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Carbon Dioxide as Chemical Feedstock

Michele Aresta (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-62992-3
414 pages
January 2010
Carbon Dioxide as Chemical Feedstock (3527629920) cover image
Filling the need for an up-to-date handbook, this ready reference closely investigates the use of CO2 for ureas, enzymes, carbamates, and isocyanates, as well as its use as a solvent, in electrochemistry, biomass utilization and much more.
Edited by an internationally renowned and experienced researcher, this is a comprehensive source for every synthetic chemist in academia and industry.
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Preface
CARBON DIOXIDE: UTILIZATION OPTIONS TO REDUCE IST ACCUMULATION IN THE ATMOSPHERE
Carbon Dioxide Emission
The Accumulation of CO2 in the Atmosphere, and the Effects that We Fear
Technologies to Reduce CO2 Accumulation in the Atmosphere
The Utilization of CO2
CO2: Sources and Prices
The Potential for CO2 Utilization, and the Content of This Book
The Need for Research to Speed an Exploitation of the Utilization Option
UTILIZATION OF DENSE CARBON DIOXIDE AS AN INERT SOLVENT FOR CHEMICAL SYNTHESES
Introduction
Dense Carbon Dioxide as Solvent Medium for Chemical Processes
Enzymatic Catalysis in Dense Carbon Dioxide
Other Reactions in Dense Carbon Dioxide
Polymer Synthesis in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Conclusions
AUTOTROPHIC CARBON FIXATION IN BIOLOGY: PATHWAYS, RULES, AND SPECULATIONS
Introduction
The Mechanisms of CO2 Fixation
Rules to Explain the Diversity
Evolutionary Aspects
Chemical Aspects of CO2 Fixation
CARBON DIOXIDE COORDINATION CHEMISTRY AND REACTIVITY OF COORDINATED CO2
Introduction
Carbon Dioxide Bonding to Metals
Synthesis and Structure of CO2 Complexes
Reactivity of CO2 Complexes
CO2 Complexes as Reaction Intermediates in CO2 Utilization Processes
Conclusions
MAIN GROUP ELEMENT- AND TRANSITION METAL-PROMOTED CARBOXYLATION OF ORGANIC SUBSTRATES (ALKANES, ALKENES, ALKYNES, AROMATICS, AND OTHERS)
Introduction
Formation of Aromatic Carboxylic Acids: The Kolbe-Schmitt Synthesis
Reactive Organometallic Derivatives in the Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids
Palladium (0)-Catalyzed Telomerization of Butadiene with CO2: Synthesis of Delta-Lactone
THE CHEMISTRY OF N-CO2 BONDS: SYNTHESIS OF CARBAMIC ACIDS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES, ISOCYANATES, AND UREAS
Introduction
Synthesis of Carbamic Acids and Alkylammonium Carbamates
Synthesis of Carbamate Esters
Synthesis of Isocyanates
Synthesis of Ureas
Conclusions
SYNTHESIS OF LINEAR AND CYCLIC CARBONATES
Introduction
Acyclic Organic Carbonates
Synthesis of Organic Cyclic Carbonates
Transesterification Reactions
POLYMERS FROM CARBON DIOXIDE: POLYCARBONATES, POLYTHIOCARBONATES, AND POLYURETHANES
Introduction
Historical Perspective
Metal Catalysts for the Copolymerization of Epoxides and CO2
Metal Catalysts for the Copolymerization of Oxetanes and CO2
Physical Methods for the Characterization of Copolymers Produced from Epoxides or Oxetane and Carbion Dioxide
Copolymer Isolation and Catalyst Recycling
Copolymerization of Carbon Disulfide and Epoxide and Episulfide
Copolymers from Aziridines and Carbon Dioxide
Concluding Remarks
IN-SITU OF CARBON DEPOSITION DURING CO2 REFORMING OF METHANE FOR SYNTHESIS GAS PRODUCTION, USING THE TAPERED ELEMENT OSCILLATIN MICROBALANCE
Introduction
Thermodynamic Analysis of Carbon Formation from CH4 or CO

Thermodynamic Analysis of Carbon Formation in CO2 Reforming of Methane
TEOM Analysis of Carbon Formation in CO2 Reforming
TEM Analysis on Carbon Formed on Catalysts After CO2 Reforming of Methane
Kinetic Study of Carbon Formation on Pch4 and Pco in CO2 Reforming
H2O Effect on Carbon Formation in CO2 Reforming
Conclusions
UTILIZATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE THROUGH NONTHERMAL PLASMA APPROACHES
Introduction
Nonthermal Plasma Phenomena
CO and/or H2 Production from CO2
Hydrocarbons Synthesis from CO2
Oxygenates Synthesis from CO2
Combination of Plasma with Catalyst
Summary
PHOTOCHEMICAL, ELECTROCHEMICAL, AND PHOTOELECTROCHEMICAL REDUCTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE
Introduction
Homogeneous Photochemical Reduction
Electrochemical Reduction
Semiconductor Systems for Reduction
Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
RECENT SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN ELECTROCHEMICAL CARBOXYLATION BASED ON CARBON DIOXIDE
Introduction
Electrocarboxylation
The Electroreduction of Carbon Dioxide in Protic Media (Water and Alcohols)
INDIRECT UTILIZATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE: UTILIZATION OFTERRESTRIAL AND AQUATIC BIOMASS
Introduction
The Natural Carbon Cycle
The Utilization of Terrestrial Biomass
The First-Generation Biofuels
The New Generations of Biofuels
Implementation of the Bio
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Michele Aresta is full Professor of Inorganic Chemistry at the University of Bari and Honorary Professor of the Tianjin University. He is President of the Inorganic Chemistry Division of Italian Chemical Society and Director of the "Interuniversity Consortium on Chemical Reactivity and Catalysis". His areas of research are carbon dioxide utilisation in synthetic chemistry, catalysis, coordination and metallorganic chemistry. Professor Aresta is author of more than 200 papers and editor of four books. He has received several awards, like the Award of the Italian Chemical Society and the Prize of the Société Francaise de Chimie for Inorganic Chemistry.
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