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Advanced Optical Flow Cytometry: Methods and Disease Diagnoses

ISBN: 978-3-527-63429-3
734 pages
March 2011
Advanced Optical Flow Cytometry: Methods and Disease Diagnoses (3527634290) cover image
A detailed look at the latest research in non-invasive in vivo cytometry and its applications, with particular emphasis on novel biophotonic methods, disease diagnosis, and monitoring of disease treatment at single cell level in stationary and flow conditions.
This book thus covers the spectrum ranging from fundamental interactions between light, cells, vascular tissue, and cell labeling particles, to strategies and opportunities for preclinical and clinical research. General topics include light scattering by cells, fast video microscopy, polarization, laser-scanning, fluorescence, Raman, multi-photon, photothermal, and photoacoustic methods for cellular diagnostics and monitoring of disease treatment in living organisms. Also presented are discussions of advanced methods and techniques of classical flow cytometry.
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Preface XXI

List of Contributors XXXI

1 Perspectives in Cytometry 1
Anja Mittag and Attila Tárnok

1.1 Background 1

1.2 Basics of Cytometry 2

1.3 Cytomics 4

1.4 Cytometry – State of the Art 5

1.4.1 Multiparametric Analyses 6

1.5 Perspectives 7

1.6 Conclusion 16

References 16

2 Novel Concepts and Requirements in Cytometry 25
Herbert Schneckenburger, Michael Wagner, Petra Weber, and Thomas Bruns

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Fluorescence Microscopy 25

2.3 Fluorescence Reader Systems 27

2.4 Microfluidics Based on Optical Tweezers 30

2.5 Conclusion 30

Acknowledgment 31

References 31

3 Optical Imaging of Cells with Gold Nanoparticle Clusters as Light Scattering Contrast Agents: A Finite-Difference Time-Domain Approach to the Modeling of Flow Cytometry Configurations 35
Stoyan Tanev, Wenbo Sun, James Pond, Valery V. Tuchin, and Vladimir P. Zharov

3.1 Introduction 35

3.2 Fundamentals of the FDTD Method 37

3.3 FDTD Simulation Results of Light Scattering Patterns from Single Cells 45

3.4 FDTD OPCM Nanobioimaging Simulation Results 47

3.5 Conclusion 57

Acknowledgment 59

References 59

4 Optics of White Blood Cells: Optical Models, Simulations, and Experiments 63
Valeri P. Maltsev, Alfons G. Hoekstra, and Maxim A. Yurkin

4.1 Introduction 63

4.2 Optical Models of White Blood Cells 65

4.3 Direct and Inverse Light-Scattering Problems for White Blood Cells 69

4.4 Experimental Measurement of Light Scattering by White Blood Cells 78

4.5 Conclusion 89

Acknowledgments 90

References 90

5 Optical Properties of Flowing Blood Cells 95
Martina C. Meinke, Moritz Friebel, and Jürgen Helfmann

5.1 Introduction 95

5.2 Blood Physiology 96

5.3 Complex Refractive Index of Hemoglobin 100

5.4 Light Propagation in Turbid Media 102

5.5 Method for the Determination of Optical Properties of Turbid Media 104

5.6 Optical Properties of Red Blood Cells 109

5.7 Optical Properties of Plasma 122

5.8 Optical Properties of Platelets 126

5.9 Comparison of Optical Influences Induced by Physiological Blood Parameters 127

5.10 Summary 129

Acknowledgments 129

References 129

6 Laser Diffraction by the Erythrocytes and Deformability Measurements 133
Sergei Yu. Nikitin, Alexander V. Priezzhev, and Andrei E. Lugovtsov

6.1 Introduction 133

6.2 Parameters of the Erythrocytes 134

6.3 Parameters of the Ektacytometer 135

6.4 Light Scattering by a Large Optically Soft Particle 136

6.5 Fraunhofer Diffraction 138

6.6 Light Scattering by a Transparent Elliptical Disc 140

6.7 Light Scattering by an Elliptical Disc with Arbitrary Coordinates of the Disc Center 143

6.8 Light Diffraction by an Ensemble of Particles 144

6.9 Light Diffraction by Particles with Random Coordinates 145

6.10 Light Scattering by Particles with Regular Coordinates 146

6.11 Description of the Experimental Setup 147

6.12 Sample Preparation Procedure 149

6.13 Examples of Experimental Assessment of Erythrocyte Deformability in Norm and Pathology 150

6.14 Conclusion 153

References 153

7 Characterization of Red Blood Cells’ Rheological and Physiological State Using Optical Flicker Spectroscopy 155
Vadim L. Kononenko

