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Micro- and Nanophotonic Technologies

ISBN: 978-3-527-69995-7
571 pages
March 2017
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Edited and authored by leading experts from top institutions in Europe, the US and Asia, this comprehensive overview of micro- and nanophotonics covers the physical and chemical fundamentals, while clearly focusing on the technologies and applications in industrial R&D.
As such, the book reports on the four main areas of telecommunications and display technologies; light conversion and energy generation; light-based fabrication of materials; and micro- and nanophotonic devices in metrology and control.
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Table of Contents

Foreword XXIII

Preface XXV

An Overview of Micro- and Nanophotonic Science and Technology XXVII

Part One From Research to Application 1

1 Nanophotonics: From Fundamental Research to Applications 3
François Flory, Ludovic Escoubas, Judikael Le Rouzo, and Gérard Berginc

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Application of Photonic Crystals to Solar Cells 5

1.3 Antireflecting Periodic Structures 8

1.4 Black Silicon 10

1.5 Metamaterials for Wide-Band Filtering 14

1.6 Rough Surfaces with Controlled Statistics 16

1.7 Enhancement of Absorption in Organic Solar Cells with Plasmonic Nano Particles 19

1.8 Quantum Dot Solar Cells 20

1.9 Conclusions 24

Acknowledgments 24

References 24

2 Photonic Crystal and Plasmonic Microcavities 29
Kazuaki Sakoda

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 Photonic Crystal Microcavity 32

2.3 Purcell Effect 38

2.3.1 Purcell Factor 38

2.3.2 GaAs Quantum Dots in PC Microcavity 39

2.4 Plasmonic Microcavity 41

2.4.1 Enhanced MD Radiation 42

2.4.2 Enhanced ED Radiation 46

2.4.3 Multimode Cavity 47

References 50

3 Unconventional Thermal Emission from Photonic Crystals 51
Hideki T. Miyazaki

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 3D Photonic Crystals 52

3.3 2D Photonic Crystals 57

3.4 1D Photonic Crystals 60

3.5 Summary 61

References 61

4 Extremely Small Bending Loss of Organic Polaritonic Fibers 65
Ken Takazawa, Hiroyuki Takeda, and Kazuaki Sakoda

4.1 Introduction 65

4.2 Exciton–Polariton Waveguiding in TC Nanofibers 66

4.2.1 Synthesis and Characterization of TC Nanofibers 66

4.2.2 Mechanism of Active Waveguiding in TC Nanofibers 67

4.3 Miniaturized Photonic Circuit Components Constructed from TC Nanofibers 69

4.3.1 Asymmetric Mach–Zehnder Interferometers 69

4.3.2 Microring Resonators 71

4.3.3 Microring Resonator Channel Drop Filters 74

4.4 Theoretical Analysis 76

4.4.1 Dispersion Relation 76

4.4.2 Bending Loss 78

References 80

5 Plasmon Color Filters and Phase Controllers 81
Yoshimasa Sugimoto, Daisuke Inoue, and Takayuki Matsui

5.1 Introduction 81

5.2 Optical Filter Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance 82

5.2.1 Light Transmission through Hole and Slit Arrays 83

5.2.1.1 Hole Arrays 83

5.2.1.2 Nanoslit Arrays 85

5.2.2 Fabrication and Measurement 87

5.2.3 Transmission Characteristics 89

5.2.3.1 Hole Arrays 89

5.2.3.2 Nanoslit Arrays 91

5.3 Transmission Phase Control by Stacked Metal-Dielectric Hole Array 92

5.3.1 Verification of Transmission Phase Control by a Uniform SHA 93

5.3.2 Numerical Study of Transition SHA for Inclined Wavefront Formation 95

5.3.3 Experimental Confirmation of Uniform SHA 95

5.3.4 Experimental Confirmation of Transition SHA 97

5.4 Summary 99

References 100

6 Entangled Photon Pair Generation in Naturally Symmetric Quantum Dots Grown by Droplet Epitaxy 103
Takashi Kuroda

6.1 Introduction 103

6.2 Quantum Dot Photon-pair Source 105

6.3 Natural Growth of Symmetric Quantum Dots 108

6.4 Droplet Epitaxy of GaAs Quantum Dots on AlGaAs(1 1 1)A 109

6.5 Characterization of Entanglement 112

6.6 Violation of Bell’s Inequality 115

6.7 Quantum-state Tomography and Other Entanglement Measures 118

References 121

7 Single-Photon Generation from Nitrogen Isoelectronic Traps in III–V Semiconductors 125
Yoshiki Sakuma, Michio Ikezawa, and Liao Zhang

