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Wiley Pathways Threats to Homeland Security, 1st Edition

September 2007, ©2008
Wiley Pathways Threats to Homeland Security, 1st Edition (EHEP000061) cover image


The threats to homeland security are exposed in this comprehensive resource. It takes readers through the natural and accidental disasters, as well as premeditated acts of domestic and international terrorism that threaten this country. They'll also find a detailed examination of terrorism, its processes and consequences. And they'll gain a better understanding of the various domestic and international terrorist groups that are trying to do us harm.
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Table of Contents

1 The Changing Nature of National Security 1

Introduction 2

1.1 Foundations of American Security Policy 2

1.1.1 Geopolitics at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century 3

1.1.2 National Security and World War II 5

Self-Check 8

1.2 Security in the Cold War Era 8

1.2.1 Bipolarity vs. Multipolarity 10

1.2.2 Containing Communism 12

1.2.3 Non-Communist Threats 17

Self-Check 18

1.3 Security in the Post–Cold War Era, Pre-9/1118

1.3.1 Changing Threats 18

1.3.2 New Conflicts, New Responses 19

1.3.3 Reorganization of National Security Policy 21

Self-Check 22

1.4 Security in the Global War on Terrorism, Post-9/11 22

1.4.1 Globalization and Geopolitics 23

1.4.2 Reorganization for the Global War on Terrorism 25

Self-Check 28

Summary 28

Key Terms 29

Summary Questions 32

Applying This Chapter 33

You Try It 34

2 U.S. Homeland Security Interests 35

Introduction 36

2.1 Human Security: Protecting People 36

2.1.1 Social Factors 38

2.1.2 Political Factors 40

Self-Check 48

2.2 Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources 48

2.2.1 Major Initiatives 50

2.2.2 Types of Protection 53

Self-Check 55

2.3 Economic Pressures and Activities 56

2.3.1 Protecting the U.S. Economy 56

2.3.2 Economic Recovery After an Incident 57

2.3.3 The Costs of Homeland Security 58

Self-Check 62

2.4 Societal Values: Protecting Democracy 62

2.4.1 A Controversy as Old as Our Country 63

2.4.2 The Bill of Rights and Constitutional Issues 63

Self-Check 67

Summary 67

Key Terms 67

Summary Questions 71

Applying This Chapter 72

You Try It 73

3 The All-Hazards Perspective 74

Introduction 75

3.1 Natural Disasters: Things We Can Expect to Happen 75

3.1.1 The History of Natural Disasters in the United States 76

3.1.2 Natural Disaster Response 78

3.1.3 Natural Disasters in a Post-9/11 World 80

Self-Check 82

3.2 Accidental Hazards: Things We Can Try to Prevent 82

3.2.1 History of Accidental Hazards in the United States 83

3.2.2 Accidental Hazard Prevention and Response 84

3.2.3 Accidental Hazards in a Post-9/11 World 87

Self-Check 88

3.3 Man-made Hazards: Things We Hope Don’t Happen 88

3.3.1 History of Man-made Disasters Caused by Human Error in the United States 89

3.3.2 Man-made Disaster Mitigation and Response 90

3.3.3 Man-made Disasters in a Post-9/11 World 92

Self-Check 93

Summary 93

Key Terms 94

Summary Questions 97

Applying This Chapter 98

You Try It 99

4 A Conceptual Framework—Assessing Threats and Interests 100

Introduction 101

4.1 A General Framework of Analysis—What to Assess 101

4.1.1 The Disaster Impact Process 102

4.1.2 Pre-Impact Conditions 103

4.1.3 Event-Specific Conditions 106

4.1.4 Final Thoughts on What to Assess 107

Self-Check 108

4.2 A Matrix Approach—How to Assess 108

4.2.1 Risk Matrices 110

4.2.2 Composite Exposure Indicator 112

4.2.3 HAZUS 114

4.2.4 Vulnerability Assessments 115

4.2.5 Final Thoughts on How to Assess 116

Self-Check 117

4.3 The Emergency Management Planning Model 117

4.3.1 Mitigation 117

4.3.2 Risk Reduction 119

4.3.3 Preparedness 120

4.3.4 Response 120

4.3.5 Recovery 123

Self-Check 124

Summary 125

Key Terms 125

Summary Questions 128

Applying This Chapter 129

You Try It 130

