Photonic Crystals: Advances in Design, Fabrication, and Characterization
Illustrated in full color, this book is not only of interest to advanced students and researchers in physics, electrical engineering, and material science, but also to company R&D departments involved in photonic crystal-related technological developments.
About the editors.
List of contributors.
1 On the solid-state theoretical description of photonic crystals (K. Busch, M. Diem, M. Frank, A. Garcia-Martin, F. Hagmann, D. Hermann, S. Mingaleev, S. Pereira, M. Schillinger, and L. Tkeshelashvili).
1.2 Photonic band structure computation.
1.2.1 Density of states.
1.2.2 Group velocity and group velocity dispersion.
1.3 Nonlinear photonic crystals.
1.4 Finite structures.
1.5 Defect structures in photonic crystals.
1.5.1 Maximally localized photonic Wannier functions.
1.5.2 Wannier description of defect structures.
1.5.3 Localized cavity modes.
1.5.4 Dispersion relations of waveguides.
1.5.5 Light propagation through photonic crystal circuits.
2 Spontaneous emission in photonic structures: Theory and simulation (G. Boedecker, C. Henkel, Ch. Hermann, and O. Hess).
2.2 Basic con cepts.
2.2.1 Fermi’s Golden Rule.
2.2.2 Beyond the simple picture.
2.2.3 Coherent tuning of spontaneous decay.
2.2.4 QED in a structured continuum.
2.3.1 Frequency domain.
2.3.2 Time domain.
2.4 Concluding remarks.
3 Semiconductor optics in photonic crystal structures (T. Meier and S. W. Koch).
3.2 Semiclassical theory.
3.2.1 Light–matter coupling.
3.2.2 Generalized Coulomb potential.
3.2.3 Hamilton operator.
3.2.4 Equations of motion.
3.3 Numerical results.
3.3.1 Linear exciton absorption.
3.3.2 Coherently excited inhomogeneous populations.
3.3.3 Quasi-equilibrium inhomogeneous populations and nonlinear absorption.
3.3.4 Coherent wave packet dynamics versus dephasing and thermalization.
3.4 Summary and outlook.
4 Electrochemically-prepared 2D and 3D photonic crystals (R.B. Wehrspohn, J. Schilling, J. Choi, Y. Luo, S. Matthias, S. L. Schweizer, F. Müller, U. Gösele, S. Lölkes, S. Langa, J. Carstensen, and H. Föll).
4.2.1 Porous silicon.
4.2.2 Porous alumina.
4.2.3 Porous III–V semiconductors.
4.3 Application to photonic crystals.
4.3.2 2D photonic crystals made of macroporous silicon.
4.3.3 Photonic defects in electrochemically–prepared 2D photonic crystals.
4.3.4 3D photonic crystals made of macroporous silicon.
4.3.5 2D photonic crystals made of porous alumina.
4.3.6 1D photonic crystals made of InP.
4.3.7 2D photonic crystals made of InP.
4.3.8 3D photonic crystals made of InP and GaAs.
5 Optical properties of planar metallo–dielectric photonic crystals (A. Christ, S. Linden, T. Zentgraf, K. Schubert, D. Nau, S.G. Tikhodeev, N.A. Gippius, J. Kuhl, F. Schindler, A.W. Holleitner, J. Stehr, J. Crewett, J. Lupton, T. Klar, U. Scherf, J. Feldmann, C. Dahmen, G. von Plessen, and H. Giessen).
5.2 Optical characterization of individual gold nanodisks.
5.3 Observation of Rayleigh anomalies in metallo-dielectric nanostructures.
5.3.1 Metallic nanoparticle arrays.
5.3.2 Metallic nanowire arrays.
5.4 Waveguide–plasmon polaritons: Strong coupling in a metallic photonic crystal.
5.4.1 Metallic nanoparticle arrays on dielectric waveguide substrates.
5.4.2 Metallic nanowire arrays on dielectric waveguide substrates.
5.4.3 Ultrafast dynamics of waveguide-plasmon polaritons.
5.5 A polymer DFB laser based on a metal nanoparticle array.
6 Preparation of 3D photonic crystals from opals (M. Egen, R. Zentel, P. Ferrand, S. Eiden, G. Maret, and F. Caruso).
6.2 Preparation of monodisperse colloids.
6.2.1 General methods.
6.2.2 Preparation of functional core shell structures.
6.3 Crystallization into opaline structures.
6.3.2 Crystallization mediated by the magnetic field.
6.3.3 Two dimensional crystallization to photonic crystal films.
6.4 Structured photonic crystals.
6.4.1 Lateral patterning.
6.4.2 Preparation of hetero structures from different colloids.
6.5 Replica from opaline structure.
7 Light emitting opal–based photonic crystal heterojunctions (S. G. Romanov, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, A. L. Rogach, V. G. Solovyev, D. N. Chigrin, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres).