7.1 Introduction 125

7.2 What is Isoelectronic Trap? 126

7.3 GaP:N Case 127

7.3.1 Macro-PL from Bulk GaP:N 127

7.3.2 μ-PL of NN Pairs in δ-Doped GaP:N 127

7.3.3 Single-Photon Emission from δ-Doped GaP:N 130

7.4 GaAs:N Case 131

7.4.1 Overview of Isoelectronic Traps in GaAs 131

7.4.2 NX Centers in δ-Doped GaAs:N 132

7.4.2.1 Growth Conditions and Macro-PL 132

7.4.2.2 μ-PL of NX Centers and Single-Photon Emission 132

7.4.3 Energy-Defined N-Related Centers in δ-Doped GaAs:N 134

7.4.3.1 Growth Conditions and Macro-PL 134

7.4.3.2 μ-PL of NNA and Single-Photon Emission 135

7.5 Summary 138

References 138

8 Parity–Time Symmetry in Free Space Optics 143
Bernard Kress, PhD and Mykola Kulishov, PhD

8.1 Parity–Time Symmetry in Diffractive Optics 143

8.1.1 Spectral, Angular, and Polarization Selectivity 143

8.1.2 Time Multiplexing: Dynamic Gratings and Holograms 144

8.1.3 From Conventional Amplitude/Phase Modulations to Phase/Gain/Loss Modulations 145

8.1.4 Implementation of Parity–Time Symmetry in Optics 145

8.1.4.1 Thick and Thin Gratings 147

8.2 Free Space Diffraction on Active Gratings with Balanced Phase and Gain/Loss Modulations 148

8.2.1 Raman–Nath PT-Symmetric Diffraction 148

8.2.1.1 Raman–Nath Diffraction Regime 150

8.2.1.2 Intermediate and Bragg Diffraction Regimes 151

8.2.1.3 Summary 155

8.3 PT-Symmetric Volume Holograms in Transmission Mode 156

8.3.1 Second-Order Coupled Mode Equations 157

8.3.2 Two-Mode Solution for θ ˆ θB 160

8.3.3 Analytic Solution for Balanced PT-Symmetric Grating for Arbitrary Angle of Incidence 162

8.3.4 Filled Space PT-Symmetric Grating 166

8.3.5 Symmetric Slab Configuration 167

8.3.6 Asymmetric Slab Configurations 168

8.3.6.1 Light Incident from the Substrate Side: ε3 =1 168

8.3.6.2 Light Incident from the Air: ε1 =1 170

8.3.6.3 Reflective Setup 170

8.3.7 Discussion 171

8.4 Analysis of Unidirectional Nonparaxial Invisibility of Purely Reflective PT-Symmetric Volume Gratings 174

8.4.1 Introduction 174

8.4.2 Analytic Solution for First Three Bragg Orders for a Balanced PT-Symmetric Grating 174

8.4.3 Zeroth Diffractive Orders in Transmission and Reflection 177

8.4.4 Higher Diffractive Orders 178

8.4.4.1 First Diffraction Orders 178

8.4.4.2 Second Diffraction Orders 179

8.4.5 Filled Space PT-Symmetric Gratings 180

8.4.5.1 Filled Space PT-Symmetric Grating Implies ε1 ˆ ε2 ˆ ε3 180

8.4.6 Reflective PT-Symmetric Gratings with Fresnel Reflections 185

