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Food Processing Handbook

ISBN: 978-3-527-60720-4
607 pages
May 2006
Food Processing Handbook (352760720X) cover image

Description

Focusing on the technology involved, this handbook describes the principles as well as the equipment used and the changes - physical, chemical, microbiological and organoleptic - that occur during food preservation. In doing so the text covers in detail such techniques as post-harvest handling, thermal processing, evaporation and dehydration, freezing, irradiation, high pressure processing, emerging technologies, baking, extrusion, frying and packaging. In addition current concerns about the safety of processed foods and control of food processes are addressed, as are the impact of processing on the environment and separation and conversion operations widely used in the food industry.
Scientists and engineers involved in food manufacture, research and development in both industry and academia will benefit greatly from the contents as will students studying food related topics at undergraduate and postgraduate levels.
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Table of Contents

Preface.

List of Contributors.

1 Postharvest Handling and Preparation of Foods for Processing (Alistair S. Grandison).

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Properties of Raw Food Materials and Their Susceptibility to Deterioration and Damage.

1.3 Storage and Transportation of Raw Materials.

1.4 Raw Material Cleaning.

1.5 Sorting and Grading.

1.6 Blanching.

1.7 Sulphiting of Fruits and Vegetables.

References.

2 Thermal Processing (Michael J. Lewis).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Reaction Kinetics.

2.3 Temperature Dependence.

2.4 Heat Processing Methods.

2.5 Filling Procedures.

2.6 Storage.

References.

3 Evaporation and Dehydration (James G. Brennan).

3.1 Evaporation (Concentration, Condensing).

3.2 Dehydration (Drying).

References.

4 Freezing (Jose Mauricio Pardo and Keshavan Niranjan).

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Refrigeration Methods and Equipment.

4.3 Low Temperature Production.

4.4 Freezing Kinetics.

4.5 Effects of Refrigeration on Food Quality.

References.

5 Irradiation (Alistair S. Grandison).

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Principles of Irradiation.

5.3 Equipment.

5.4 Safety Aspects.

5.5 Effects on the Properties of Food.

5.6 Detection Methods for Irradiated Foods.

5.7 Applications and Potential Applications.

References.

6 High Pressure Processing (Margaret F. Patterson, Dave A. Ledward and Nigel Rogers).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Effect of High Pressure on Microorganisms.

6.3 Ingredient Functionality.

6.4 Enzyme Activity.

6.5 Foaming and Emulsification.

6.6 Gelation.

6.7 Organoleptic Considerations.

6.8 Equipment for HPP.

6.9 Pressure Vessel Considerations.

6.10 Current and Potential Applications of HPP for Foods.

References.

7 Pulsed Electric Field Processing, Power Ultrasound and Other Emerging Technologies (Craig E. Leadley and Alan Williams).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Pulsed Electric Field Processing.

7.3 Power Ultrasound.

7.4 Other Technologies with Potential.

7.5 Conclusions.

References.

8 Baking, Extrusion and Frying (Bogdan J. Dobraszczyk, Paul Ainsworth, Senol Ibanoglu, and Pedro Bouchon).

8.1 Baking Bread.

8.2 Extrusion.

8.3 Frying.

References.

9 Packaging (James G. Brennan and Brian P. F. Day).

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Factors Affecting the Choice of a Packaging Material and/or Container for a Particular Duty.

9.3 Materials and Containers Used for Packaging Foods.

9.4 Modified Atmosphere Packaging.

9.5 Aseptic Packaging.

9.6 Active Packaging.

References.

10 Safety in Food Processing (Carol A. Wallace).

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Safe Design.

10.3 Prerequisite Good Manufacturing Practice Programmes.

10.4 HACCP, the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System.

References.

11 Process Control In Food Processing (Keshavan Niranjan, Araya Ahromrit and Ahok S. Khare).

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Measurement of Process Parameters.

11.3 Control Systems.

11.4 Process Control in Modern Food Processing.

11.5 Concluding Remarks.

References.

12 Environmental Aspects of Food Processing (Niharika Mishra, Ali Abd El-Aal Bakr and Keshavan Niranjan).

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Waste Characteristics.

12.3 Wastewater Processing Technology.

12.4 Resource Recovery From Food Processing Wastes.

12.5 Environmental Impact of Packaging Wastes.

12.6 Refrigerents.

12.7 Energy Issues Related to Environment.

12.8 Life Cycle Assessment.

References.

13 Water and Waste Treatment (R. Andrew Wilbey).

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 Fresh Water.

13.3 Waste Water.

13.4 Sludge Disposal.

13.5 Final Disposal of Waste Water.

References.

14 Separations in Food Processing (James G. Brennan, Alistair S. Grandison and Michael J. Lewis).

14.1 Introduction.

14.2 Solid-Liquid Filtration.

14.3 Centrifugation.

14.4 Solid-Liquid Extraction (Leaching).

14.5 Distillation.

14.6 Crystallisation.

14.7 Membrane Processes.

14.8 Ion Exchange.

14.9 Electrodialysis.

References.

15 Mixing, Emulsification and Size Reduction (James G. Brennan).

15.1 Mixing (Agitation, Blending).

15.2 Emulsification.

15.3 Size Reduction (Crushing, Comminution, Grinding, Milling) of Solids.

References.

Subject Index.

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Author Information

Professor James Gerard Brennan lectured at The National College of Food Technology, Whiteknights, Reading. He is a founder member and fellow of the Institute of Food Science and Technology and served on its Council and on several of its committees. Over the years he has undertaken assignments for industrial companies, mainly in the fields of dehydratation, packaging, texture measurement, product and process development. Professor Brennan is a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Food Engineering, author of two books and of several chapters in books and published around 30 review articles and over 120 papers in scientific journals.
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Reviews

?This work should become a standard text for students of food technology, and is worthy of a place on the bookshelf of anybody involved in the production of foods.? ( Journal of Dairy Technology, August 2008)

"This work will serve well as an excellent course resource or reference as it has well-written explanations for those new to the field and detailed equations for those needing greater depth." (CHOICE, September 2006)

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