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Hydrogen Science and Engineering: Materials, Processes, Systems and Technology, 2 Volume Set

Detlef Stolten (Editor), Bernd Emonts (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-67428-2
1220 pages
March 2016
Hydrogen Science and Engineering: Materials, Processes, Systems and Technology, 2 Volume Set (3527674284) cover image

Description

Authored by 50 top academic, government and industry researchers, this handbook explores mature, evolving technologies for a clean, economically viable alternative to non-renewable energy. In so doing, it also discusses such broader topics as the environmental impact, education, safety and regulatory developments.

The text is all-encompassing, covering a wide range that includes hydrogen as an energy carrier, hydrogen for storage of renewable energy, and incorporating hydrogen technologies into existing technologies.

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xxxi

Volume 1

Part 1 Sol–Gel Chemistry and Methods 1

1 Hydrogen in Refineries 3
James G. Speight

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Hydroprocesses 4

1.3 Refining Heavy Feedstocks 11

1.4 Hydrogen Production 12

1.5 Hydrogen Management 14

2 Hydrogen in the Chemical Industry 19
Florian Ausfelder and Alexis Bazzanella

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Sources of Hydrogen in the Chemical Industry 22

2.3 Utilization of Hydrogen in the Chemical Industry 32

3 Chlorine–Alkaline Electrolysis – Technology and Use and Economy 41
Alessandro Delfrate

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 Production Technologies 42

3.3 Use of Chlorine and Sodium Hydroxide 52

Part 2 Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier 57

Part 2.1 Introduction and National Strategies 57

4 Hydrogen Research, Development, Demonstration, and Market Deployment Activities 59
Jochen Linssen and Jürgen-Friedrich Hake

4.1 Introduction 59

4.2 Germany 60

4.3 Norway 65

4.4 European Union 68

4.5 Canada 70

4.6 United States of America 76

4.7 Japan 78

4.8 International Networks 80

Part 2.2 Thermochemical Hydrogen Production 85

5 Thermochemical Hydrogen Production – Solar Thermal Water Decomposition 87
Christian Sattler, Nathalie Monnerie, Martin Roeb, and Matthias Lange

5.1 Introduction 87

5.2 Historical Development 88

5.3 Present State of Work 89

5.4 Conclusion and Outlook 102

6 Supercritical Water Gasification for Biomass-Based Hydrogen Production 109
Andrea Kruse

6.1 Introduction 109

6.2 Model Compounds 113

6.3 Biomass 116

6.4 Catalysts 119

6.5 Challenges 119

6.6 Scale-Up and Technical Application 122

6.7 New Developments 122

6.8 Conclusion 123

7 Thermochemical Hydrogen Production – Plasma-Based Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbons 131
Abdullah Aitani, Shakeel Ahmed, and Fahad Al-Muhaish