5 State Actors and Terrorism 131

Introduction 132

5.1 Defining Terrorism 132

5.1.1 The Historical Context of Terrorism 134

5.1.2 Terrorism and Political Violence 135

Self-Check 136

5.2 States and the Use of Force in the Inter-State System 136

5.2.1 The State and the Use of Force 137

5.2.2 The State and Intervention 138

Self-Check 140

5.3 State Actors: What Is State Terrorism? 140

5.3.1 Internal State Terrorism 140

5.3.2 External State Terrorism 143

Self-Check 145

5.4 The Global Response 145

5.4.1 The United Nations and Collective Security 145

5.4.2 The United Nations’ Response to Terrorism 147

Self-Check 149

5.5 The United States and State Sponsors of Terrorism 149

5.5.1 Cuba 150

5.5.2 Iran 152

5.5.3 Libya 154

5.5.4 North Korea 155

5.5.5 Sudan 155

5.5.6 Syria 156

Self-Check 158

5.6 Implications of the U.S. Response to State-Sponsored Terrorism 157

5.6.1 Criticisms of the State-Sponsored List 158

5.6.2 How Can the State Sponsor List Be Improved? 160

Self-Check 162

Summary 163

Key Terms 163

Summary Questions 165

Applying This Chapter 166

You Try It 167

6 Non-State Actors and Terrorism 168

Introduction 169

6.1 Non-State Terrorism and Its Impact on the Inter-State System 169

6.1.1 The Threat of Non-State Terrorism to a State 171

6.1.2 History of Ideas Underpinning Terrorist Movements 173

6.1.3 The Internationalization of Terrorism 176

6.1.4 The Meaning Behind the Internationalization of Terrorism 177

Self-Check 179

6.2 Different Types of Terrorist Organizations 179

6.2.1 Ethno-Nationalist/Separatist Terrorism 180

6.2.2 Ideological Terrorism 182

6.2.3 Religious Terrorism 187

Self-Check 192

6.3 Terrorist Methods 193

6.3.1 Primary Tactics of Terrorism 193

6.3.2 Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction 194

6.3.3 Suicide Terrorism 197

Self-Check 202

6.4 Counter-terrorism Efforts 202

6.4.1 Counter-terrorism Against Ethno-Nationalist/Separatist and Ideological Terrorism 203

6.4.2 Counter-terrorism Against Religious Terrorism 205

6.4.3 Counter-terrorism Against Suicide Terrorism 208

Self-Check 211

Summary 211

Key Terms 212

Summary Questions 214

Applying This Chapter 215

You Try It 216

7 Cyber-Terrorism and Cyber-Warfare 217

Introduction 218

7.1 The Cyber-Terrorism Threat 218

7.1.1 Defining Cyber-Terrorism and Cyber-Warfare 220

7.1.2 What Can Cyber-Terrorism and Cyber-Warfare Do? 221

Self-Check 224

7.2 Assessing Capability and Intent 224

7.2.1 Who Can Conduct Cyber-Terrorism and Cyber-Warfare? 225

7.2.2 Tools of Cyber-Terrorism 228

Self-Check 230

7.3 Assessing Consequences 230

7.3.1 Why America Is Vulnerable to Cyber-Terrorism 231

7.3.2 The Impact of a Cyber-Terrorist Attack 232

Self-Check 234

7.4 Determining Defenses Against Cyber-Terrorism and Cyber-Warfare 234

7.4.1 The Government and Private Sector Response to Cyber-Terrorism 237

7.4.2 The U.S. Military Response to Cyber-Warfare 240

Self-Check 244

Summary 244

Key Terms 245

Summary Questions 247

Applying This Chapter 248

You Try It 249

8 Weapons of Mass Destruction 250

Introduction 251

8.1 Chemical Weapons and Their Consequences 251

8.1.1 History of Chemical Weapons Use 251

8.1.2 Chemical Agents and Their Effects 252

8.1.3 The Threat of Chemical Weapons and Terrorism 253

Self-Check 255

8.2 Biological Weapons and Their Consequences 256

8.2.1 History of Biological Weapons Use 256

8.2.2 Biological Agents and Their Effects 258

8.2.3 The Threat of Biological Weapons and Terrorism 258

Self-Check 260

8.3 Radiological Weapons and Their Consequences 260

8.3.1 Radiological Materials and Their Effects 262

8.3.2 History of Nuclear Materials Discoveries and Weapons Development 265

8.3.3 The Threat of Nuclear Weapons and Terrorism 267

8.3.4 Managing Radiological Incidents and Their Aftermath 269

Self-Check 271

Summary 271

Key Terms 272

Summary Questions 274

Applying This Chapter 275

You Try It 276

9 Domestic Terrorism 277

Introduction 278

