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Hierarchically Structured Porous Materials: From Nanoscience to Catalysis, Separation, Optics, Energy, and Life Science

B.-L. Su (Editor), Clement Sanchez (Editor), Xiao-Yu Yang (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-63959-5
678 pages
April 2012
Hierarchically Structured Porous Materials: From Nanoscience to Catalysis, Separation, Optics, Energy, and Life Science (3527639594) cover image

Description

This first book devoted to this hot field of science covers materials with bimodal, trimodal and multimodal pore size, with an emphasis on the successful design, synthesis and characterization of all kinds of hierarchically porous materials using different synthesis strategies. It details formation mechanisms related to different synthesis strategies while also introducing natural phenomena of hierarchy and perspectives of hierarchical science in polymers, physics, engineering, biology and life science.
Examples are given to illustrate how to design an optimal hierarchically porous material for specific applications ranging from catalysis and separation to biomedicine, photonics, and energy conversion and storage.
With individual chapters written by leading experts, this is the authoritative treatment, serving as an essential reference for researchers and beginners alike.
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Table of Contents

Preface XVII

List of Contributors XXI

Part I Introduction 1

1 Insights into Hierarchically Structured Porous Materials: From Nanoscience to Catalysis, Separation, Optics, Energy, and Life Science 3
Bao-Lian Su, Cl´ement Sanchez, and Xiao-Yu Yang

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Synthesis Strategies to Hierarchically Structured Porous Materials 8

1.3 Emerging Applications of Hierarchically Structural Porous Materials 16

1.4 Conclusions 20

Acknowledgments 20

References 21

2 Hierarchy in Natural Materials 29
Peter Fratzl and Marie Madeleine Giraud Guille

2.1 Natural Materials as a Source of Inspiration in Materials Science 29

2.2 Hierarchies Based on Fiber Architectures 31

2.3 Liquid Crystalline Assemblies, Clues to Mimic Hierarchical Structures 33

2.4 Mineralized Biological Tissues, Models for Hybrid Materials 34

2.5 Concluding Remarks 37

References 37

Part II Synthesis Strategies to Hierarchically Structured Porous Materials 41

3 Hierarchically Structured Porous Materials by Dually Micellar Templating Approach 43
¨Ozlem Sel and Bernd M. Smarsly

3.1 Introduction 43

3.2 Nanocasting – True Liquid Crystalline Templating 43

3.3 Basics of Micellization 46

3.4 Mixed Surfactant Solutions 49

3.5 Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Concentrated Aqueous Surfactant Mixtures – Hierarchical Mesoporous Structures 50

3.6 Conclusions 52

References 52

4 Colloidal Crystal Templating Approaches to Materials with Hierarchical Porosity 55
Nicholas D. Petkovich and Andreas Stein