7.1 Introduction 131

7.2 Non-thermal Plasma 132

7.3 Thermal Plasma 144

7.4 Concluding Remarks 146

8 Solar Thermal Reforming 151
Christos Agrafiotis, Henrik von Storch, Martin Roeb, and Christian Sattler

8.1 Introduction 151

8.2 Hydrogen Production via Methane Reforming 152

8.3 Solar-Aided Methane Reforming 154

8.4 Current Development Status and Future Prospects 167

9 Fuel Processing for Utilization in Fuel Cells 173
Ralf Peters

9.1 Introduction 173

9.2 Scope of the Work and Methodical Approach 174

9.3 Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics 175

9.4 Unit Operations 180

9.5 Subsystems of Fuel Processing 192

9.6 Conclusion 208

10 Small-Scale Reforming for On-Site Hydrogen Supply 217
Ingrid Schjølberg, Christian Hulteberg, and Dick Lieftink

10.1 Introduction 217

10.2 Definition 218

10.3 Reforming Technologies 219

10.4 Feedstock Options 223

10.5 Suppliers and Products 225

10.6 Emerging Technologies 228

10.7 Process Control 232

10.8 Safety 234

10.9 Conclusion 235

11 Industrial Hydrogen Production from Hydrocarbon Fuels and Biomass 237
Andreas Jess and Peter Wasserscheid

11.1 Options to Produce Hydrogen from Fuels–An Overview 237

11.2 Hydrogen Production from Solid Fuels (Coal, Biomass) 242

11.3 Syngas by Partial Oxidation of Heavy Oils 244

11.4 Syngas by Steam Reforming of Natural Gas 246

11.5 Conclusions 249

Part 2.3 H2 from Electricity 253

12 Electrolysis Systems for Grid Relieving 255
Filip Smeets and Jan Vaes

12.1 Introduction 255

12.2 Energy Policies around the Globe Drive Demand for Energy Storage 256

12.3 The Options for Integration of Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources 261

12.4 The Evolution of the Demand for Energy Storage 268

12.5 The Role of Electrolyzers in the Energy Transition 270

12.6 The Overall Business Case and Outlook 274

12.7 Conclusions 278

13 Status and Prospects of Alkaline Electrolysis 283
Dongke Zhang and Kai Zeng

13.1 Introduction 283

13.2 Thermodynamic Consideration 285

13.3 Electrode Kinetics 287

13.4 Electrical and Transport Resistances 292

13.5 Research Trends 297

13.6 Summary 303

14 Dynamic Operation of Electrolyzers – Systems Design and Operating Strategies 309
Geert Tjarks, Jürgen Mergel, and Detlef Stolten

14.1 Introduction 309

14.2 Process Steps and System Components 310

14.3 Dynamic Operation of Electrolyzers 317

14.4 System Design Criterion 322

14.5 Conclusion 327

15 Stack Technology for PEM Electrolysis 331
Jürgen Mergel, David L. Fritz, and Marcelo Carmo

15.1 Introduction to Electrolysis 331

15.2 General Principles of PEM Electrolysis 335

15.3 Summary 355

16 Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology for Hydrogen/Syngas and Power Production 359
Nguyen Q. Minh

16.1 Introduction 359

16.2 Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Overview 359

16.3 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology 366

16.4 Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell Technology 372

16.5 Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology 379

16.6 Summary 383

Part 2.4 H2 from Biomass 391

17 Assessment of Selected Concepts for Hydrogen Production Based on Biomass 393
Franziska Müller-Langer, Konstantin Zech, Stefan Rönsch, Katja Oehmichen, Julia Michaelis, Simon Funke, and Elias Grasemann

17.1 Introduction 393

17.2 Characteristics of Selected Hydrogen Concepts 394

17.3 Concept Assessment of Technical Aspects 401

17.4 Concept Assessment of Environmental Aspects 402

17.5 Concept Assessment of Economic Aspects 406

17.6 Summary 411

18 Hydrogen from Biomass – Production Process via Fermentation 417
Balachandar G., Shantonu Roy, and Debabrata Das

18.1 Introduction 417

18.2 Hydrogen Production from Biomass as Feedstock 422

18.3 Reactor Configurations and Scale-Up Challenges 427

18.4 Economics and Barriers 430

18.5 Future Prospects 431

18.6 Conclusion 431

Part 2.5 Hydrogen from Solar Radiation and Algae 439

19 Photoelectrochemical Water Decomposition 441
Sebastian Fiechter

19.1 Introduction 441

19.2 Principles of Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting 442

19.3 Design of Water Splitting Devices 448

19.4 Nano- and Microstructured Photoelectrodes 455

19.5 Economic Aspects 457

19.6 Concluding Remarks 457

20 Current Insights to Enhance Hydrogen Production by Photosynthetic Organisms 461
Roshan Sharma Poudyal, Indira Tiwari, Mohammad Mahdi Najafpour, Dmitry A. Los, Robert Carpentier, Jian-Ren Shen, and Suleyman I. Allakhverdiev