8.4.6.1 Symmetric Geometry ε1 ˆ ε3 ˆ 1; ε2 ˆ 2:4 185

8.4.6.2 Asymmetric Slab Configuration 186

8.5 Summary and Conclusions 189

References 191

9 Parity–Time Symmetric Cavities: Intrinsically Single-Mode Lasing 193
Mykola Kulishov and Bernard Kress

9.1 Introduction 193

9.2 Resonant Cavities Based on two PT-Symmetric Diffractive Gratings 194

9.2.1 PT-Symmetric Bragg Grating 194

9.2.2 Concatenation of Two Gratings 195

9.2.3 Temporal Characteristics 202

9.2.4 Summary 204

9.3 Distributed Bragg Reflector Structures Based on PT-Symmetric Coupling with Lowest Possible Lasing Threshold 204

9.3.1 Grating-Assisted Codirectional Coupler with PT Symmetry 205

9.3.2 Threshold Condition in DBR Lasers 208

9.3.3 DBR Lasers with PT-Symmetrical GACC Output 209

9.3.4 Transfer Matrix Description of the DBR Structure with PT-Symmetrical GACC Output 210

9.4 Unique Optical Characteristics of a Fabry–Perot Resonator with Embedded PT-Symmetrical Grating 215

9.4.1 Transfer Matrix for Fabry–Perot Cavity with a Single PT-SBG 216

9.4.2 Absorption and Amplification Modes along with Lasing Characteristics 220

9.4.2.1 Fully Constructive Cavity Interaction 220

9.4.2.2 Partially Constructive Cavity Interaction 223

9.4.2.3 Partially Destructive Cavity Interaction 228

9.4.2.4 Fully Destructive Cavity Interaction 230

9.5 Summary and Conclusions 230

References 231

10 Silicon Quantum Dot Composites for Nanophotonics 233
Hiroshi Sugimoto and Minoru Fujii

10.1 Introduction 233

10.2 Core–Shell Type Nanocomposites 234

10.3 Polymer Encapsulation 239

10.4 Micelle Encapsulation 241

10.5 Summary 243

Acknowledgments 243

References 243

Part Two Breakthrough Applications 247

11 Ultrathin Polarizers and Waveplates Made of Metamaterials 249
Masanobu Iwanaga

11.1 Concept and Practice of Subwavelength Optical Devices 249

11.1.1 Conceptual Classification of Polarization-Controlling Optical Devices 249

11.1.2 Construction of Optical Devices Using Jones Matrices 250

11.1.3 UV NIL 252

11.2 Ultrathin Polarizers 254

11.3 Ultrathin Waveplates 258

11.3.1 Ultrathin Waveplates Made of Stratified Metal–Dielectric MMs 259

11.3.2 Ultrathin Waveplates of Other Structures 262

11.4 Constructions of Functional Subwavelength Devices 264

11.5 Summary and Prospects 267

Acknowledgments 267

References 267

12 Nanoimprint Lithography for the Fabrication of Metallic Metasurfaces 269
Yoshimasa Sugimoto, Masanobu Iwanaga, and Hideki T. Miyazaki