9.1 Analyzing the Domestic Terrorist Threat 278

9.1.1 Overview of Domestic Terrorism 279

9.1.2 Homegrown Terrorists 280

9.1.3 Foreign Terrorists 284

9.1.4 Foreign Terrorist Organizers 286

9.1.5 Final Thoughts on the Domestic Terrorist Threat 288

Self-Check 289

9.2 The Operational Environment for Terrorism 290

9.2.1 The Physical Environment 290

9.2.2 The Political Environment 291

9.2.3 The Security Environment 294

9.2.4 The Resource Environment 296

9.2.5 Final Thoughts on the Operational Environment 298

Self-Check 298

9.3 The U.S. Response to Terrorism 299

9.3.1 The Lead Agency Approach and Counterterrorism 299

9.3.2 The Criminal Justice Approach 301

9.3.3 Final Thoughts on the U.S. Response to Terrorism 304

Self-Check 305

Summary 305

Key Terms 306

Summary Questions 309

Applying This Chapter 310

You Try It 311

10 Enablers of Mass Effects 312

Introduction 313

10.1 The Power of Information and Ideas 313

10.1.1 Ideas and Terrorism 317

10.1.2 Ideas and the All-Hazards Assessment 318

Self-Check 321

10.2 The Role of the Media in the Global War on Terrorism 321

10.2.1 The Use of Media by Terrorist Groups 322

Self-Check 324

10.3 The Internet and Other Global Communications Means 324

Self-Check 330

10.4 The Role of Educational Institutions 331

10.4.1 Alternative Educational Institutions 331

10.4.2 International Students in the United States 332

10.4.3 Education of Domestic Students in Security 333

Self-Check 335

Summary 335

Key Terms 336

Summary Questions 338

Applying This Chapter 339

You Try It 340

Bibliography 341

Glossary 358

Index 372

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The Wiley Advantage

Learning Aids
  • Clear, everyday language and clean format. Students can read each chapter without being intimidated by difficult language or overwhelmed by sidebars, textboxes, and other fillers that interrupt the flow of the writing.  
  • Modular format.  Instructors can reorder textbook content to suit the needs of a particular class. The text proceeds logically from the basics to more challenging material, and chapters are further organized into sections that are self-contained for maximum teaching and learning flexibility. 
  • Pre-test. This pre-reading assessment tool in multiple-choice format  introduces chapter material and the learning outcomes. By focusing students’ attention on what they do not know, the self-test provides a benchmark against which they can measure their own progress. 
  • What You’ll Learn in this Chapter and After Studying this Chapter. These bulleted lists tell students what they will be learning in this chapter and why it is significant. “What You’ll Learn…” lists focus on subject matter that will be taught. Each bullet in the list corresponds to a chapter section.  “After Studying This Chapter…” lists emphasize capabilities and skills students will learn.
  • Goals and Outcomes. These lists identify specific learner capabilities that will result from reading the chapter.  They set students up to synthesize and evaluate the chapter material, and relate it to the real world. 
  • “For Example” Boxes. Found within each section, these boxes tie section content to real-world organizations, scenarios, and applications.
  • Figures and tables. Line art and photos have been carefully chosen to be truly instructional rather than filler. Tables distill and present information in a way that is easy to identify, access, and understand, enhancing the focus of the text on essential ideas without distracting or overwhelming the reader.     
  • Self-Check. Related to the “What You’ll Learn” bullets and found at the end of each section, this battery of short answer questions emphasizes student understanding of concepts and mastery of section content. Each Self-Check question set includes a link to a section of the pre-test for further review and practice.
