Textbook

# Fundamentals of Thermodynamics, 7th Edition

August 2008, ©2009

Now in its seventh edition, Fundamentals of Thermodynamics continues to offer a comprehensive and rigorous treatment of classical thermodynamics, while retaining an engineering perspective.  With concise, applications-oriented discussion of topics and self-test problems the text encourages students to monitor their own comprehension.  The seventh edition is updated with additional examples, homework problems, and illustrations to increase student understanding.

The text lays the groundwork for subsequent studies in fields such as fluid mechanics, heat transfer and statistical thermodynamics, and prepares students to effectively apply thermodynamics in the practice of engineering.

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Table of Contents
1 SOME INTRODUCTORY COMMENTS 1
1.1 The Simple Steam Power Plant, 1
1.2 Fuel Cells, 2
1.3 The Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle, 5
1.4 The Thermoelectric Refrigerator, 7
1.5 The Air Separation Plant, 8
1.6 The Gas Turbine, 9
1.7 The Chemical Rocket Engine, 11
1.8 Other Applications and Environmental Issues, 12
2 SOME CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS 13
2.1 A Thermodynamic System and the Control Volume, 13
2.2 Macroscopic Versus Microscopic Point of View, 14
2.3 Properties and State of a Substance, 15
2.4 Processes and Cycles, 16
2.5 Units for Mass, Length, Time, and Force, 17
2.6 Energy, 20
2.7 Specific Volume and Density, 22
2.8 Pressure, 25
2.9 Equality of Temperature, 30
2.10 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, 31
2.11 Temperature Scales, 31
2.12 Engineering Appilication, 33
Summary, 37
Problems, 38
3 PROPERTIES OF A PURE SUBSTANCE 47
3.1 The Pure Substance, 48
3.2 Vapor-Liquid-Solid-Phase Equilibrium in a Pure Substance, 48
3.3 Independent Properties of a Pure Substance, 55
3.4 Tables of Thermodynamic Properties, 55
3.5 Thermodynamic Surfaces, 63
3.6 The P–V–T Behavior of Low- and Moderate-Density Gases, 65
3.7 The Compressibility Factor, 69
3.8 Equations of State, 72
3.9 Computerized Tables, 73
3.10 Engineering Applications, 75
Summary, 77
Problems, 78
4 WORK AND HEAT 90
4.1 Definition of Work, 90
4.2 Units for Work, 92
4.3 Work Done at the Moving Boundary of a Simple Compressible
System, 93
4.4 Other Systems that Involve Work, 102
4.5 Concluding Remarks Regarding Work, 104
4.6 Definition of Heat, 106
4.7 Heat Transfer Modes, 107
4.8 Comparison of Heat and Work, 109
4.9 Engineering Applications, 110
Summary, 113
Problems, 114
5 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 127
5.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Mass Undergoing
a Cycle, 127
5.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics for a Change in State of a Control
Mass, 128
5.3 Internal Energy—A Thermodynamic Property, 135
5.4 Problem Analysis and Solution Technique, 137
5.5 The Thermodynamic Property Enthalpy, 141
5.6 The Constant-Volume and Constant-Pressure Specific Heats, 146
5.7 The Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heat of Ideal Gases, 147
5.8 The First Law as a Rate Equation, 154
5.9 Conservation of Mass, 156
5.10 Engineering Applications, 157
Summary, 160
Problems, 162
6 FIRST-LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME 180
6.1 Conservation of Mass and the Control Volume, 180
6.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Volume, 183
6.3 The Steady-State Process, 185
6.4 Examples of Steady-State Processes, 187
6.5 The Transient Process, 202
6.6 Engineering Applications, 211
Summary, 215
Problems, 218
7 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 238
7.1 Heat Engines and Refrigerators, 238
7.2 The Second Law of Thermodynamics, 244
7.3 The Reversible Process, 247
7.4 Factors that Render Processes Irreversible, 248
7.5 The Carnot Cycle, 251
7.6 Two Propositions Regarding the Efficiency of a Carnot Cycle, 253
7.7 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale, 254
7.8 The Ideal-Gas Temperature Scale, 255
7.9 Ideal versus Real Machines, 259
Confirmation Pages
7.10 Engineering Applications, 262
Summary, 265
Problems, 267
8 ENTROPY 279
8.1 The Inequality of Clausius, 279
8.2 Entropy—A Property of a System, 283
8.3 The Entropy of a Pure Substance, 285
8.4 Entropy Change in Reversible Processes, 287
8.5 The Thermodynamic Property Relation, 291
8.6 Entropy Change of a Solid or Liquid, 293
8.7 Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas, 294
8.8 The Reversible Polytropic Process for an Ideal Gas, 298
8.9 Entropy Change of a Control Mass During an Irreversible
Process, 302
8.10 Entropy Generation, 303
8.11 Principle of the Increase of Entropy, 305
8.12 Entropy as a Rate Equation, 309
8.13 Some General Comments about Entropy and Chaos, 311
Summary, 313
Problems, 315
9 SECOND-LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME 334
9.1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Volume, 334
9.2 The Steady-State Process and the Transient Process, 336
9.3 The Steady-State Single-Flow Process, 345
9.4 Principle of the Increase of Entropy, 349
9.5 Engineering Applications; Efficiency, 352
