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Neutrinos in High Energy and Astroparticle Physics

ISBN: 978-3-527-67101-4
448 pages
February 2015
Neutrinos in High Energy and Astroparticle Physics (3527671013) cover image

Description

This self-contained modern textbook provides a modern description of the Standard Model and its main extensions from the perspective of neutrino physics. In particular it includes a thorough discussion of the varieties of seesaw mechanism, with or without supersymmetry. It also discusses schemes where neutrino mass arises from lighter messengers, which might lie within reach of the world's largest particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider.

Throughout the text, the book stresses the role of neutrinos due to the fact that neutrino properties may serve as a guide to the correct model of unification, hence for a deeper understanding of high energy physics, and because neutrinos play an important role in astroparticle physics and cosmology. Each chapter includes summaries and set of problems, as well as further reading.

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Table of Contents

Foreword XIX

Preface XXI

1 Historical Introduction 1

2 The Standard Model 9

2.1 Introduction 9

2.2 Standard Electroweak Model 9

2.3 Spontaneous Symmetry-Breaking: Mass Generation 13

2.4 Quantization in the Standard Model 17

2.5 Renormalization in the Standard Model 19

2.6 Anomalies 21

2.7 Quantum Chromodynamics 24

2.8 Higgs Boson and Unitarity in the Standard Model 25

2.9 Theory Considerations on the Higgs Boson Mass 27

2.10 Experimental Tests of the Standard Model 30

2.11 Open Issues in the Standard Model 32

2.12 Summary 38

2.13 Problems for Chapter 2 39

3 Neutrino Masses and Mixing 41

3.1 Two-Component Formalism 41

3.2 Quantization of Majorana and Dirac Fermions 43

3.3 The Lepton Mixing Matrix 45

3.4 The Neutrino Neutral Current in Seesaw-Type Schemes 50

3.5 CP Properties of Majorana Fermions 50

3.6 Summary 54

3.7 Problems for Chapter 3 54

4 Neutrino Oscillations 57

4.1 Preliminaries 57

4.2 Neutrino Oscillations Formalism In Vacuo 57

4.3 Matter Effects in Neutrino Oscillations 62

4.4 Neutrino Oscillation Data 65

4.5 Global Neutrino Oscillation Analysis 76

4.6 Global Fit Results for Neutrino Oscillation Parameters 77

4.7 Summary and Outlook 80

4.8 Problems for Chapter 4 83

5 Robustness of Oscillations: The Case of Solar Neutrinos 87

5.1 Theoretical Preliminaries: Beyond the Standard Model 88

5.2 Beyond the Standard Solar Model 91

5.3 Oscillations with Spin-Flavour Precession 94

5.4 Constraining Neutrino Magnetic Moments 97

5.5 Summary 100

5.6 Problems for Chapter 5 100

6 Absolute Neutrino Masses 103

6.1 Preliminaries 103

6.2 Beta-Decay and Direct Searches for Neutrino Mass 103

6.3 Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay 110

6.4 Light-Neutrino Exchange 0νββ Mechanism 112

6.5 Experimental Prospects in the Search for 0νββ 115

6.6 Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay in Flavour Models 115

