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Magnetoelectric Polymer-Based Composites: Fundamentals and Applications

ISBN: 978-3-527-80135-0
280 pages
June 2017
Magnetoelectric Polymer-Based Composites: Fundamentals and Applications (3527801359) cover image


The first book on this topic provides a comprehensive and well-structured overview of the fundamentals, synthesis and emerging applications of magnetoelectric polymer materials.
Following an introduction to the basic aspects of polymer based magnetoelectric materials and recent developments, subsequent chapters discuss the various types as well as their synthesis and characterization. There then follows a review of the latest applications, such as memories, sensors and actuators. The book concludes with a look at future technological advances.
An essential reference for entrants to the field as well as for experienced researchers.
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xi

Preface and Acknowledgments xv

1 Magnetoelectric Effect of Functional Materials: Theoretical Analysis,Modeling, and Experiment 1
Jia-Wei Zhang, Hong-Yan Guo, Xiao Chen, and Rui-Tong Liu

1.1 Introduction of Magnetoelectric Effect 1

1.1.1 Single-Phase Magnetoelectric Materials 1

1.1.2 Multiphase Materials 2

1.2 Applications of Magnetoelectric Effect 2

1.2.1 Magnetoelectric Sensors 3

1.2.2 Magnetoelectric Transducer 3

1.2.3 Magnetoelectric Microwave Devices 4

1.3 Magnetoelectric Effect of Piezoelectric Ceramic 4

1.4 Magnetoelectric Effect in Insulating Polymers 7

1.5 Conclusion 11

Acknowledgments 11

References 11

2 Materials Selection, Processing, and Characterization Technologies 13
JingMa, Lu Song, Chen Liu, and Chengzhou Xin

2.1 Introduction 13

2.2 Materials Selection and Processing 14

2.2.1 Polymer as the Piezoelectric/Ferroelectric Phase 15

2.2.2 Piezoelectric Polymer as the Matrix 17

2.2.3 Non-piezoelectric Polymer as the Active Matrix 18

2.2.4 Polymer as the Binder 18

2.3 Characterization Technologies 19

2.3.1 Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Characterization 19 Piezoelectric Characterization 19 Ferroelectric Characterization 20

2.3.2 Magnetostrictive and Magnetism Characterization 22 MagnetismMeasurement 23 MagnetostrictionMeasurement 26

2.3.3 Characterization of Magnetoelectric Coupling 27 Direct Magnetoelectric Coupling 27 Converse Magnetoelectric Coupling 30

2.4 Concluding Remarks 34

Acknowledgments 34

References 34

3 Types of Polymer-BasedMagnetoelectric Materials 45

3a Laminates 47
Marco Silva, PedroMartins, and Senentxu Lanceros-Mendez

3a.1 Introduction 47

3a.2 Laminated Magnetoelectric Composites 47

3a.3 Piezoelectric Phase for Magnetoelectric Laminates 53

3a.3.1 PVDF and Its Copolymers 53

3a.3.2 Diamines 54

3.4a Magnetostrictive Phase for Magnetoelectric Laminates 55

3a.4.1 Metglas 55

3a.4.2 VITROVAC 57

3a.4.3 Terfenol-D 57

3.5a Bonding Agent for Magnetoelectric Laminates 57

3a.6 Structures for Magnetoelectric Laminates 58

3a.7 Limitations and Remaining Challenges 59

Acknowledgments 59

References 60

3b Polymer-BasedMagnetoelectric Composites: Polymer as a Binder 65
Yang Song, De’an Pan, Zhijun Zuo, and Alex Alexei Volinsky

