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Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism in Drug Design, Volume 31, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-3-527-60828-7
207 pages
August 2006
Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism in Drug Design, Volume 31, 2nd Edition (3527608281) cover image
In this new edition of a bestseller, all the contents have been updated and new material has been added, especially in the areas of toxicity testing and high throughput analysis. The authors, all of them employed at Pfizer in the discovery and development of new active substances, discuss the significant parameters and processes important for the absorption, distribution and retention of drug compounds in the body, plus the potential problems created by their transformation into toxic byproducts. They cover everything from the fundamental principles right up to the impact of pharmacokinetic parameters on the discovery of new drugs.
While aimed at all those dealing professionally with the development and application of pharmaceutical substances, the readily comprehensible style makes this book equally suitable for students of pharmacy and related subjects.
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PHYSICOCHEMISTRY
Partition and Distribution Coefficient as Measures of Lipophilicity
Limitations on the Use of Octanol
Further Understanding of log P
Alternative Lipophilicity Scales
Computational Approaches to Lipophilicity
Membrane Systems to Study Drug Behaviour
NEW: Dissolution and Solubility
NEW: Ionisation (pKa)

PHARMACOKINETICS
Intravenous Administration: Volume of Distribution
Intravenous Administration: Clearance
Clearance and Half-Life
Intravenous administration: Infusion
Oral Administration
Repeated Doses
Development of the Unbound (Free) Drug Model
Unbound Drug and Drug Action
Unbound Drug Model and Barriers to Equilibrium
Slow Offset Compounds
Factors Governing Unbound Drug Concentration

ABSORPTION
The Absorption Process
Dissolution
Membrane Transfer
Barriers to Membrane Transfer
Models for Absorption Estimation
Estimation of Absorption Potential
Computational Approaches

DISTRIBUTION
Membrane Transfer Access to the Target
Brain penetration
Volume of Distribution and Duration
Distribution and Tmax

CLEARANCE
The Clearance Processes
Role of Transport Proteins in Drug Clearance
Interplay Between Metabolic and Renal Clearance
Role of Lipophilicity in Drug Clearance

RENAL CLEARANCE
Kidney Anatomy and Function
Lipophilicity and Reabsorption by the Kidney
Effect of Charge on Renal Clearance
Plasma Protein Binding and Renal Clearance
Balancing Renal Clearance and Absorption
Renal Clearance and Drug Design

METABOLIC (HEPATIC) CLEARANCE
Function of Metabolism (Biotransformation)
Cytochrome P450
Other oxidative processes
Oxidative Metablism and Drug Design
Non-Specific Esterases
Prodrugs to Aid Membrane Transfer
Enzymes Catalysing Drug Conjugation
Stability to Conjugation Processes
Pharmacodynamics and Conjugation

TOXICITY
Toxicity Findings
Importance of dose size
Toxicity of selected compound classes
Stratification of Toxicity
Toxicity Prediction -
Computational Toxicology
Toxicogenomics
Enzyme Induction (CYP3A4) and Drug Design
Enzyme Inhibition and Drug Design

INTERSPECIES SCALING
Objectives of Allometric Scaling
Allometric Scaling
Species Scaling: Adjusting for Maximum Life-Span Potential
Species Scaling: Incorporating Differences in Metabolic Clearance
Inter-Species Scaling for Clearance by Hepatic Uptake
Elimination Half-Life
NEW: Scaling to pharmacological effect
NEW: Single animal scaling

HIGH(ER) THROUGHPUT ADME STUDIES
The HTS Trend
Drug Metabolism and Discovery Screening Sequences
Physicochemistry
Absorption /
Permeability
Pharmacokinetics
NEW: Metabolism and Inhibition
NEW: The concept of ADME space
Computational Approaches in PK and Metabolism Prediction
Outlook
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The authors are leading scientists in the Drug Metabolism department of Pfizer, one of the top five pharmaceutical companies in the world.
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The second edition features several new subchapters on novel aspects or on fields that have received fresh attention by pharmaceutical scientists.
In the Physiochemistry chapter, new sections on compound solubility and ionisation have been added. Toxicity testing in animals has been expanded to cover single animal studies, and the recently evolved concept of ADME space is now introduced in the section on high throughput studies, where most of the subchapters have been rewritten and expanded.
Data in figures and tables have been updated where appropriate, and new references have been added.
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"This work will interest and inform both the beginning professional in the field of drug discovery/design and the medicinal chemist…I also highly recommend it for students…" (Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, December 14, 2006)

"…extremely useful to students of Toxicology and others with an interest in the subject." (British Toxicology Society Newsletter, Summer 2007)

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