12.1 Introduction 269

12.2 UV-NIL 270

12.3 Large-Area SP-RGB Color Filter Using UV-NIL 273

12.3.1 Introduction 273

12.3.2 Device Design 274

12.3.3 Device Fabrication and Transmission Characteristics 275

12.4 Emission-Enhanced Plasmonic Metasurfaces Fabricated by NIL 278

12.4.1 Introduction 278

12.4.2 SC-PlC Structure 279

12.4.3 Fabrication and Optical Characterization of SC-PlC 279

12.5 Metasurface Thermal Emitters for Infrared CO2 Detection by UV-NIL 282

12.5.1 Introduction 282

12.5.2 Metasurface Design 282

12.5.3 Device Fabrication and Optical Properties 283

12.6 Summary 285

References 287

13 Applications to Optical Communication 291
Philippe Gallion

13.1 Introduction 291

13.2 Optical Fiber and Propagation Impairments 294

13.2.1 Guiding Necessity 294

13.2.2 Multimode and Single-Mode Fibers 295

13.2.3 Rayleigh Diffusion as the Limiting Factor for Optical Fiber Attenuation 297

13.2.4 A Huge Available Bandwidth Resource 298

13.2.5 dispersions as the bit-rate limitations 299

13.2.5.1 Group Velocity Dispersion 299

13.2.5.2 Polarization Mode Dispersion 299

13.2.5.3 bit-rate limitations 301

13.2.5.4 Overcoming the Dispersion Limitations 302

13.2.6 Fiber Nonlinearity 302

13.2.7 New Fiber Materials and Structures 304

13.3 Basics of Functional Devices 305

13.3.1 Optical Sources 305

13.3.1.1 Light Emission in Semiconductor 305

13.3.1.2 Semiconductor Laser Single-Mode Operation 306

13.3.1.3 Interband Dynamics as Direct Modulation Limitation 308

13.3.1.4 Optical Frequency Chirping 308

13.3.1.5 Optical Frequency Tuning 309

13.3.1.6 Quantum Phase Diffusion and Linewidth 309

13.3.2 External Modulation 310

13.3.2.1 Electroabsorption Modulation 310

13.3.2.2 Electro-Optic Modulation 310

13.3.3 Optical Amplification 311

13.3.3.1 Needs of Optical Amplification 311

13.3.3.2 Today’s Optical Amplifier Technologies 311

13.3.3.3 Heisenberg Indetermination and Quantum Noise 312

13.3.3.4 Spontaneous Emission Noise Description 313

13.3.3.5 Optical Amplifier Noise Figure 313

13.3.3.6 Noise in Cascaded Amplifications 313

13.3.4 Interfacing the Optical and the Electronics Domains 314

13.3.5 Module Packaging 314

13.4 Advanced Optical Communication Techniques 315

13.4.1 Managing the Color and Wavelength Division Multiplexing 315

13.4.2 Coherent Optical Communication 316

13.4.2.1 Coherent Optical Receiver 316

13.4.2.2 Quadrature Amplitude Modulations 317

13.4.3 Digital Communication and Signal Processing Techniques 318

13.5 Today’s Optical Communication Systems 319

13.5.1 The Conquest of Submarine and Terrestrial Communication Infrastructures 319

13.5.2 Optical Fiber at Our Door 320

13.5.2.1 The Last-Mile Problem 320

13.5.2.2 Optical Connection to the End Users 320

13.5.3 Optical Wireless and Free Space Communications 322

13.5.4 Quantum Cryptography 322

13.6 Conclusions: Today’s Challenges and Perspectives 323

Acknowledgments 326

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations 326

References 328

14 Advanced Concepts for Solar Energy 333
Mikaël Hosatte

14.1 Introduction 333

14.2 Photon Management 334

14.2.1 Antireflection Techniques 334

14.2.2 Light Trapping 337

14.3 Spectral Optimization 339

14.3.1 Upconversion/Downconversion 339

14.3.2 Tandem Cells 340

14.4 Advanced Concepts 343

14.4.1 Third-Generation Concepts 343

14.4.2 Multiple Energy Level Solar Cells 344

14.4.3 Multiple Exciton Generation 345

14.4.4 Hot Carrier Solar Cells 348

14.4.5 Comparison of the Approaches 349

14.5 Conclusions 349

References 350

15 The Micro- and Nanoinvestigation and Control of Physical Processes Using Optical Fiber Sensors and Numerical Simulations: a Mathematical Approach 355
Adrian Neculae and Dan Curticapean

15.1 Introduction 355

15.2 Temperature Measurement and Heat Transfer Evaluation in a Circular Cylinder by Considering a High Accurate Numerical Solution 360

