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Automation Solutions for Analytical Measurements: Concepts and Applications

ISBN: 978-3-527-80532-7
160 pages
August 2017
Automation Solutions for Analytical Measurements: Concepts and Applications (352780532X) cover image

Description

The first book dedicated specifically to automated sample preparation and analytical measurements, this timely and systematic overview not only covers biological applications, but also environmental measuring technology, drug discovery, and quality assurance.
Following a critical review of realized automation solutions in biological sciences, the book goes on to discuss special requirements for comparable systems for analytical applications, taking different concepts into consideration and with examples chosen to illustrate the scope and limitations of each technique.
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Table of Contents

Preface ix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Life Sciences – A Definition 1

1.1.1 A Short Definition of Life 1

1.1.2 What Is Life Sciences? 2

1.2 Automation – A Definition 4

1.3 History of Automation 5

1.3.1 Automation from the Beginnings to the Nineteenth Century 5

1.3.2 Automation Since the Nineteenth Century 10

1.3.3 History of Laboratory Automation 12

1.4 Impact of Automation 15

1.4.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Automation 15

1.4.2 Social Impact of Automation 16

1.4.3 Limitation of Automation 17

References 18

2 Automation in Life Sciences – A Critical Review 25

2.1 Overview 25

2.2 Definitions and Basics 26

2.3 Automation in Bioscreening 28

2.3.1 Overview 28

2.3.2 Automation Devices in Biological Screening 31

2.3.3 Application Examples 40

2.4 Automation in Chemical Sciences 43

2.4.1 Overview 43

2.4.2 Automation Devices for Combinatorial Chemistry 45

2.5 Automation in Analytical Measurement Applications 51

2.5.1 Overview 51

2.5.2 Process Analytical Technology 52

2.5.3 Automation Systems for Analytical Measurement Applications 54

2.6 Requirements for Automating Analytical Processes 56

2.6.1 Bioscreening vs. Analytical Measurement 56

2.6.2 Automation Requirements 58

References 61

3 Automation Concepts for Life Sciences 73

3.1 Classification of Automation Systems 73

3.2 Classification Concept for Life Science Processes 75

3.3 Robot Based Automation Systems 78

3.3.1 Robot Based Systems in Industrial Automation 78

3.3.2 Robot-Based Automation Systems in Life Sciences 79

3.3.3 Summary and Application of Concepts 81

3.4 Degree of Automation 83

3.5 Statistical Evaluations 86

References 89

4 Automation Systems with Central System Integrator 93

4.1 Centralized Closed Automation System 93

4.1.1 Background and Applicative Scope 93

4.1.2 Automation Goals 98

4.1.3 System Design 99

4.1.4 Process Description 102

4.1.5 Control of the Automation Process 103

4.1.6 Evaluation of the Automation System 104

4.2 Centralized Open Automation System 109

4.2.1 Background and Applicative Scope 109

4.2.2 Automation Goals 114

4.2.3 System Design 116

4.2.4 Process Description 121

4.2.5 Control of the Automation Process 124

4.2.6 Evaluation of the Automation System 126

4.3 Decentralized Closed Automation System 130

4.3.1 Background and Applicative Scope 131

4.3.2 Automation Goals 132

4.3.3 System Design 134

4.3.4 Process Description 135

4.3.5 Control of the Automation Process 136

4.3.6 Evaluation of the Automation System 136

4.4 Decentralized Open Automation System 143

4.4.1 System Design 144

4.4.2 Process Description 144

4.4.3 Control of the Automation System 145

References 148

5 Automation Systems with Flexible Robots 167

5.1 Centralized Closed Automation System 167

5.1.1 System Design 167

5.1.2 Process Description 174

5.1.3 Control of the Automation System 174

5.1.4 Results 179

5.2 Centralized Open Automation System 180

5.2.1 Background and Applicative Scope 180

5.2.2 Automation Goals 183

5.2.3 System Design 184

5.2.4 Process Description 186

5.2.5 Control of the Automation System 187

5.2.6 Results 189

5.3 Decentralized Automation System 191

5.3.1 System Design 192

5.3.2 Process Description 193

5.3.3 Control of the Automation System 193

5.4 Automation Systems with Integrated Robotics 194

5.4.1 System Design 196

5.4.2 Process Description 198

5.4.3 Process Control 198

References 200

6 Automated Data Evaluation in Life Sciences 205

6.1 Specific Tasks in Data Evaluation in Analytical Measurements 205

6.2 Automation Goals 207

6.3 System Design 208

6.4 System Realization 211

6.4.1 Software Structure 211

6.4.2 Software Operation 214

6.5 Process Description 220

6.6 Application Examples 222

6.6.1 Automated Data Analysis in the Elemental Analysis 222

6.6.2 Automated Data Analysis in the Structural Analysis 224

6.6.3 Automated Data Analysis in Special Applications 225

References 226

7 Management of Automated Processes 231

7.1 Laboratory Information Systems 231

7.2 Laboratory Execution Systems 231

7.3 Process and Workflow Management Systems 232

7.3.1 Overview 232

7.3.2 Intelligent Scheduling 234

7.3.3 Human Machine Interaction 236

7.4 Business Process Management Systems 239

7.4.1 Initial BPM Activities 239

7.4.2 Relationship to Scientific Workflow Management 241

7.4.3 Life Science Automation Industry Application of BPM 241

7.4.4 Status of Life Science Automation 242

7.4.5 Laboratory IT Integration Status 245

7.4.6 Innovation in End-to-End Process Automation 245

7.4.7 Workflow Automation as a New Top-Level Process Automation Approach 246

7.4.8 Outstanding Position of LIMS as an Established Process Documentation System 248

References 249

Index 255

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Author Information

Heidi Fleischer is Head of the Research Group "Life Science Automation - Processes" at the University of Rostock. She studied information technology and computer engineering at the Faculty of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering at the University of Rostock (Germany). In 2011, Heidi Fleischer obtained her Ph.D. in life science engineering and in 2016 the habilitation in automation engineering at the University of Rostock. She teaches lectures, seminars and practical trainings in the fields of measurement technique and automation engineering, sensors and actuators, life science systems and technologies, and process automation.

Kerstin Thurow is Director of the Center for Life Science Automation at the University of Rostock, Germany. She obtained her Ph.D. in organometallic chemistry from the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich and the habilitation in measurement and control in 1999 from the University of Rostock. In 1999 she was appointed a professorship for Life Science Automation. Since that time her scientific work is dedicated to the automation of life science processes. Professor Thurow has authored more than 170 scientific publications. She is a founding member of the academy of sciences Hamburg and member of the technical academy Germany (acatech).
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