6.7 Short-Range Contributions to 0νββ Decay and the Weak Interaction Scale 117

6.8 Black Box and the Significance of 0νββ 120

6.9 Summary 121

6.10 Problems for Chapter 6 121

7 Neutrino Masses in SU(3)c⊗SU(2)L⊗U(1)Υ Theories 123

7.1 Preliminaries: The Origin of Neutrino Mass 123

7.2 Effective Seesaw Mechanism: Explicit Lepton Number Violation 125

7.3 Seesaw Dynamics in SU(3)c⊗SU(2)L⊗U(1)Y and the Majoron 127

7.4 Summary 134

7.5 Problems for Chapter 7 134

8 Higgs Boson Physics and Neutrinos 135

8.1 Higgs Production in the Standard Model 135

8.2 Higgs Decays in the Standard Model 142

8.3 Higgs Physics in Models with Low-Scale Lepton Number Violation 147

8.4 Summary 150

8.5 Problems for Chapter 8 151

9 Supersymmetry 153

9.1 Introduction and Motivation 153

9.2 Supersymmetry Algebra and Representations 155

9.3 How to Build a Supersymmetric Model 158

9.4 The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model 162

9.5 Mass Matrices in the MSSM 168

9.6 Couplings in the MSSM 176

9.7 Coupling Constant Unification 179

9.8 Experimental Constraints on the MSSM 180

9.9 Summary 180

9.10 Problems for Chapter 9 182

10 Spontaneous R-Parity Violation 183

10.1 Introduction 183

10.2 A Viable Spontaneous R-Parity-Breaking Model 184

10.3 Symmetry-Breaking 186

10.4 Main Features of the Model 189

10.5 Implications for the Electroweak Breaking Sector 192

10.6 Summary 197

10.7 Problems for Chapter 10 198

11 Bilinear R-Parity Violation 199

11.1 The Model 199

11.2 The Scalar Potential 200

11.3 Mass Matrices in the BRpVModel 201

11.4 Couplings in the BRpV Model 203

11.5 Neutrino Masses and Mixings in the BRpV Model 205

11.6 Neutrino Properties and BRpV Parameters 208

11.7 Approximate Formulae for the Neutrino Masses and Mixings 211

11.8 Summary 219

11.9 Problems for Chapter 11 219

12 Phenomenology of Bilinear R-Parity Violation 221

12.1 LSP Production 221

12.2 LSP Decays 223

12.3 Probing Neutrino Mixing via Neutralino Decays 226

12.4 Other LSP Scenarios 230

12.5 Summary 234

12.6 Problems for Chapter 12 234

13 Neutrino Masses and Left–Right Symmetry 237

13.1 Preliminaries: SU(3)c⊗SU(2)L⊗SU(2)R⊗U(1) Symmetry 237

13.2 'Standard' SU(3)c⊗SU(2)L⊗SU(2)R⊗U(1) Symmetric Seesaw 239

13.3 Low-Scale SU(3)c⊗SU(2)L⊗SU(2)R⊗U(1) Seesaw Mechanisms 241

13.4 Experimental Constraints 242

13.5 Direct Searches for the Messengers of Neutrino Mass 243

13.6 Summary 246

13.7 Problems for Chapter 13 247

14 Neutrino Masses and Unification 249

14.1 Preliminaries: Unification in SU(5) 249

14.2 Neutrinos in SU(5) 252

14.3 Neutrinos in SO(10) 254

14.4 Low-Scales in SO(10)Models: Intermediate Gauge Symmetries 256

14.5 Neutrino Seesaw in Low-Scale SO(10) model 259

14.6 Non Supersymmetric Low-Scale Models 263

14.7 Summary 263

14.8 Problems for Chapter 14 264

15 Lepton Flavour Violation 265

15.1 Charged Lepton Flavour Violation 265

15.2 Models for Charged Lepton Flavour Violation 269

15.3 Summary and Prospects 281

15.4 Problems for Chapter 15 281

16 The Flavour Problem and the Quest for Family Symmetry 283

16.1 Preliminaries 283

16.2 Reference Neutrino Mixing Patterns 285

16.3 Prototype Flavour Model with Tetrahedral Symmetry 289

16.4 Revamped A4 Flavour Model: Generating θ13 293

16.5 Fermion Masses in a Realistic A4-Based Standard Model 296

16.6 Quarks, Non-Abelian Discrete Flavour Symmetries and Unification 302

16.7 Summary and Prospects 303

16.8 Problems for Chapter 16 304

17 Cosmological Implications of Neutrino Masses 307

17.1 The very Beginning: Inflation and Primordial Density Perturbations 307

17.2 The Cosmic Microwave Background 309

17.3 Neutrino Cosmology for Pedestrians 310

17.4 Dark Matter in the Universe 315

17.5 Dark Matter Detection 320

17.6 Neutrino Mass Generation and Dark Matter Candidates 323

17.7 Summary 339

17.8 Problems for Chapter 17 340

A Notation and Conventions 341

A.1 Special Relativity and Dirac Matrices 341

A.2 Two-Component Spinor Notation 342

A.3 Relating Two-Component and Four-Component Spinors 344

B Feynman Rules for Majorana Fermions 347

B.1 Feynman Rules 347

B.1.1 External Fermions 348

B.2 A Simple Example 352

C Feynman Rules for the Standard Model 355

C.1 Introduction 355

C.2 The Complete Standard Model Lagrangian 355

C.3 The Feynman Rules for QCD 358

C.4 The Feynman Rules for the Electroweak Theory 359

D Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model Couplings 373

D.1 Charged Current Couplings 373

D.2 Neutral Current Couplings 374

D.3 Scalar Couplings to Fermions 374

E The Prototype Flavour Group: A4 377

F Mass Matrices and Couplings in the BRpVModel 381

F.1 Mass Matrices 381

F.2 Couplings 386

G Feynman Diagrams for Dark Matter Annihilation 391

References 393

Acknowledgments for the Figures 419

Index 421

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Author Information

Prof. J. W. F. Valle is the head of the AHEP group at the Institut de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC/CSIC) at the University of Valencia, Spain. Having obtained is PhD degree at Syracuse University, USA, he spent time in Oxford, and Barcelona before joining IFIC at the University of Valencia. For over 30 years Professor José Valle has been active in neutrino physics & physics beyond the Standard Model of elementary particle interactions. He has authored almost 300 scientific publications, and has received several scientific awards, including the Humboldt Research Award.

Prof. Jorge C. Romao is full Professor at the Physics Department of Instituto Superior Tecnico, the faculty of Engineering of the Lisbon Technical University, Portugal. Having obtained is PhD at the University of Chicago, USA, he spent time at the University of Geneva, Switzerland, before joining Instituto Superior Tecnico in Lisbon. At Instituto Superior Tecnico he has had many administrative duties, including chairman of the Department. Professor Jorge Romao has authored over 100 scientific publications with a significant impact in the field.

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Reviews

“As such, Neutrinos in High Energy and Astroparticle Physics does an excellent job and belongs on the bookshelf of every graduate student and researcher who is seriously interested in this interdisciplinary and increasingly important topic.”  (CERN Courier, 9 April 2015)

 

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