Physics, 8th Edition
January 2009, ©2010
Like an elite athlete, students need superior support to reach the top of their game and be successful. Cutnell and Johnson puts students in motion and supports them every step of the way. Acting as essential equipment, PHYSICS 8e aids in the development of conceptual understanding, and shows students the relevance of physics to their lives and future careers.
Key to any successful athlete is practice, and physics is no different. Working high quality problem sets is one of the best ways for students to learn physics, and be successful. However, to benefit from working problems students need immediate feedback, and varying levels of coaching. WileyPLUS provides the support instructors need to efficiently and effectively manage their classroom and improve student performance.
Thousands of students have used Cutnell and Johnson as the equipment they need to build their problem-solving confidence, push their limits, and be successful.
1.1 The Nature of Physics.
1.3 The Role of Units in Problem Solving.
1.5 Scalars and Vectors.
1.6 Vector Addition and Subtraction.
1.7 The Components of a Vector.
1.8 Addition of Vectors by Means of Components.
1.9 Concepts & Calculations.
2 KINEMATICS IN ONE DIMENSION.
2.2 Speed and Velocity.
2.4 Equations of Kinematics for Constant Acceleration.
2.5 Applications of the Equations of Kinematics.
2.6 Freely Falling Bodies.
2.7 Graphical Analysis of Velocity and Acceleration.
2.8 Concepts & Calculations.
3 KINEMATICS IN TWO DIMENSION.
3.1 Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration.
3.2 Equations of Kinematics in Two Dimensions.
3.3 Projectile Motion.
*3.4 Relative Velocity.
3.5 Concepts & Calculations.
4 FORCES AND NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION.
4.1 The Concepts of Force and Mass.
4.2 Newtons’s First Law of Motion.
4.3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion.
4.4 The Vector Nature of Newton’s Second Law of Motion.
4.5 Newton's Third Law of Motion.
4.6 Types of Forces: An Overview.
4.7 The Gravitational Force.
4.8 The Normal Force.
4.9 Static and Kinetic Frictional Forces.
4.10 The Tension Force.
4.11 Equilibrium Applications of Newton's Laws of Motion.
4.12 Nonequilibrium Applications of Newton's Laws of Motion.
4.13 Concepts & Calculations.
5 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION.
5.1 Uniform Circular Motion.
5.2 Centripetal Acceleration.
5.3 Centripetal Force.
5.4 Banked Curves.
5.5 Satellites in Circular Orbits.
5.6 Apparent Weightlessness and Artificial Gravity.
*5.7 Vertical Circular Motion.
5.8 Concepts & Calculations.
6 WORK AND ENERGY.
6.1 Work Done by a Constant Force.
6.2 The Work–Energy Theorem and Kinetic Energy.
6.3 Gravitational Potential Energy.
6.4 Conservative Versus Nonconservative Forces.
6.5 The Conservation of Mechanical Energy.
6.6 Nonconservative Forces and the Work–Energy Theorem.
6.8 Other Forms of Energy and the Conservation of Energy.
6.9 Work Done by a Variable Force.
6.10 Concepts & Calculations.
7 IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM.
7.1 The Impulse–Momentum Theorem.
7.2 The Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum.
7.3 Collisions in One Dimension.
7.4 Collisions in Two Dimensions.
7.5 Center of Mass.
7.6 Concepts & Calculations.
8 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS.
8.1 Rotational Motion and Angular Displacement.
8.2 Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration.
8.3 The Equations of Rotational Kinematics.
8.4 Angular Variables and Tangential Variables.
8.5 Centripetal Acceleration and Tangential Acceleration.
8.6 Rolling Motion.
*8.7 The Vector Nature of Angular Variables.
8.8 Concepts & Calculations.
9 ROTATIONAL DYNAMICS.
9.1 The Action of Forces and Torques on Rigid Objects.
9.2 Rigid Objects in Equilibrium.
9.3 Center of Gravity.
9.4 Newton's Second Law for Rotational Motion About a Fixed Axis.
9.5 Rotational Work and Energy.
9.6 Angular Momentum.
9.7 Concepts & Calculations.
10 SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION AND ELASTICITY.
10.1 The Ideal Spring and Simple Harmonic Motion.
10.2 Simple Harmonic Motion and the Reference Circle.
10.3 Energy and Simple Harmonic Motion.
10.4 The Pendulum.
10.5 Damped Harmonic Motion.
10.6 Driven Harmonic Motion and Resonance.
10.7 Elastic Deformation.
10.8 Stress, Strain, and Hooke’s Law.
10.9 Concepts & Calculations.
11.1 Mass Density.
11.3 Pressure and Depth in a Static Fluid.
11.4 Pressure Gauges.
11.5 Pascal’s Principle.
11.6 Archimedes’ Principle.
11.7 Fluids in Motion.
11.8 The Equation of Continuity.
11.9 Bernoulli’s Equation.
11.10 Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation.