9.6 Summary of General Control Volume Analysis, 358
Summary, 359
Problems, 361
10 IRREVERSIBILITY AND AVAILABILITY 381
10.1 Available Energy, Reversible Work, and Irreversibility, 381
10.2 Availability and Second-Law Efficiency, 393
10.3 Exergy Balance Equation, 401
10.4 Engineering Applications, 406
Summary, 407
Problems, 408
11 POWER AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS—WITH
PHASE CHANGE 421
11.1 Introduction to Power Systems, 422
11.2 The Rankine Cycle, 424
11.3 Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the Rankine Cycle, 427
11.4 The Reheat Cycle, 432
11.5 The Regenerative Cycle, 435
11.6 Deviation of Actual Cycles from Ideal Cycles, 442
11.7 Cogeneration, 447
11.8 Introduction to Refrigeration Systems, 448
11.9 The Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle, 449
11.10 Working Fluids for Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems, 452
11.11 Deviation of the Actual Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle from
the Ideal Cycle, 453
11.12 Refrigeration Cycle Configurations, 455
11.13 The Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Cycle, 457
Summary, 459
Problems, 460
12 POWER AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS—GASEOUS
WORKING FLUIDS 476
12.1 Air-Standard Power Cycles, 476
12.2 The Brayton Cycle, 477
12.3 The Simple Gas-Turbine Cycle with a Regenerator, 484
12.4 Gas-Turbine Power Cycle Configurations, 486
12.5 The Air-Standard Cycle for Jet Propulsion, 489
12.6 The Air-Standard Refrigeration Cycle, 492
12.7 Reciprocating Engine Power Cycles, 494
12.8 The Otto Cycle, 496
12.9 The Diesel Cycle, 500
12.10 The Stirling Cycle, 503
12.11 The Atkinson and Miller Cycles, 503
12.12 Combined-Cycle Power and Refrigeration Systems, 505
Summary, 507
Problems, 509
13 GAS MIXTURES 523
13.1 General Considerations and Mixtures of Ideal Gases, 523
13.2 A Simplified Model of a Mixture Involving Gases and a Vapor, 530
13.3 The First Law Applied to Gas-Vapor Mixtures, 536
13.4 The Adiabatic Saturation Process, 538
13.5 Engineering Applications—Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures
and the Psychrometric Chart, 541
Summary, 547
Problems, 548
14 THERMODYNAMIC RELATIONS 564
14.1 The Clapeyron Equation, 564
14.2 Mathematical Relations for a Homogeneous Phase, 568
14.3 The Maxwell Relations, 570
14.4 Thermodynamic Relations Involving Enthalpy, Internal Energy,
and Entropy, 572
14.5 Volume Expansivity and Isothermal and Adiabatic
Compressibility, 578
14.6 Real-Gas Behavior and Equations of State, 580
14.7 The Generalized Chart for Changes of Enthalpy at Constant
Temperature, 585
14.8 The Generalized Chart for Changes of Entropy at Constant
Temperature, 588
14.9 The Property Relation for Mixtures, 591
14.10 Pseudopure Substance Models for Real-Gas Mixtures, 594
14.11 Engineering Applications—Thermodynamic Tables, 599
Summary, 602
Problems, 604
15 CHEMICAL REACTIONS 615
15.1 Fuels, 615
15.2 The Combustion Process, 619
15.3 Enthalpy of Formation, 626
15.4 First-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems, 629
15.5 Enthalpy and Internal Energy of Combustion; Heat of Reaction, 635
15.6 Adiabatic Flame Temperature, 640
15.7 The Third Law of Thermodynamics and Absolute Entropy, 642
15.8 Second-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems, 643
15.9 Fuel Cells, 648
15.10 Engineering Applications, 651
Summary, 656
Problems, 658
16 INTRODUCTION TO PHASE AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM 672
16.1 Requirements for Equilibrium, 672
16.2 Equilibrium Between Two Phases of a Pure Substance, 674
16.3 Metastable Equilibrium, 678
16.4 Chemical Equilibrium, 679
16.5 Simultaneous Reactions, 689
16.6 Coal Gasification, 693
16.7 Ionization, 694
16.8 Applications, 696
Summary, 698
Problems, 700
17 COMPRESSIBLE FLOW 709
17.1 Stagnation Properties, 709
17.2 The Momentum Equation for a Control Volume, 711
17.3 Forces Acting on a Control Surface, 714
17.4 Adiabatic, One-Dimensional, Steady-State Flow of an Incompressible
Fluid through a Nozzle, 716
17.5 Velocity of Sound in an Ideal Gas, 718
17.6 Reversible, Adiabatic, One-Dimensional Flow of an Ideal Gas through
a Nozzle, 721
17.7 Mass Rate of Flow of an Ideal Gas through an Isentropic Nozzle, 724
17.8 Normal Shock in an Ideal Gas Flowing through a Nozzle, 729
17.9 Nozzle and Diffuser Coefficients, 734
17.10 Nozzle and Orifices as Flow-Measuring Devices, 737
Summary, 741
Problems, 746
CONTENTS OF APPENDIX
APPENDIX A SI UNITS: SINGLE-STATE PROPERTIES 755
APPENDIX B SI UNITS: THERMODYNAMIC TABLES 775
APPENDIX C IDEAL-GAS SPECIFIC HEAT 825
APPENDIX D EQUATIONS OF STATE 827
APPENDIX E FIGURES 832
APPENDIX F ENGLISH UNIT TABLES 837
ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS 878
INDEX 889
Author Information
Richard E. Sonntag received his BSE, MSE and Ph.D. degrees, all in mechanical engineering, from the University of Michigan. He is a Professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Michigan and served as the department chair for eleven years. He is a fellow of the ASME and served on numerous committees within ASME and been vice chair and chair of the regional Department Heads.