15.2.1 Theoretical Background 361

15.2.2 Numerical Results for Conductive Transport 366

15.2.3 The SP1 Approximation Model 370

15.2.4 Numerical Results for the SP1 Model 370

15.3 Numerical Analysis of the Diffusive Mass Transport in Brain Tissues with Applications to Optical Sensors 372

15.3.1 Theoretical Background 373

15.3.2 Numerical Results 375

Acknowledgment 380

References 380

16 Laser Micronanofabrication 383
Sylvain Lecler, Joël J. Fontaine, and Frédéric Mermet

16.1 Introduction 383

16.2 Physical Issues 384

16.2.1 The Laser Mean Power 385

16.2.2 The Wavelength 385

16.2.3 Pulse Duration and Repetition Rate 385

16.2.4 Spatial Concentration and Beam Shaping 385

16.2.5 Material Response 386

16.3 Recent Technological Advances 387

16.3.1 Femtosecond Laser 387

16.3.2 Nondivergent Subwavelength Beams 388

16.3.3 Subwavelength Focusing of Light with Photonic Nanojet 389

16.3.4 Subwavelength Deposition by LIFT Technique 389

16.4 Laser Microprocesses 392

16.4.1 Material Deposition and Thin-Layer Control 392

16.4.2 Nanoparticle Fabrication 392

16.4.3 Microdrilling 393

16.4.4 Microcutting 393

16.4.5 Laser Microwelding 395

16.4.6 Surface Texturing 396

16.4.7 Additive Manufacturing 397

16.4.8 Waveguide Writing 399

16.5 Conclusions 399

References 400

17 Ultrarealistic Imaging Based on Nanoparticle Recording Materials 403
Hans I. Bjelkhagen

17.1 Introduction 403

17.1.1 Demands on a Holographic Emulsion 404

17.1.2 Silver Halide Emulsion Light Scattering 405

17.1.3 History of Ultrafine-grain Silver Halide Emulsions 406

17.2 Preperation of Silver Hailde Emulsions: Principle 407

17.2.1 General Description of the Photographic Emulsion Making Process 407

17.2.2 The Specification for the SilverCross Ultrafine-grain Emulsion 408

17.2.3 The Fabrication of a Basic Ultrafine-Grain Emulsion 409

17.2.3.1 Gelatin Concentration 410

17.2.3.2 Silver and Halide Concentrations 410

17.2.3.3 Silver to Halide Ratio 410

17.2.3.4 Jetting Methods and Jetting Time 410

17.2.3.5 Solution Temperatures 411

17.2.3.6 Concentration and Removal of Reaction By-products 411

17.2.3.7 Coating 412

17.3 Testing of the Emulsion 413

17.3.1 Sensitometric Tests 413

17.3.2 Color Holography Tests 414

17.4 Recording Museum Artifacts with Color Holography 417

17.4.1 Recording Holograms of Museum Artifacts 418

17.4.2 Holographic Recordings with Mobile Equipment 418

17.5 Conclusions 421

Acknowledgments 421

References 422

18 An Introduction to Tomographic Diffractive Microscopy: Toward High-Speed Quantitative Imaging Beyond the Abbe Limit 425
Jonathan Bailleul, Bertrand Simon, Matthieu Debailleul, and Olivier Haeberlé

18.1 Introduction 425

18.2 Conventional Transmission Microscopy 426

18.2.1 Transmission Microscopy and Köhler Illumination 426

18.2.2 Dark-Field Microscopy 428

18.2.3 Phase-Contrast Microscopy 429

18.3 Phase Amplitude Microscopy 431

18.3.1 Digital Holography 432

18.3.2 Wavefront Analyzer 433

18.4 Tomographic Diffractive Microscopy for True 3D Imaging 433

18.4.1 Limits of Phase Microscopy 433

18.4.2 Tomography by Illumination Variation 434

18.4.3 Tomography by Specimen Rotation 436

18.5 Biological Applications 438

18.6 Conclusions 439

References 439

19 Nanoplasmonic Guided Optic Hydrogen Sensor 443
Nicolas Javahiraly and Cédric Perrotton

19.1 Introduction 443

19.2 Fiber Optic Sensor 448

19.3 Pd Hydrogen Sensing Systems 451

19.3.1 Bulk Palladium Film 451

19.3.2 Thin Pd Film 453

19.3.3 Metal Properties upon Hydrogenation 454

19.4 Fiber Optic Hydrogen Sensors 455

19.5 Fiber Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor 457

19.6 Sensitive Material for Hydrogen Sensing 460

19.6.1 Pd Alloys 460

19.6.2 Metal Hydrides and Rare-Earth Materials 461

19.6.3 Tungsten Oxide 462

19.7 Conclusions 464

Acknowledgment 466

References 466

20 Fiber Optic Liquid-Level Sensor System for Aerospace Applications 471
Alex A. Kazemi, Chengning Yang, and Shiping Chen