7.1 Introduction 155

7.2 Cell State-Dependent Mechanical Properties of Red Blood Cells 156

7.3 Flicker in Erythrocytes 158

7.4 Experimental Techniques for Flicker Measurement in Blood Cells 173

7.5 The Measured Quantities in Flicker Spectroscopy and the Cell Parameters Monitored 187

7.6 Flicker Spectrum Influence by Factors of Various Nature 192

7.7 Membrane Flicker and Erythrocyte Functioning 201

7.8 Flicker in Other Cells 203

7.9 Conclusions 204

References 205

8 Digital Holographic Microscopy for Quantitative Live Cell Imaging and Cytometry 211
Björn Kemper and J¨urgen Schnekenburger

8.1 Introduction, Motivation, and Background 211

8.2 Principle of DHM 212

8.3 DHM in Cell Analysis 221

8.4 Conclusion 234

Acknowledgment 234

References 234

9 Comparison of Immunophenotyping and Rare Cell Detection by Slide-Based Imaging Cytometry and Flow Cytometry 239
József Bocsi, Anja Mittag, and Attila Tárnok

9.1 Introduction 239

9.2 Comparison of Four-Color CD4/CD8 Leukocyte Analysis by SFM and FCM Using Qdot Staining 247

9.3 Comparison of Leukocyte Subtyping by Multiparametric Analysis with LSC and FCM 250

9.4 Absolute and Relative Tumor Cell Frequency Determinations 256

9.5 Analysis of Drug-Induced Apoptosis in Leukocytes by Propidium Iodide 262

9.6 Conclusion 266

Acknowledgment 266

References 266

10 Microfluidic Flow Cytometry: Advancements toward Compact, Integrated Systems 273
Shawn O. Meade, Jessica Godin, Chun-Hao Chen, Sung Hwan Cho, Frank S. Tsai, Wen Qiao, and Yu-Hwa Lo

10.1 Introduction 273

10.2 On-Chip Flow Confinement 275

10.3 Optical Detection System 283

10.4 On-Chip Sorting 297

10.5 Conclusion 306

Acknowledgments 306

References 306

11 Label-Free Cell Classification with Diffraction Imaging Flow Cytometer 311
Xin-Hua Hu and Jun Q. Lu

11.1 Introduction 311

11.2 Modeling of Scattered Light 313

11.3 FDTD Simulation with 3D Cellular Structures 318

11.4 Simulation and Measurement of Diffraction Images 322

11.5 Summary 327

Acknowledgments 328

References 328

12 An Integrative Approach for Immune Monitoring of Human Health and Disease by Advanced Flow Cytometry Methods 333
Rabindra Tirouvanziam, Daisy Diaz, Yael Gernez, Julie Laval, Monique Crubezy, and Megha Makam

12.1 Introduction 333

12.2 Optimized Protocols for Advanced Flow Cytometric Analysis of Human Samples 335

12.3 Reagents for Advanced Flow Cytometric Analysis of Human Samples 341

12.4 Conclusion: The Future of Advanced Flow Cytometry in Human Research 355

Acknowledgments 359

Abbreviations 359

References 360

13 Optical Tweezers and Cytometry 363
Raktim Dasgupta and Pradeep Kumar Gupta

13.1 Introduction 363

13.2 Optical Tweezers: Manipulating Cells with Light 364

13.3 Use of Optical Tweezers for the Measurement of Viscoelastic Parameters of Cells 367

13.4 Cytometry with Raman Optical Tweezers 376

13.5 Cell Sorting 381

13.6 Summary 383

References 383

14 In vivo Image Flow Cytometry 387
Valery V. Tuchin, Ekaterina I. Galanzha, and Vladimir P. Zharov

14.1 Introduction 387

14.2 State of the Art of Intravital Microscopy 388

14.3 In vivo Lymph Flow Cytometry 401

14.4 High-Resolution Single-Cell Imaging in Lymphatics 415

14.5 In vivo Blood Flow Cytometry 418

14.6 Conclusion 424

Acknowledgments 424

References 425

15 Instrumentation for In vivo Flow Cytometry – a Sickle Cell Anemia Case Study 433
Stephen P. Morgan and Ian M. Stockford

15.1 Introduction 433

15.2 Clinical Need 434

15.3 Instrumentation 435

15.4 Image Processing 444

15.5 Modeling 447

15.6 Device Design – Sickle Cell Anemia Imaging System 453

15.7 Imaging Results – Sickle Cell Anemia Imaging System 455

15.8 Discussion and Future Directions 458

References 459

16 Advances in Fluorescence-Based In vivo Flow Cytometry for Cancer Applications 463
Cherry Greiner and Irene Georgakoudi

16.1 Introduction 463

16.2 Background: Cancer Metastasis 464

16.3 Clinical Relevance: Role of CTCs in Cancer Development and Response to Treatment 466

16.4 Current Methods 468

16.5 In vivo Flow Cytometry (IVFC) 474

16.6 Single-Photon IVFC (SPIVFC) 477

16.7 Multiphoton IVFC (MPIVFC) 485

16.8 Summary and Future Directions 492

Acknowledgments 495

References 495

17 In vivo Photothermal and Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry 501
Valery V. Tuchin, Ekaterina I. Galanzha, and Vladimir P. Zharov