20.1 Introduction 461

20.2 Biological H2 Production 463

20.3 Physiology and Biochemistry of Algae and Cyanobacteria for H2 Production 465

20.4 Hydrogenase and Nitrogenase for H2 Production 466

20.5 Photosystems and H2 Production 469

20.6 Factors Affecting Hydrogen Production 470

20.7 Designing the Photosynthetic H2 Production 471

20.8 Leaf and Solar H2 Production 472

20.9 Biofuel and Hydrogen Production by Other Organisms 473

20.10 Available Methods to Enhance Photosynthetic Hydrogen Production 474

20.11 Application of Biohydrogen 477

20.12 Conclusion and Future Prospectus 477

Part 2.6 Gas Clean-up Technologies 489

21 PSA Technology for H2 Separation 491
Carlos A. Grande

21.1 Introduction 491

21.2 Basics of PSA Technology 492

21.3 Selective Adsorbents; Commercial and New Materials 499

21.4 Improving the PSA Cycle 501

21.5 Summary 503

22 Hydrogen Separation with Polymeric Membranes 509
Torsten Brinkmann and Sergey Shishatskiy

22.1 History 509

22.2 Basics of Membrane Gas Separation 510

22.3 Hydrogen Separation and Fractionation by Gas Permeation 516

22.4 Membrane Materials and Modules 519

22.5 Process Examples 531

22.6 Conclusions 535

23 Gas Clean-up for Fuel Cell Systems – Requirements & Technologies 543
Matthias Gaderer, Stephan Herrmann, and Sebastian Fendt

23.1 Introduction 543

23.2 Background 543

23.3 Fuel and Pollutants 545

23.4 Pollutant Level Requirements 550

23.5 Technologies to Remove Pollutants 551

Volume 2

Part 3 Hydrogen for Storage of Renewable Energy 563

24 Physics of Hydrogen 565
Carsten Korte, Tabea Mandt, and Timm Bergholz

24.1 Introduction 565

24.2 Molecular Hydrogen 565

24.3 Hydrides 588

24.3.3 Clathrates 597

25 Thermodynamics of Pressurized Gas Storage 601
Vanessa Tietze and Detlef Stolten

25.1 Introduction 601

25.2 Calculation of Thermodynamic State Variables 602

25.3 Comparison of Thermodynamic Properties 606

25.4 Thermodynamic Analysis of Compression and Expansion Processes 610

25.5 Thermodynamic Modeling of the Storage Process 617

25.6 Application Examples 620

25.7 Conclusion 624

26 Geologic Storage of Hydrogen – Fundamentals, Processing, and Projects 629
Axel Liebscher, Jürgen Wackerl, and Martin Streibel

26.1 Introduction 629

26.2 Fundamental Aspects of Geological Hydrogen Storage 631

26.3 Process Engineering 642

26.4 Experiences from Storage Projects 649

26.5 Concluding Remarks 654

27 Bulk Storage Vessels for Compressed and Liquid Hydrogen 659
Vanessa Tietze, Sebastian Luhr, and Detlef Stolten

27.1 Introduction 659

27.2 Stationary Application Areas and Requirements 660

27.3 Storage Parameters 661

27.4 Compressed Hydrogen Storage 662

27.5 Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen Storage 670

27.6 Cost Estimates and Economic Targets 675

27.7 Technical Assessment 678

27.8 Conclusion 683

28 Hydrogen Storage in Vehicles 691
Jens Franzen, Steffen Maus, and Peter Potzel

28.1 Introduction: Requirements for Hydrogen Storage in Vehicles 691

28.2 Advantages of Pressurized Storage over Other Storage Methods 693

28.3 Design of a Tank System 695

28.4 Specific Requirements for Compressed Gas Systems for Vehicles 699

28.5 Special Forms of Compressed Gas Storage 704

28.6 Conclusion 707

29 Cryo-compressed Hydrogen Storage 711
Tobias Brunner and Oliver Kircher

29.1 Motivation for Cryo-compressed Hydrogen Vehicle Storage 711

29.2 Thermodynamic Opportunities 714

29.3 Refueling and Infrastructure Perspectives 717

29.4 Design and Operating Principles 719

29.5 Validation Challenges of Cryo-compressed Hydrogen Vehicle Storage 725

29.6 Summary 731

30 Hydrogen Liquefaction 733
Alexander Alekseev

30.1 Introduction 733

30.2 History of Hydrogen Liquefaction 734

30.3 Hydrogen Properties at Low Temperature 735

30.4 Principles of Hydrogen Liquefaction 739

30.5 Key Hardware Components 751

30.5.2 Expansion Turbine (or Expander or Turbine) 755

30.6 Outlook 760

31 Hydrogen Storage by Reversible Metal Hydride Formation 763
Ping Chen, Etsuo Akiba, Shin-ichi Orimo, Andreas Zuettel, and Louis Schlapbach