*11.11 Viscous Flow.
11.12 Concepts & Calculations.
12 TEMPERATURE AND HEAT.
12.1 Common Temperature Scales.
12.2 The Kelvin Temperature Scale.
12.4 Linear Thermal Expansion.
12.5 Volume Thermal Expansion.
12.6 Heat and Internal Energy.
12.7 Heat and Temperature Change: Specific Heat Capacity.
12.8 Heat and Phase Change: Latent Heat.
*12.9 Equilibrium Between Phases of Matter.
12.11 Concepts & Calculations.
13 THE TRANSFER OF HEAT.
13.5 Concepts & Calculations.
14 THE IDEAL GAS LAW.
AND KINETIC THEORY.
14.1 Molecular Mass, The Mole,and Avogadro’s Number.
14.2 The Ideal Gas Law.
14.3 Kinetic Theory of Gases.
14.5 Concepts & Calculations.
15.1 Thermodynamic Systems and Their Surroundings.
15.2 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics.
15.3 The First Law of Thermodynamics.
15.4 Thermal Processes.
15.5 Thermal Processes Using an Ideal Gas.
15.6 Specific Heat Capacities.
15.7 The Second Law of Thermodynamics.
15.8 Heat Engines.
15.9 Carnot’s Principle and the Carnot Engine.
15.10 Refrigerators, Air Conditioners,and Heat Pumps.
15.12 The Third Law of Thermodynamics.
15.13 Concepts & Calculations.
16 WAVES AND SOUND.
16.1 The Nature of Waves.
16.2 Periodic Waves.
16.3 The Speed of a Wave on a String.
*16.4 The Mathematical Description of a Wave.
16.5 The Nature of Sound.
16.6 The Speed of Sound.
16.7 Sound Intensity.
16.9 The Doppler Effect.
16.10 Applications of Sound in Medicine.
*16.11 The Sensitivity of the Human Ear.
16.12 Concepts & Calculations.
17 THE PRINCIPLE OF LINEAR SUPERPOSITION AND INTERFERENCE PHENOMENA.
17.1 The Principle of Linear Superposition.
17.2 Constructive and Destructive Interference of Sound Waves.
17.5 Transverse Standing Waves.
17.6 Longitudinal Standing Waves.
*17.7 Complex Sound Waves.
17.8 Concepts & Calculations.
18 ELECTRIC FORCES AND ELECTRIC FIELDS.
18.1 The Origin of Electricity.
18.2 Charged Objects and the Electric Force.
18.3 Conductors and Insulators.
18.4 Charging by Contact and by Induction.
18.5 Coulomb’s Law.
18.6 The Electric Field.
18.7 Electric Field Lines.
18.8 The Electric Field Inside a Conductor: Shielding.
18.9 Gauss’ Law.
*18.10 Copiers and Computer Printers.
18.11 Concepts & Calculations.
19 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL ENERGY AND THE ELECTRIC POTENTIAL.
19.1 Potential Energy.
19.2 The Electric Potential Difference.
19.3 The Electric Potential Difference Created by Point Charges.
19.4 Equipotential Surfaces and Their Relation to the Electric Field.
19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics.
*19.6 Biomedical Applications of Electric Potential Differences.
19.7 Concepts & Calculations.
20 ELECTRIC CIRCUITS.
20.1 Electromotive Force and Current.
20.2 Ohm’s Law.
20.3 Resistance and Resistivity.
20.4 Electric Power.
20.5 Alternating Current.
20.6 Series Wiring.
20.7 Parallel Wiring.
20.8 Circuits Wired Partially in Series and Partially in Parallel.
20.9 Internal Resistance.
20.10 Kirchhoff’s Rules.
20.11 The Measurement of Current and Voltage.
20.12 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel.
20.13 RC Circuits.
20.14 Safety and the Physiological Effects of Current.
20.15 Concepts & Calculations.
21 MAGNETIC FORCES AND MAGNETIC FIELDS.
21.1 Magnetic Fields.
21.2 The Force That a Magnetic Field Exerts on a Moving Charge.
21.3 The Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field.
21.4 The Mass Spectrometer.
21.5 The Force on a Current in a Magnetic Field.
21.6 The Torque on a Current-Carrying Coil.
21.7 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents.