17.1 Introduction 501

17.2 Photothermal and Photoacoustic Effects at Single-Cell Level 502

17.3 PT Technique 507

17.4 Integrated PTFC for In vivo Studies 518

17.5 Integrated PAFC for In vivo Studies 524

17.6 In vivo Lymph Flow Cytometery 539

17.7 In vivo Mapping of Sentinel Lymph Nodes (SLNs) 547

17.8 Concluding Remarks and Discussion 558

Acknowledgments 563

References 563

18 Optical Instrumentation for the Measurement of Blood Perfusion, Concentration, and Oxygenation in Living Microcirculation 573
Martin J. Leahy and Jim O’Doherty

18.1 Introduction 573

18.2 Xe Clearance 577

18.3 Nailfold Capillaroscopy 577

18.4 LDPM/LDPI 582

18.5 Laser Speckle Perfusion Imaging (LSPI) 583

18.6 TiVi 584

18.7 Comparison of TiVi, LSPI, and LDPI 586

18.8 Pulse Oximetry 592

18.9 Conclusions 597

Acknowledgments 598

References 599

19 Blood Flow Cytometry and Cell Aggregation Study with Laser Speckle 605
Qingming Luo, Jianjun Qiu, and Pengcheng Li

19.1 Introduction 605

19.2 Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging 605

19.3 Investigation of Optimum Imaging Conditions with Numerical Simulation 608

19.4 Spatio-Temporal Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis 614

19.5 Fast Blood Flow Visualization Using GPU 618

19.6 Detecting Aggregation of Red Blood Cells or Platelets Using Laser Speckle 621

19.7 Conclusion 623

Acknowledgments 624

References 624

20 Modifications of Optical Properties of Blood during Photodynamic Reactions In vitro and In vivo 627
Alexandre Douplik, Alexander Stratonnikov, Olga Zhernovaya, and Viktor Loshchenov

20.1 Introduction 627

20.2 Description and Brief History of PDT 627

20.3 PDT Mechanisms 628

20.4 Blood and PDT 632

20.5 Properties of Blood, Blood Cells, and Photosensitizers: Before Photodynamic Reaction 633

20.6 Photodynamic Reactions in Blood and Blood Cells, Blood Components, and Cells 651

20.7 Types of Photodynamic Reactions in Blood: In vitro versus In vivo 656

20.8 Blood Sample In vitro as a Model Studying Photodynamic Reaction 658

20.9 Monitoring of Oxygen Consumption and Photobleaching in Blood during PDT In vivo 677

20.10 Photodynamic Disinfection of Blood 679

20.11 Photodynamic Therapy of Blood Cell Cancer 682

20.12 Summary 685

Acknowledgments 686

Glossary 686

References 687

Index 699

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Valery Tuchin is Head of Chair of Optics and Biomedical Physics and Director of Research-Educational Institute of Optics and Biophotonics at Saratov State University. He has authored more than 250 papers and books, including his latest, Tissue Optics. Light Scattering Methods and Instrumentation for Medical Diagnosis (SPIE Tutorial Texts in Optical Engineering, Vol. TT38, 2000; second edition, PM166, 2007), Handbook of Optical Biomedical Diagnostics (SPIE Press, Vol. PM107, 2002), Coherent-Domain Optical Methods for Biomedical Diagnostics, Environmental and Material Science, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, USA, vols. 1 & 2, 2004, Optical Clearing of Tissues and Blood (SPIE Press, Vol. PM154, 2005), and Optical Polarization in Biomedical Applications (co-authors L. Wang and D.A. Zimnyakov; Springer, 2006).

Some of the contributors:
Martin Leahy, University of Limerick, Ireland
Attila Tarnok, University of Leipzig, Germany
Andreas O.H. Gerstner, University of Bonn, Germany
Anja Mittag, University of Leipzig, Germany
Megha Makam, Daisy Diaz, Rabindra Tirouvanziam,
Stanford University School of Medicine, USA
Steven Boutrus, Derrick Hwu & Cherry Greiner, Tufts University, MA, USA
Michael Chan & Charlotte Kuperwasser, Tufts-New England Medical Center, MA, USA
Charles P. Lin & Irene Georgakoudi, Harvard Medical School,MA, USA
E.I. Galanzha, Saratov State University, Russia
V.P. Zharov, Arkansas University of Medical Science, USA
A.V. Priezzhev, A.G. Lugovtsov, S.Yu. Nikitin & Yu.I. Gurfinkel, Moscow State University, Russia
Valeri P. Maltsev, Maxim A. Yurkin & Elena Eremina,Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Novosibirsk, Russia
Alfons G. Hoekstra & Thomas Wriedt,University of Amsterdam, The Neverlands
Péter Nagy % György Vereb, Janos Szöllsi, University of Debrecen, Hungary
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