31.1 Introduction 763

31.2 Summary of Energy Relevant Properties of Hydrogen and its Isotopes 764

31.3 Hydrogen Interaction with Metals, Alloys and Other Inorganic Solids 764

31.4 Hydrogen Storage in Intermetallic Compounds 767

31.5 Hydrogen Storage in Complex Hydrides 773

31.6 Physisorption and High Open-Porosity Structures for Molecular Hydrogen Storage 781

31.7 Other Energy Relevant Applications of Hydrogen Interacting Materials 784

31.8 Conclusions and Outlook 785

32 Implementing Hydrogen Storage Based on Metal Hydrides 791
R.K. Ahluwalia, J.-K. Peng, and T.Q. Hua

32.1 Introduction 791

32.2 Material Requirements 792

32.3 Reverse Engineering: A Case Study 800

32.4 Summary and Conclusions 807

33 Transport and Storage of Hydrogen via Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) Systems 811
Daniel Teichmann, Wolfgang Arlt, Eberhard Schlücker, and Peter Wasserscheid

33.1 Hydrogen Storage and Transport for Managing Unsteady Renewable Energy Production 811

33.2 Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) Systems 814

33.3 Development of LOHC-Based Energy Storage Systems 819

33.4 Applications of LOHC-Based Energy Storage Systems 822

33.5 Conclusions 828

Part 4 Traded Hydrogen 831

34 Economics of Hydrogen for Transportation 833
Akiteru Maruta

34.1 Introduction 833

34.2 Hydrogen Transportation System 833

34.3 Economics of Hydrogen for Transportation 836

34.4 Conclusion 845

35 Challenges and Opportunities of Hydrogen Delivery via Pipeline, Tube-Trailer, LIQUID Tanker and Methanation-Natural Gas Grid 849
Krishna Reddi, Marianne Mintz, Amgad Elgowainy, and Erika Sutherland

35.1 Introduction 849

35.2 Variation in Demand for Hydrogen 850

35.3 Refueling Station Components and Layout 852

35.4 Distributed Production of Hydrogen 856

35.5 Central or Semi-central Production of Hydrogen 857

35.6 Power-to-Gas Mass Energy Solution (Methanation) 866

35.7 Outlook and Summary 870

36 Pipelines for Hydrogen Distribution 875
Sabine Sievers and Dennis Krieg

36.1 Introduction 875

36.2 Overview 875

36.3 Brief Summary of Pipeline Construction 879

36.4 Operation of an H2 Pipeline 886

36.5 Decommissioning/Dismantling/Reclassification 888

36.6 Conclusion 888

37 Refueling Station Layout 891
Patrick Schnell

37.1 Introduction 891

37.2 Basic Requirements for a Hydrogen Refueling Station 892

37.3 Technical Concepts for Hydrogen Filling Stations 895

37.4 Challenges 907

37.5 Conclusion 913

Part 5 Handling of Hydrogen 917

38 Regulations and Codes and Standards for the Approval of Hydrogen Refueling Stations 919
Reinhold Wurster

38.1 Introduction 919

38.2 European Union and Germany 924

39 Safe Handling of Hydrogen 933
William Hoagland

39.1 Introduction 933

39.2 Hydrogen Safety and the Elements of Risk 934

39.3 The Unique, Safety-Related Properties of Hydrogen 937

39.4 General Considerations for the Safe Handling of Hydrogen 938

39.5 Regulations, Codes, and Standards 940

39.6 International Collaborations to Prioritize Hydrogen Safety Research 942

39.7 Current Directions in Hydrogen Safety Research [6] 943

39.8 Summary 947

Part 6 Existing and Emerging Systems 949

40 Hydrogen in Space Applications 951
Jérôme Lacapere

40.1 Liquid Hydrogen for Access to Space 951

40.2 To Go Beyond GTO 954

40.3 Relevant Tests in Low Gravity Environment 958

40.4 In-Space Propulsion 960

40.5 Conclusion 961

41 Transportation/Propulsion/Demonstration/Buses: The Design of the Fuel Cell Powertrain for Urban Transportation Applications (Daimler) 965
Wolfram Fleck

