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Magnetic Materials

ISBN: 978-3-89578-352-4
608 pages
January 2013
Magnetic Materials (3895783528) cover image
At a practical level, this compendium reviews the basics of soft and hard magnetic materials, discusses the advantages of the different processing routes for the exploitation of the magnetic properties and hence assists in proper, fail-safe and economic application of magnetic materials. Essential guidelines and formulas for the calculation of the magnetic and electrical properties, temperature and long-term stability of permanent magnets, of inductive components and magnetic shielding are compiled. Selected fields of application and case studies illustrate the large diversity of technical applications. Application engineers will appreciate the comprehensive compilation of the properties and detailed characteristic curves of modern soft and hard magnetic materials. Materials scientists will enjoy the presentation of the different processing routes and their impact on the magnetic properties and students will profit from the survey from the basics of magnetism down to the applications in inductive components, magnetic shielding and magnet assemblies.
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Part 1 Introduction to Magnetic Materials

1 Fundamentals of Magnetism 14

1.1 Discovery of magnetism14

1.2 Magnetic fields 15

2 Magnetic Domains and the Process of Magnetization 45

2.1 Magnetic energy terms 45

2.2 Magnetic domain structure 53

2.3 Magnetization processes 58

3 Basic Materials Properties 73

3.1 Introduction 73

3.2 Requirements for soft and hard magnetic materials 73

3.3 Relevant groups of magnetic materials 76

4 The magnetic Circuit – Basic Relationship between Magnetic and Electrical Terms 103

4.1 DC Magnetization 103

4.2 AC Magnetization 114

4.3 Relationships for inductive components 128

4.4 Magnetic quantities and units 132

5 Magnetic Terms and Definitions 138

6 Magnetic Measurements 159

6.1 Generation of magnetic fields 159

6.2 magnetization conditions and their effect on the characteristic curves 163

6.3 Methods of measurement 188

Part 2 VAC Magnetic Materials

7 Crystalline Soft Magnetic materials and Ductile Permanent Magnets 207

7.1 Production process 207

7.2 Nickel-iron alloys 212

7.3 Cobalt-iron alloys 226

7.4 Ultra-pure iron and SiFe alloys 232

7.5 Ductile permanent magnets and magnetically semi-hard materials 233

7.6 Other materials with special mechanical and electrical properties

7.7 Forms of supply 246

8 Rapidly Solidified Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Materials 252

8.1 Introduction to amorphous metallic alloys 252

8.2 Magnetic properties of armorphous alloys 264

8.3 Nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials 280

8.4 Amorphous brazing filler alloys 296

8.5 Forms of Supply 302

9 Properties and Characteristic Curves of Soft Magnetic Materials and Ductile Permanent magnets 305

9.1 Introduction 305

9.2 Table of materials properties 305

9.3 Static (DC) magnetic properties 317

9.4 AC (50 Hz) magnetic properties 325

9.5 Frequency dependence of permeability 339

9.6 Magnetic power losses 346

9.7 Special magnetization conditions 360

9.8 Special core types 371

9.9 Temperature dependence of magnetic properties 381

9.10 Ductile permanent magnets and magnetically semi-hard materials 389

9.11 Further properties 395

10 Production of Rare Earth-Transition Metal (RE-TM) Magnetic by Powder Metallurgy and their typical Magnetic Properties 400

10.1 Cold Isostatic Pressing of magnetic blocks (CIP) 403

10.2 Net-shape magnets by Transverse field die-Pressing (TP) 408

10.3 Net-shape magnets by Axial field die-Pressing (AP) 413

10.4 Alternative processing routes 420

11 Temperature Stability of Sintered RE-TM Magnets 426

11.1 Temperature coefficients of the remanent polarization Jr and the coercive field strength Hcj 428

11.2 Irreversible polarization losses due to the temperature dependence of the coercivity Hcj and the thermal after-effect 432

11.3 Irreversible polarization losses due to microstructural changes 435

11.4 Long-term stability of sintered RE-TM-B magnets 437

11.5 Stability of RE-TM magnetic against radiation 437

12 Corrosion Behaviour and Mechanical Properties of Sintered RE-TM Magnetics 443

12.1 Basic corrosion processes 443

12.2 Typical corrosion tests 446

12.3 Coating of VACODYM and VACOMAX magnets 449

12.4 Mechanical properties of sintered RE-TM magnets 456

Part 3 Applications of VAC Advanced Magnetic Materials

13 Magnetic Shielding 467

13.1 Introduction 467

13.2 Application and materials 470

13.3 Magnetically Shielded Room (MSR) 472

14 Residual Current Devices 475

14.1 Cores for differential current transformers 476

14.2 Tripping relay 479

15 Current Transformers for Electronic Electricity Meters 481

15.1 Operating principle of a current transformer 483

15.2 Requirements and features 485

15.3 Selection criteria for magnetic cores 491

16 Current Sensors with a magnetic Probe 494

16.1 Operation and design 494

16.2 Types of VAC closed-loop current sensors 497

16.3 Main application areas of current sensors with a CITROVAC field probe 499

17 Common Mode Chokes 501

17.1 Methods for RFI control 501

17.2 Material properties 504

17.3 Core stack assemblies 509

17.4 Design advantages of VITROPERM cores 510

18 Power Transformers 513

18.1 Operating principle of a power transformer 513

18.2 Power transformers at mains frequencies 516

18.3 Switched-Mode Power Supply (SMPS) 517

19 RE-TM Magnets for Automotive Applications and Wind Turbines 521

19.1 Automotive applications 522

19.2 Wind turbines 523

20 Permanent magnet (PM) Motors 526

20.1 Kinds of motors 527

20.2 Improvement of the operating temperature 533

20.3 Reduction of the cogging torque 535

21 Wiggles and Undulators 538

21.1 Requirements on permanent magnets for undulators 541

21.2 Assembly of undulators 542

List of Acronyms 545

Lsit of Symbols 547

References 553

Index 596

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DR. RAINER HILZINGER former Chief Technology Officer and Development Director at VACUUMSCHMELZE, is a Member of the American Physical Society and the German Physical Society. He has published more than 65 scientific publications and is the holder of a number of patents. He was awarded the Georg-Sachs-Prize by the German Society for Materials Science (DGM) in 1983. Under his direction, many new materials have been developed and brought into commercial application.

DR. WERNER RODEWALD former Head of Fundamental Research and Development of Rare-Earth permanent magnet materials at VACUUMSCHMELZE, is also a Member of the German Physical Society. Until 2005, he was member of the IEC Technical Committee TC68-WG5, which compiles standards and measuring methods for permanent magnets. In addition, he has managed national and international projects with partners from universities and industry and has published many technical articles.
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“It will be a very handy reference book when solving magnetic circuit design problems.  Materials scientists will also appreciate the detailed information on the effects of processing techniques on magnetic properties.”  (IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, 1 September 2013)

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