4.1 Introduction and Historical Overview 55

4.2 The Preparation of 3DOM Materials 61

4.3 3DOM Materials with Intrinsic Secondary Porosity 69

4.4 Hierarchical Materials from Multimodal Colloidal Crystal Templates 77

4.5 Hierarchical Materials from Combinations of Soft and Colloidal Crystal Templating 84

4.6 Hierarchical Opals and Related Structures 103

4.7 Conclusions and Outlook 112

Acknowledgments 113

References 114

5 Templating of Macroporous or Swollen Macrostructured Polymers 131
Maryline Chee Kimling and Rachel A. Caruso

5.1 Introduction 131

5.2 Macroporous Polymer Gels Formed in Amphiphile Solutions 133

5.3 Macroporous Starch or Agarose Gels 136

5.4 Polymer Foams 140

5.5 Polymeric Films and Fibrous Mats 151

5.6 Polymer Spheres 159

5.7 Closing Remarks 166

References 168

6 Bioinspired Approach to Synthesizing Hierarchical Porous Materials 173
Tian-Yi Ma and Zhong-Yong Yuan

6.1 Introduction 173

6.2 Hierarchical Porous Materials from Biotemplates 176

6.3 Hierarchical Porous Materials from the Biomimetic Process 194

6.4 Conclusions and Perspectives 201

References 202

7 Porous Materials by Templating of Small Liquid Drops 209
Haifei Zhang

7.1 Introduction 209

7.2 Emulsion Templating 210

7.3 Breath Figures Templating 223

7.4 Conclusions 236

Acknowledgment 237

References 237

Further Reading 239

8 Hierarchically Porous Materials by Phase Separation: Monoliths 241
Kazuki Nakanishi

8.1 Introduction 241

8.2 Background and Concepts 242

8.3 Examples of Materials with Controlled Macro/Mesopores 248

8.4 Summary 262

Acknowledgments 263

References 263

9 Feature Synthesis of Hierarchically Porous Materials Based on Green Easy-Leaching Concept 269
Ge Tian, Li-Hua Chen, Xiao-Yu Yang, and Bao-Lian Su

9.1 Introduction 269

9.2 Hierarchically Structured Porous Materials Synthesized by Easy-Leaching Air Templates 270

9.3 Hierarchically Structured Porous Materials Synthesized by Easy-Leaching Ice Template 272

9.4 Hierarchically Structured Porous Materials Synthesized by Easy Selective-Leaching Method 283

9.5 Other Easy-Leaching Concepts in the Synthesis of Hierarchically Structured Porous Materials 290

9.6 Summary 296

Acknowledgments 296

References 296

10 Integrative Chemistry Routes toward Advanced Functional Hierarchical Foams 301
Herv´e Deleuze and R´enal Backov

10.1 Introduction 301

10.2 Organic–Inorganic PolyHIPEs Prepared from Water-in-Oil Emulsions 304

10.3 Organic–Inorganic PolyHIPEs Prepared from Direct Emulsions 316

10.4 Particles-Stabilized PolyHIPE 328

10.5 Conclusion and Perspectives 330

References 331

11 Hierarchically Structured Porous Coatings and Membranes 335
Cedric Boissiere, Eric Prouzet, David Grosso, and Cl´ement Sanchez

11.1 Introduction 335

11.2 The Multiple Templating Strategy 336

11.3 Dynamic Templating 340

11.4 Building Block Assemblies for Photonic Band Gap Materials 343

11.5 Ink-Jet Printing and Cooperative Self-Assembly 345

11.6 Foaming Processes 345

11.7 Filtration Membranes 347

11.8 Conclusion 357

References 358

12 Self-Formation Phenomenon to Hierarchically Structured Porous Materials 363
Xiao-Yu Yang, Ge Tian, Li-Hua Chen, and Bao-Lian Su

12.1 Introduction 363

12.2 History of Self-Formation Phenomenon 364

12.3 Features of Self-Formation Phenomenon 367

12.4 Structural Features of Hierarchical Porous Materials Based on the Self-Formation Phenomenon 368

12.5 The Mechanism of Self-Formation Procedure 373

12.6 Controlled Synthesis Based on the Self-Formation Phenomena 384

12.7 Development of Synthesis Methodology 396

12.8 Applications and Hierarchical Catalysis 399

12.9 Summary 402

Acknowledgments 403

References 403

13 Auto-Generated Hierarchical Meso–Macroporous Aluminosilicate Materials with High Tetrahedral Al Content from the Single-Molecular Alkoxy-Precursor (SMAP) Strategy 407
Arnaud Lemaire and Bao-Lian Su