41.1 Introduction 965

41.2 Operational Environment 966

41.3 Requirements 967

41.4 Design Solutions 973

41.5 Test and Field Experience 982

41.6 Future Outlook 986

42 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Submarines 991
Stefan Krummrich and Albert Hammerschmidt

42.1 Background 991

42.2 The HDW Fuel Cell AIP System 992

42.3 PEM Fuel Cells for Submarines 993

42.4 Hydrogen Storage 1002

42.5 The Usage of Pure Oxygen 1004

42.6 System Technology – Differences Between HDW Class 212A and Class 214 Submarines 1005

42.7 Safety Concept 1006

42.8 Developments for the Future – Methanol Reformer for Submarines 1006

42.9 Conclusion 1009

43 Gas Turbines and Hydrogen 1011
Peter Griebel

43.1 Introduction 1011

43.2 Combustion Fundamentals of Hydrogen relevant for Gas Turbines 1012

43.3 State-of-the-art Gas Turbine Technology for Hydrogen 1019

43.4 Research and Development Status, New Combustion Technologies 1022

43.5 Concluding Remarks 1028

44 Hydrogen Hybrid Power Plant in Prenzlau, Brandenburg 1033
Ulrich R. Fischer, Hans-Joachim Krautz, Michael Wenske, Daniel Tannert, Perco Krüger, and Christian Ziems

44.1 Introduction 1033

44.2 Description of the Concept of the Hybrid Power Plant at Prenzlau 1035

44.3 Operating Modes of the Hybrid Power Plant 1042

44.4 Operational Management and Experiences 1045

44.5 Outlook 1050

45 Wind Energy and Hydrogen Integration Projects in Spain 1053
Luis Correas, Jesús Simón, and Milagros Rey

45.1 Introduction 1053

45.2 The Role of Hydrogen in Wind Electricity Generation 1055

45.3 Description of Wind–Hydrogen Projects 1059

45.4 Operation Strategies Tested in the Sotavento Project 1066

45.5 Conclusions 1071

46 Hydrogen Islands – Utilization of Renewable Energy for an Autonomous Power Supply 1075
Frano Barbir

46.1 Introduction 1075

46.2 Existing Hydrogen Projects on Islands 1077

46.3 System Design/Configuration 1082

46.4 Key Technologies 1083

46.5 System Issues 1087

46.6 Sizing 1088

46.7 Energy Management 1090

46.8 Other Uses/System Configurations 1092

46.9 Conclusions 1093

References 1094

Index 1097

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Author Information

Detlef Stolten is the Director of the Institute of Energy Research at the Forschungszentrum Jülich. Prof. Stolten received his doctorate from the University of Technology at Clausthal, Germany. He served many years as a Research Scientist in the laboratories of Robert Bosch and Daimler Benz/Dornier. In 1998 he accepted the position of Director of the Institute of Materials and Process Technology at the Research Center Jülich, Germany. Two years later he became Professor for Fuel Cell Technology at the University of Technology (RWTH) at Aachen. Prof. Stolten's research focuses on fuel cells, implementing results from research in innovative products, procedures and processes in collaboration with industry, contributing towards bridging the gap between science and technology. His research activities are focused on energy process engineering of SOFC and PEFC systems, i.e. electrochemistry, stack tech-nology, process and systems engineering as well as systems analysis. Prof. Stolten represents Germany in the Executive Committee of the IEA Annex Advanced Fuel Cells and is on the advisory board of the journal Fuel Cells.

Dr. Bernd Emonts is the Deputy Director of the Institute of Energy Research at the Jülich Research Center, Germany. He received his diploma in structural engineering from the Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Germany, in 1981. He went on to specialize in the fundamentals of mechanical engineering at RWTH Aachen University, Germany and was awarded his PhD in 1989. Working as a scientist, Dr. Emonts has been involved in extensive research and development projects in the areas of catalytic combustion and energy systems with low-temperature fuel cells. Between 1991 and 1994, he concurrently worked as an R & D advisor for a German industrial enterprise in the drying and coating technologies sector. In addition to his scientific activities at Jülich Research Center, Germany, Dr. Emonts lectured at Aachen University of Applied Sciences from 1999 to 2008. Dr. Emonts has published extensively in the field of Hydrogen Sciences and Fuel Cells.

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