21.8 Ampère’s Law.
21.9 Magnetic Materials.
21.10 Concepts & Calculations.
22 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION.
22.1 Induced Emf and Induced Current.
22.2 Motional Emf.
22.3 Magnetic Flux.
22.4 Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction.
22.5 Lenz’s Law.
*22.6 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction to the Reproduction of Sound.
22.7 The Electric Generator.
22.8 Mutual Inductance and Self-Inductance.
22.10 Concepts & Calculations.
23 ALTERNATING CURRENT CIRCUITS.
23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance.
23.2 Inductors and Inductive Reactance.
23.3 Circuits Containing Resistance, Capacitance,and Inductance.
23.4 Resonance in Electric Circuits.
23.5 Semiconductor Devices.
23.6 Concepts & Calculations.
24 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES.
24.1 The Nature of Electromagnetic Waves.
24.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum.
24.3 The Speed of Light.
24.4 The Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves.
24.5 The Doppler Effect and Electromagnetic Waves.
24.7 Concepts & Calculations.
25 THE REFLECTION OF LIGHT: MIRRORS.
25.1 Wave Fronts and Rays.
25.2 The Reflection of Light.
25.3 The Formation of Images by a Plane Mirror.
25.4 Spherical Mirrors.
25.5 The Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors.
25.6 The Mirror Equation and the Magnification Equation.
25.7 Concepts & Calculations.
26 THE REFRACTION OF LIGHT: LENSES AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS.
26.1 The Index of Refraction.
26.2 Snell’s Law and the Refraction of Light.
26.3 Total Internal Reflection.
26.4 Polarization and the Reflection and Refraction of Light.
26.5 The Dispersion of Light: Prisms and Rainbows.
26.7 The Formation of Images by Lenses.
26.8 The Thin-Lens Equation and the Magnification Equation.
26.9 Lenses in Combination.
26.10 The Human Eye.
26.11 Angular Magnification and the Magnifying Glass.
26.12 The Compound Microscope.
26.13 The Telescope.
26.14 Lens Aberrations.
26.15 Concepts & Calculations.
27 INTERFERENCE AND THE WAVE NATURE OF LIGHT.
27.1 The Principle of Linear Superposition.
27.2 Young’s Double-Slit Experiment.
27.3 Thin-Film Interference.
27.4 The Michelson Interferometer.
27.6 Resolving Power.
27.7 The Diffraction Grating.
*27.8 Compact Discs, Digital Video Discs, and the Use of Interference.
27.9 X-Ray Diffraction.
27.10 Concepts & Calculations.
28 SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
28.1 Events and Inertial Reference Frames.
28.2 The Postulates of Special Relativity.
28.3 The Relativity of Time: Time Dilation.
28.4 The Relativity of Length: Length Contraction.
28.5 Relativistic Momentum.
28.6 The Equivalence of Mass and Energy.
28.7 The Relativistic Addition of Velocities.
28.8 Concepts & Calculations.
29 PARTICLES AND WAVES.
29.1 The Wave–Particle Duality.
29.2 Blackbody Radiation and Planck’s Constant.
29.3 Photons and the Photoelectric Effect.
29.4 The Momentum of a Photon and the Compton Effect.
29.5 The de Broglie Wavelength and the Wave Nature of Matter.
29.6 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.
29.7 Concepts & Calculations.
30 THE NATURE OF THE ATOM.
30.1 Rutherford Scattering and the Nuclear Atom.
30.2 Line Spectra.
30.3 The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom.
30.4 De Broglie’s Explanation of Bohr’s Assumption about Angular Momentum.
30.5 The Quantum Mechanical Picture of the Hydrogen Atom.
30.6 The Pauli Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table of the Elements.
30.8 The Laser.
*30.9 Medical Applications of the Laser.
30.11 Concepts & Calculations.
31 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIOACTIVITY.
31.1 Nuclear Structure.
31.2 The Strong Nuclear Force and the Stability of the Nucleus.
31.3 The Mass Defect of the Nucleus and Nuclear Binding Energy.
31.5 The Neutrino.
31.6 Radioactive Decay and Activity.
31.7 Radioactive Dating.
31.8 Radioactive Decay Series.
31.9 Radiation Detectors.
31.10 Concepts & Calculations.
32 IONIZING RADIATION, NUCLEAR ENERGY,AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLES.
32.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation.
32.2 Induced Nuclear Reactions.
32.3 Nuclear Fission.
32.4 Nuclear Reactors.
32.5 Nuclear Fusion.
32.6 Elementary Particles.
32.8 Concepts & Calculations.
Appendix A Powers of Ten and Scientific Notation.