20.1 Introduction 471

20.2 The Operation Principle and System Design 472

20.2.1 Optical Fiber Long-Period Gratings 472

20.2.2 Optical Time Domain Reflectometer 474

20.2.3 Total Internal Reflection 474

20.2.4 LPG Sensor Liquid-Level System 475

20.2.5 TIR-Based Liquid-Level Detection System 476

20.3 Experimental Results 478

20.4 Liquid-Level Sensor Performance 485

20.5 Conclusions 486

References 487

21 Tunable Micropatterned Colloid Crystal Lasers 489
Seiichi Furumi, Hiroshi Fudouzi, and Tsutomu Sawada

21.1 Introduction 489

21.2 Synthesis of Colloidal Microparticles and Reflection Features of CCs 493

21.3 Laser Action from CCs with Light-Emitting Planar Defects 495

21.4 Micropatterned Laser Action from CCs by Photochromic Reaction 498

21.5 Tunable Laser Action from CC Gel Films Stabilized by Ionic Liquid 498

21.6 Conclusions and Outlook 503

Acknowledgments 504

References 504

22 Colloidal Photonic Crystals Made of Soft Materials: Gels and Elastomers 507
Hiroshi Fudouzi and Tsutomu Sawada

22.1 Introduction 507

22.2 Colloidal Photonic Crystal Gels Consist of Nonclose-packed Particles 508

22.2.1 Highly Oriented Colloidal Photonic Crystals by Shear-Flow Effect 508

22.2.2 Structural Characterization of Crystals Oriented by Shear Flow 510

22.3 Colloidal Photonic Crystal Elastomer Consists of Close-packed Particles 515

22.3.1 A Uniaxially Oriented Opal Film by Crystal Growth under Silicone Liquid 515

22.3.2 Colloidal Photonic Crystal Elastomer Film Coated on a Rubber Sheet 518

22.4 Applications 520

22.4.1 Colloidal Photonic Crystal Gels 520

22.4.2 Colloidal Photonic Crystal Elastomers 521

22.5 Summary and Outlook 523

References 524

23 Surveying the Landscape and the Prospects in Nanophotonics 527
David L. Andrews, Patrick L. Meyrueis, and Marcel Van de Voorde

23.1 Retrospective 527

23.2 Fundamental Developments 527

23.3 Futorology 528

23.4 Applications 529

23.5 Summing Up 529

Index 531

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Author Information

Patrick Meyrueis is Emeritus Professor of Physics at the University of Strasbourg, France. He started his career as an engineer of the French Department of Industry and took up a position as Associate Professor at the University Louis Pasteur (now University of Strasbourg) in 1981 where he founded the Photonics Group, which he headed until 1987. He then moved on to become founder and head of the Photonics System Laboratory which was one of the most advanced labs in the field of planar digital optics (now Icube Institute). Patrick Meyrueis is the author of more than 200 publications, 100 patents and several books. He was the chairman of more than 20 international conferences in photonics.

Kazuaki Sakoda is Professor in the Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences at Tsukuba University, Japan, and Managing Researcher of the Research Center for Functional Materials at the National Institute of Materials Science (NIMS). After his BE and ME degrees, obtained from Tokyo University, he worked as Senior Researcher at TORAY Industries, Inc. for eleven years. Kazuaki Sakoda received his PhD in Applied Physics from Tokyo University in 1992 and continued his academic career as Associate Professor in the Research Institute for Electronic Science at Hokkaido University before taking up his current positions.

Marcel Van de Voorde has 40 years' experience in European Research Organisations including CERN-Geneva, European Commission, with 10 years at the Max Planck Institute in Stuttgart, Germany. For many years, he was involved in research and research strategies, policy and management, especially in European research institutions. He holds a Professorship at the University of Technology in Delft, the Netherland, as well as multiple visiting professorships in Europe and worldwide. He holds a doctor honoris causa and various honorary Professorships.
He is senator of the European Academy for Sciences and Arts, in Salzburg and Fellow of the World Academy for Sciences. He is a Fellow of various scientific societies and has been decorated by the Belgian King. He has authored of multiple scientific and technical publications and co-edited multiple books in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology.
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