  • Key Terms and Glossary. To help students develop a professional vocabulary, key terms are bolded in the introduction, summary and when they first appear in the chapter.  A complete list of key terms with brief definitions appears at the end of each chapter and again in a glossary at the end of the book.  Knowledge of key terms is assessed by all assessment tools (see below). 
  • Summary. Each chapter concludes with a summary paragraph that reviews the major concepts in the chapter and links back to the “What You’ll Learn” list. 

Evaluation and Assessment Tools

  • Summary Questions. These help students summarize the chapter’s main points by asking a series of multiple choice and true/false questions that emphasize student understanding of concepts and mastery of chapter content. 
  • Review Questions. In short answer format, these questions review the major points in each chapter, prompting analysis while reinforcing and confirming student understanding of concepts, and encouraging mastery of chapter content. 
  • Applying this Chapter Questions. This feature is used to drive home key ideas by asking students to synthesize and apply chapter concepts to new, real-life situations and scenarios.
  • You Try It! Questions.   Designed to extend students’ thinking, these questions are ideal for discussion or writing assignments.  Using an open-ended format and sometimes based on Web sources, they encourage students to draw conclusions using chapter material applied to real-world situations, which fosters both mastery and independent learning. 
  • Post-test.   After students have completed the chapter they have the ability to take a post test. It includes all of the questions in the pre-test, so that students can see how their learning has progressed and improved. 
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Wiley Instructor Companion Site
The Instructor's Resource Manual contains learning objectives, chapter summaries, key term lists, lecture notes, suggested class activities, recommended additional resources, and solutions to in-text problems. The instructor's resource manual is available online at the book companion site.
There are PowerPoint presentations for each chapter of the text. The PowerPoint slides are available online at the book companion site.
Test Banks
Test banks (computerized and printed): There are tests for each chapter within the text, as well as a midterm, a non-cumulative final exam, and a cumulative final exam. The questions consist of multiple choice, true/false, and essay type questions which vary in level and range from basic problem-solving questions to creative-thinking problems. The test banks are available online at the book companion site.
Image Gallery
The Image gallery allows you to print or download any of the images from the text to use in your class. The image galley is available online at the book companion site.
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Chapter Pre-Tests
Chapter pre-tests are pre-reading assessment tools in multiple-choice and true/false format. They introduce chapter material and help students get an idea of what they know and where they need to focus their efforts. The pre-tests are available online at the book companion site.
Chapter Post-tests
Chapter post tests should be taken after students have completed each chapter. They include all of the questions in the pre-tests, so that students can see how their learning has progressed and improved. The post tests are available online at the companion site.
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Purchase Options
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Wiley Pathways Threats to Homeland Security: An All-Hazards Perspective
ISBN : 978-0-470-46428-1
416 pages
December 2008, ©2009
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Wiley Pathways Threats to Homeland Security: An All-Hazards Perspective
ISBN : 978-0-470-07398-8
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September 2007, ©2008
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