Appendix B Significant Figures.
Appendix C Algebra.
Appendix D Exponents and Logarithms.
Appendix E Geometry and Trigonometry.
Appendix F Selected Isotopes.
ANSWERS: TO CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING.
ANSWERS: TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS.
This new feature is located at the end of every chapter and replaces the Conceptual Questions. It consists primarily of multiple-choice questions that deal with important concepts. Some problems are also included that are designed to avoid mathematical complexity in order to probe basic conceptual understanding. All of the questions and problems are available for assignment via WileyPLUS. These algorithmically generated questions provide extensive feedback for both right and wrong answers.
MODIFIED CONCEPTUAL EXAMPLES
Conceptual examples appear in every chapter. They are intended as explicit models of how to use physics principles to analyze a situation described in a problem before attempting to solve the problem numerically. The Focus-on-Concepts questions provide the homework counterpart to the conceptual examples.
EXPANDED CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
This feature appears at the ends of selected sections in every chapter and consists of questions in either a multiple-choice or a free-response format. The questions (answers are in the back of the book) are designed to enable students to see if they have understood the concepts discussed in the section. The collection of questions has been substantially increased relative to that present in the seventh edition, and the scope of the questions has been expanded considerably. Teachers who use a classroom response system will also find the questions useful to use as clicker-questions.
EXPANDED AND MODIFIED GOTM PROBLEMS
Some of the homework problems found in the collection at the end of each chapter are marked with a special GOTM icon. All of these problems are available for assignment via WileyPLUS. There are 332 GOTM problems, an increase of about 40% relative to those present in the seventh edition. In addition and new to the eighth edition, each of these problems in WileyPLUS now includes a guided tutorial option that instructors can make available for student-access with or without penalty.
QUESTION POOLS AVAILABLE IN WileyPLUS
Pools are groups of questions on a particular concept. When assigned, each student will receive one question from the pool in their assignment. Since most exams contain multiple choice conceptual questions, and students don't get an opportunity to practice these types of questions for homework, Question Pools in WileyPLUS will give students exam style practice. Question Pools were created by a member of the author team to ensure that all pool questions are at the same difficulty level and assess the same concept.
Mathskills MODULE ADDED TO WileyPLUS
Mathskills is a self-study module within WileyPLUS for students who need a quick review of the algebra and trigonometry topics that are prerequisite for introductory physics. This module is not meant to be a substitute for a comprehensive algebra-trigonometry course but rather a refresher for students who may need it. Each of the topics within the module has algorithmic questions that the instructor can assign (either graded or ungraded). There is a pre-built quiz that instructors can use as a diagnostic.
ENHANCEMENTS TO WileyPLUS PROBLEMS
Data Tables have been added to many problems. Like the tables found in the Analyzing-Multiple-Concept-Problems examples in the text, these tables provide an organized starting point from which students can begin the problem solving process.
A substantial number of Sample Examples have been added. These examples allow students to see worked out problems that are similar, but not identical, to those in their homework assignments.
Line drawings have been added to many problems that currently do not have them in the text. Students find it easier to begin the problem solving process when they can visualize the situation.
Students need a conceptual understanding of physics to build transferable problem-solving skills. Without a conceptual framework students just struggle through the course using pattern recognition and calculators to solve problems. Helping students develop a conceptual understanding of physics is one of the primary goals of Cutnell & Johnson. To this end the authors have developed a set of features (Check Your Understanding, Concepts & Calculations, Concepts at a Glance) whose popularity among students and instructors has made their text the market leader for the past 15 years. This feature set continues to be enhanced with new items such as the Analyzing-Multiple-Concept Problems (AMP). AMP problems are more sophisticated than “plug and chug” problems and involve two or more physics concepts. By using a highly visual layout they teach the student to first identify the physics concepts, then associate the appropriate mathematical equations, and finally to work out an algebraic solution.
Showing students the relevance of physics to their lives is another goal of the Cutnell & Johnson text. There is extensive support for premed and biomedical students taking this course such as: biomedical applications in the text and end of chapter problems marked with a caduceus, practice MCAT exams, and a supplemental book of biomedical introductory physics. There are also many other diverse applications throughout the text.
Working high quality problem sets is one of the best ways for students to learn physics. However, to benefit from working problems students need immediate feedback and varying levels of assistance. WileyPLUS provides the support instructors need to efficiently and effectively manage their classroom and improve student performance. Extensive feedback in the form of hints and suggestions are provided when incorrect answers are selected. Guided-Online problems are multi-step tutorial problems that are intended to provide the structure students need to incorporate concept identification into their problem-solving methodology.