3b.1 Introduction 65

3b.2 Polymer-Based Tb1−xDyxFe2−y by MagneticWarm Compaction 66

3b.2.1 Experiment for MagneticWarm Compaction 66

3b.2.2 Results and Discussion of MagneticWarm Compaction 67

3b.2.3 Conclusions for MagneticWarm Compaction 70

3b.3 Multifaceted Magnetoelectric Composites 70

3b.3.1 Experiment for Multifaceted Magnetoelectric Composites 70

3b.3.2 Results and Discussion for Multifaceted Magnetoelectric Composites 70

3b.3.3 Conclusions for Multifaceted Magnetoelectric Composites 73

3b.4 Bonded Cylindrical Composites 73

3b.4.1 Experiment for Bonded Cylindrical Composites 73

3b.4.2 Results and Discussion for Bonded Cylindrical Composites 74

3b.4.3 Conclusions for Bonded Cylindrical Composites 76

3b.5 Multi-electrode Cylinder Composites 77

3b.5.1 Experiment for Multi-electrode Cylinder Composites 77

3b.5.2 Results and Discussion for Multi-electrode Cylinder Composites 78

3b.5.3 Conclusions for Multi-electrode Cylinder Composites 81

3b.6 Polymer Content and Particle Size Effects 81

3b.6.1 Experiment for Polymer Content and Particle Size Effects 81

3b.6.2 Results and Discussion for Polymer Content and Particle Size Effects 81

3b.6.3 Conclusions for Polymer Content and Particle Size Effects 83

Acknowledgments 84

References 84

3c Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-BasedMagnetoelectric Polymer Nanocomposite Films 87
Thandapani Prabhakaran and Jawaharlal Hemalatha

3c.1 Introduction 87

3c.2 Ferroelectric Polymers 89

3c.2.1 Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) 90

3c.2.2 Crystallization of β-Phase PVDF 91

3c.2.2.1 By Solvent 91

3c.2.2.2 By the Temperature 91

3c.2.2.3 Electric Poling on PVDF 92

3c.3 The Selection of Magnetic Nanofillers 93

3c.4 ExperimentalMethods 94

3c.4.1 Materials 94

3c.4.2 Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles 95

3c.4.3 Fabrication of ME Polymer Nanocomposites 95

3c.5 Characterization 96

3c.5.1 IR Vibrational Studies 96

3c.5.2 Surface Analysis on the Composites 98

3c.5.3 Magnetic Studies on MPNCs 100

3c.5.4 Correlation of F(��) with Ferroelectric Parameters 102

3c.5.5 Magnetoelectric Effect in MPNCs 102

3c.6 Summary 107

3c.7 Future Directions 108

Acknowledgments 109

References 109

4 Low-Dimensional Polymer-BasedMagnetoelectric Structures 115
Renato Gonçalves, Senentxu Lanceros-Mendez, and Pedro Martins

4.1 Introduction 115

4.2 Magnetoelectric Spheres 117

4.3 Magnetoelectric Fibers 118

4.4 MagnetoelectricMembranes 119

4.5 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 120

Acknowledgments 121

References 122

5 Design of Magnetostrictive Nanoparticles for Magnetoelectric Composites 125
Victor Sebastian

5.1 Introduction 125

5.1.1 Magnetoelectric Composites 125

5.1.2 Magnetostriction and Magnetostrictive Materials 126

5.1.3 Ferromagnetic Ferrites 129

5.1.4 Ferroelectric Perovskites 131

5.2 Synthesis Approaches to Produce Magnetostrictive Nanoparticles for Magnetoelectric Composites 132

5.2.1 Top-Down Production Approaches 133 Mechanosynthesis or Mechanical Attrition 133 Mechanical Alloying 134 Inert-Gas Condensation Approach 134

5.2.2 Bottom-Up Production Approaches 135 Solid-State Reaction 135 Pyrolysis 136 Wet-Chemical Approaches 137

5.3 Summary and Future Perspectives 145

Acknowledgments 146

References 146

6 Applications of Polymer-BasedMagnetoelectric Materials 153

6a Sensors, Actuators, Antennas, andMemories 155
Sílvia Reis,Marco Silva, PedroMartins, and Senentxu Lanceros-Mendez