7.2 Experimental techniques and material preparation.
7.2.1 Measurement techniques.
7.2.2 Preparation of hetero–opals.
7.2.3 Selective impregnation of hetero–opals with luminescent nanocrystals.
7.3 Reflectance and transmission spectra of hetero–opals.
7.3.1 Observation of two Bragg band gaps.
7.3.2 The interface gap.
7.4 Light emission in hetero–opals.
7.4.1 Anisotropy of photoluminescence in hetero–opals.
7.4.2 Emission modification at the interface.
8 Three–dimensional lithography of Photonic Crystals (A. Blanco, K. Busch, M. Deubel, C. Enkrich, G. von Freymann, M. Hermatschweiler, W. Koch, S. Linden, D.C. Meisel, and M. Wegener).
8.2 Holographic lithography.
8.2.1 The photoresist.
8.2.2 The crystallography of multiple-beam interference patterns.
8.2.3 Experimental realization.
8.2.4 Optical properties of the photoresist structures.
8.3 Direct laser writing.
8.3.1 Multi–photon polymerization.
8.3.2 Experimental realization.
8.3.3 Direct laser writing of three–dimensional photonic crystals.
8.3.4 Optical characterization.
8.4 Templates infiltration.
8.4.1 Silicon CVD.
8.4.2 Electrochemical deposition.
9 Tunable photonic crystals using liquid crystals (H.–S. Kitzerow and J.P. Reithmaier).
9.1 Introduction: Concepts of tunable photonic crystals.
9.2 Properties of liquid crystals.
9.3 Spatially periodic LCs and colloidal crystals.
9.3.1 Periodic liquid crystals.
9.3.2 Colloidal crystals containing LCs.
9.3.3 Polymer–dispersed liquid crystals.
9.4 Microstructured semiconductors.
9.4.1 Macroporous silicon.
9.4.2 Group III–V semiconductors.
9.5 Summary and perspectives.
9.5.1 Possible applications of macroporous silicon.
9.5.2 Possible applications for tunable planar III/V–semiconductor photonic crystals.
10 Microwave modelling of photonic crystals (W. Freude, G.–A. Chakam, J.–M. Brosi, and Ch. Koos).
10.1.1 Maxwell’s equations and scaling laws.
10.1.2 Numerical tools.
10.2 Microwave measurements.
10.2.1 Scattering matrix.
10.2.2 Microwave equipment.
10.2.3 Coupling of coaxial metallic to dielectric strip waveguide.
10.3 Loss measurement of waveguide resonator.
10.4 Experimental results.
10.4.1 2Dinfinite–height PhC.
10.4.2 2D finite–height PhC with line–defect waveguide.
11 Scanning near-field optical studies of photonic devices (V. Sandoghdar, B. Buchler, P. Kramper, S. Götzinger, O. Benson, and M. Kafesaki).
11.2 Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM).
11.2.1 Brief historical background.
11.2.2 The operation principle of SNOM.
11.2.4 Various modes of SNOM operation.
11.3 Imaging photonic devices with SNOM.
11.3.1 The evanescent field on a prism.
11.3.2 SNOM on whispering–gallery resonators.
11.3.3 Interferometric SNOM measurements.
11.3.4 Photonic crystals.
11.4 Manipulating photonic devices with SNOM.
12 Application of photonic crystals for gas detection and sensing (R.B. Wehrspohn, S. L. Schweizer, J. Schilling, T. Geppert, C. Jamois, R. Glatthaar, P. Hahn, A. Feisst, and A. Lambrecht).
12.2 Realizations with 3D photonic crystals.
13 Polymeric photonic crystal lasers (K. Forberich, S. Riechel, S. Pereira, A. Gombert, K. Busch, J. Feldmann, and U. Lemmer).