Claus Borgnakke earned his MSE and Ph.D. from the Technical University of Denmark. He is an Associate Professor at the University of Michigan, where he received the Excellence in Teaching Award as well as other awards and recognitions, including the Ralph E. Teetor Award from SAE.

New To This Edition
• Concept check questions within chapters
• More figures, additional examples, and application sections in each chapter
• Revised version of CATT software for ease of calculating property data
Hallmark Features
• Thermonet Web Site offers an extensive collection of Internet-based learning resources in engineering thermodynamics at the college level. The site includes:

-A series of tutorials (with accompanying graphics, animations, and video clips) covering the topics of a standard introductory engineering thermodynamics course

-Interactive example problems

-Select thermodynamic property tables with a built-in interpolator

-Historical and biographical notes on the evolution of thermodynamics

-Links to other sites of thermodynamic interest

• End of chapter study guide questions help students reinforce and apply key concepts and understanding
• End-of-chapter summaries and collection of key concepts and formulas help students identify key concepts
• End of chapter homework problems according to subject

## Available Versions

Fundamentals of Thermodynamics, 7th Edition
by Claus Borgnakke, Richard E. Sonntag
ISBN 978-0-470-04192-5
August 2008, ©2009
Hardcover, 912 pages
US \$235.95 Add to Cart
E-book
Fundamentals of Thermodynamics, 7th Edition
by Claus Borgnakke, Richard E. Sonntag
ISBN 978-0-470-46165-5
November 2008, ©2009
Wiley E-Text