6a.1 Introduction 155

6a.2 Polymer-Based Magnetoelectric Sensors 156

6a.3 Polymer-Based Magnetoelectric Actuators 159

6a.4 Polymer-Based Magnetoelectric Antennas 161

6a.5 Polymer-Based MagnetoelectricMemories 164

6a.6 Opportunities, Limitations, and Remaining Challenges 165

Acknowledgments 166

References 166

6b Magnetoelectric Composites for Bionics Applications 171
Tian Zheng, Yan Zong, Zhilian Yue, Gordon G.Wallace, andMichael J. Higgins

6b.1 Introduction 171

6b.2 Bionics 171

6b.2.1 Implantable Electrode Devices 171

6b.2.2 Organic Electrode Materials 172

6b.2.3 New Opportunities for Advanced Electrical Stimulation 173

6b.3 Cell Interactions and Electrical Stimulation 175

6b.3.1 Synthetic Polymer-Based ME 175

6b.3.2 Nanostructured and Nanoscale ME Materials 177

6b.3.3 ME Concept for Electrical Stimulation of Cells 179

6b.4 Future Biomaterials for ME Composites 180

6b.4.1 Piezoelectric DNA, Proteins, and Microorganisms 180

6b.4.2 ME Biopolymers: Cellulose 182

6b.5 Characterization Tools for Nanoscale ME 184

6b.5.1 Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) 184

6b.5.2 Bio-Atomic Force Microscopy (Bio-AFM) 187

Acknowledgments 188

References 189

6c Energy Harvesting 197
Chess Boughey and Sohini Kar-Narayan

6c.1 Introduction 197

6c.2 Magnetoelectric Composites for Energy Harvesting 198

6c.2.1 Magnetostrictive Effect in Ferromagnetic Materials 200

6c.2.2 Piezoelectricity in Polymers 201

6c.2.3 Key Parameters, Equations, and Figures of Merit 205

6c.2.4 Magnetoelectric Effect in Piezoelectric–Ferromagnetic Composites 208

6c.3 Energy-Harvesting Devices Based on Magnetoelectric Composites 211

6c.4 Conclusion 212

References 215

6d High-Temperature Polymers for Magnetoelectric Applications 225
AlbertoMaceiras, José Luis Vilas, and LuisManuel León

6d.1 Introduction 225

6d.2 Types of Piezoelectric Polymers 226

6d.2.1 Piezocomposites 226

6d.2.2 Ferroelectrets 226

6d.2.3 Bulk Piezoelectric Polymers 229

6d.2.3.1 Semicrystalline Piezoelectric Polymers 229

6d.2.3.2 Amorphous Piezoelectric Polymers 235

6d.3 ME Effect Using Piezoelectric Polyimides 240

6d.4 Summary and Conclusions 241

References 242

7 Open Questions, Challenges, and Perspectives 255
PedroMartins and Senentxu Lanceros-Mendez

References 258

Index 259

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Author Information

S. Lanceros-Mendez graduated in physics at the University of the Basque Country, Leioa, Spain. He obtained his PhD degree at the Institute of Physics of the Julius-Maximilians-Universitat Wurzburg, Germany. He was Research Scholar at Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA and visiting scientist at the, Pennsylvania State University, USA and University of Potsdam, among others. Since 2016 he is Ikerbasque Professor at the BCMaterials, Basque Center for Materials, Applications and Nanostructures, Derio, Spain. He is Associate Professor at the Physics Department of the University of Minho, Portugal (on leave), where he belongs to the Center of Physics. From 2012 to 2014 he was also Associate Researcher at the INL - International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory. His work is focused in the area of smart materials for sensors and actuators, energy and biomedical applications.

Pedro Martins graduated in Physics and Chemistry in 2006 and received the PhD degree in Physics in 2012, both from the University of Minho, Braga, Portugal. From 2012 to 2014 he was also Visiting Researcher at the INL - International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory. He is now a postdoctoral researcher in the University of Minho, Braga, Portugal and his work is focused on polymer-based magnetoelectric materials and electroactive polymers for advanced technological applications. He collaborates with the Basque Country University, Spain; Wollongong University, Australia and Cambridge University, United Kingdom, among others.
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