13.1 Introduction 407

13.2 Hierarchically Structured Meso–Macroporous Aluminosilicates 409

13.3 Conclusion 426

Acknowledgment 426

References 427

Further Reading 433

14 Zeolites with Hierarchically Porous Structure: Mesoporous Zeolites 435
Feng-Shou Xiao and Xiangju Meng

14.1 Introduction 435

14.2 Mesoporous Zeolites Formed by Posttreatments 437

14.3 Mesoporous Zeolites Created by Solid Templates 438

14.4 Mesoporous Zeolites Created by Soft Templates 442

14.5 Functionalization of Mesoporous Zeolites 449

14.6 Perspectives in the Synthesis of Ordered Mesoporous Zeolites 452

References 453

15 Micro-Macroporous Structured Zeolite 457
Ya-Hong Zhang, Li-Hua Chen, Yi Tang, Xiao-Yu Yang, and Bao-Lian Su

15.1 Introduction 457

15.2 Hollow Micro-Macroporous Structure 457

15.3 Micro-Macroporous Monoliths 465

15.4 Conclusion and Remarks 471

References 475

Part III Emerging Applications of Hierarchically Structured Porous Materials 481

16 Hierarchically Porous Materials in Catalysis 483
Toshiyuki Yokoi and Takashi Tatsumi

16.1 Introduction 483

16.2 Acid Catalyst 484

16.3 Titanosilicates 500

16.4 Conclusions and Outlook 511

References 511

17 Hierarchically Structured Porous Materials: Application to Separation Sciences 517
Kazuki Nakanishi

17.1 Introduction 517

17.2 Separation Medium for HPLC 517

17.3 Variations in Column Format and Pore Structures 523

17.4 Products 526

17.5 Summary 527

Acknowledgments 528

References 528

18 Colloidal Photonic Crystals: Fabrication and Applications 531
Qingfeng Yan, Jie Yu, Zhongyu Cai, and X. S. Zhao

18.1 Photonic Crystals 531

18.2 Colloidal Self-Assembly Approach to Photonic Crystals 532

18.3 Optical Doping in Colloidal Photonic Crystals 542

18.4 Band-Gap Engineering in Colloidal Photonic Crystals 557

18.5 Photonic Devices Based on Colloidal Photonic Crystals 562

18.6 Outlook 569

Acknowledgments 571

References 571

19 Hierarchically Structured Porous Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage 577
Bao-Lian Su

19.1 Introduction 577

19.2 Hierarchically Structured Porous Materials for Energy Conversion 579

19.3 Hierarchically Structured Porous Materials for Energy Storage 591

19.4 Conclusion and Outlook 597

References 597

20 Hierarchically Structured Porous Materials–Applications in Biochemistry: Bioceramics, Life Science, and Drug Delivery 601
Mar´ıa Vallet-Reg´ı and Miguel Manzano

20.1 Introduction 601

20.2 Bioceramics 601

20.3 Life Science 603

20.4 Drug Delivery 610

20.5 Three-Dimensional Scaffolds 616

References 616

21 On the Optimal Mechanical Properties of Hierarchical Biomaterials 621
H. X. Zhu, T. X. Fan, and D. Zhang

21.1 Introduction 621

21.2 Mechanics of Materials of First-Level Hierarchy 622

21.3 Mechanics of Materials of the Higher Level Hierarchy 628

21.4 Results and Discussion 629

References 630

Part IV Conclusion 633

22 Concluding Remarks 635
Bao-Lian Su, Cl´ement Sanchez, and Xiao-Yu Yang

22.1 Looking Back 635

22.2 Looking Forward 636

Index 639

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Author Information

Bao-Lian Su is Director of the Research Centre for Nanomaterials Chemistry and of the Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Chemistry at the University of Namur; Vice-Director of State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing at the Wuhan University of Technology.

Clement Sanchez obtained his PhD degree from Paris University in 1981 and currently holds a post as Professor of Chemistry of Hybrid Materials at the College de France. He is also the Director of the Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de
Paris at the University P. M. Curie.

Xiao-Yu Yang is a Research Fellow of the FNRS (National Foundation of Scientific Research) at the University of Namur (FUNDP) and Secretary-General of International Materials Forum (IMF) and assistant Director of the Laboratory of Living
Materials at the Wuhan University of technology.
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