13.2 Fabrication of microstructured surfaces by interference lithography.
13.2.1 Interference lithography.
13.2.2 Replication and subsequent substrate processing.
13.3 Active materials for organic photonic crystal lasers.
13.4 Lasing in two dimensional polymeric photonic crystals.
13.5 Semiclassical theory of lasing in surface relief structures.
13.5.1 Semiclassical laser theory in structured media.
13.5.2 Effective 2D model for surface relief structures.
13.5.3 Discussion of lasing behavior in surface relief structures.
14 Photonic crystal fibers (J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, and F. Lederer).
14.2 Modeling of photonic crystal fibers.
14.2.1 Plane wave expansion methods.
14.2.2 The localized functions method.
14.2.3 The finite element method (FEM).
14.2.4 The multipole method.
14.2.5 Propagation methods.
14.3 Fiber technology.
14.3.1 Preparation of photonic crystal fibers.
14.3.2 Fluid–dynamic aspects in the preparation of photonic crystal fibers.
14.4 Special properties of photonic crystal fibers.
14.4.1 Spectral transmission.
14.4.2 Variation of the numerical aperture and the mode profil.
14.4.3 Dispersion properties.
14.4.4 Mechanical properties.
14.5 Overviewof applications.
15 Photonic crystal optical circuits in moderate index materials (M. Augustin, G. Böttger, M. Eich, C. Etrich, H.-J. Fuchs, R. Iliew, U. Hübner, M. Kessler, E.–B. Kley, F. Lederer, C. Liguda, S. Nolte, H.G.Meyer,W.Morgenroth, U. Peschel, A. Petrov, D. Schelle, M. Schmidt, A. Tünnermann, and W. Wischmann).
15.2 Design of the PhC films.
15.3 Photonic crystal waveguides in niobiumpentoxide.
15.4 Photonic crystals in polymer films.
16 Planar high index-contrast photonic crystals for telecom applications (R. März, S. Burger, S. Golka, A. Forchel, C. Hermann, C. Jamois, D. Michaelis, and K. Wandel).
16.1 Introduction and motivation.
16.2 Wave guide losses.
16.3 Efficient analysis of photonic crystals.
16.4 Patterning of photonic crystals.
16.5 Sources for multi-channel WDM–transmitters.
16.6 Photonic crystal superprisms for WDM–applications.
16.7 PhC–based dispersion compensator.
16.8 Fiber–to–chip coupling of photonic crystals.
17 Photonic crystal based active optoelectronic devices (M. Kamp, T. Happ, S. Mahnkopf, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and G.–H. Duan).
17.2 Waveguide based 2D photonic crystals.
17.3 Semiconductor lasers with photonic crystal mirrors.
17.3.2 Device performance.
17.3.3 Single mode photonic crystal based lasers.
17.4 All photonic crystal lasers.
17.5 Tunable photonic crystal lasers.
A. List of abbreviations.
Stefan Lölkes graduated in semiconductor physics at the Technical University of Munich, Germany, in 2000. In 2001, he started his Ph.D. thesis on “Electrochemical etching of Photonic Crystals” at the Chair for General Materials Science at the Chr istian-Alb rechts-University of Kiel, Germany. In parallel, he co-organized already several national symposia on Photonic Crystals in the framework of the DFG priority program 1113 “Photonic Crystals”.
Ralf B. Wehrspohn received his diploma degree in physics at the University of Oldenburg in 1995. He then carried out a Ph.D. at the Ecole Polytechnique in France about thin film technology and electrochemistry. In 1998 he joined the Philips Research Laboratories in Redhill, U.K., to work on thin film transistors for AMLCD. From end of 1999 to March 2003 he has been responsible for the activities on photonic crystals and self-ordered porous materials at the Max-Planck-Institute of Microstructure Physics in Halle. Since April 2003 he is full professor in experimental physics at the University of Paderborn where he leads the activities on nanophotonic materials. R. B. Wehrspohn has been awarded with the Heinz Maier-Leipnitz award of the DFG and the TR100 innovation price of the MIT in 2003.
Helmut Föll received his Ph.D. degree in Physics in 1976 from the University of Stuttgart in conjunction with the Max-Planck-Institute for Metal Research in Stuttgart. After postdoctorial work at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Cornell University and a position as guest scientist at the T.J. Watson Res. Center of IBM in Yorktown Heights, he joined Siemens in 1980, working in the newly founded Solar Energy Department of Central Research in Munich. After various senior positions in microelectronics development, in 1991 he accepted an offer of the Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel to become the founding dean of the newly established Faculty of Engineering, where he also holds the Chair for General Materials Science. Since 1998 he is back to research, with particular interest in solar cell technology and the electrochemistry of semiconductors. He is one of the pioneers in the field of porous semiconductors and has coauthored more than 150 papers and 20 patents.