9.3.5 Scanning SQUID Microscopy 1042
John Kirtley

9.4 SQUID Thermometers 1066
Thomas Schurig and Jörn Beyer

9.5 Radio Frequency Amplifiers Based on DC SQUIDs 1081
Michael Mück and Robert McDermott

9.6 SQUID-Based Cryogenic Current Comparators 1096
Wolfgang Vodel, Rene Geithner, and Paul Seidel

10 Superconductor Digital Electronics 1111

10.1 Logic Circuits 1111
John X. Przybysz and Donald L.Miller

10.2 Superconducting Mixed-Signal Circuits 1125
Hannes Toepfer

10.3 Digital Processing 1135
Oleg Mukhanov

10.4 Quantum Computing 1163
Jürgen Lisenfeld

10.5 Advanced Superconducting Circuits and Devices 1176
MartinWeides and Hannes Rotzinger

10.6 Digital SQUIDs 1194
Pascal Febvre

11 Other Applications 1207

11.1 Josephson Arrays as Radiation Sources (incl. Josephson Laser) 1207
HuabingWang

11.2 Tunable Microwave Devices 1226
Neeraj Khare

12 Summary and Outlook 1233
Herbert C. Freyhardt

Index 1243

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Author Information

Edited by Paul Seidel, Professor of Applied Physics at the University of Jena and head of the department of Low Temperature Physics. His main fields of research are thin film deposition and growth, patterning, multilayers, tunneling, Josephson effects, and cryoelectronics. His strong engagement with the community is documented by serving as scientific board member of many international conferences and symposia. Paul Seidel has published more than 200 articles in international journals and contributed to more than 80 books. He is teaching both experimental and theoretical physics and offers special lectures in solid state and low temperature physics.
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