Textbook
Design of Reinforced Concrete, 8th EditionDecember 2008, ©2009

The text was prepared for an introductory three credit hour undergraduate course on reinforced concrete design. Nevertheless, sufficient material is included so that this textbook can be used for a second additional three credit hour undergraduate course. Further, this text is also useful for practicing engineers as it presents the latest requirements of the ACI design code.
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1 Concrete and Reinforced Concrete 1
1.2 Advantages of Reinforced Concrete as a
Structural Material 1
1.3 Disadvantages of Reinforced Concrete
as a Structural Material 2
1.4 Historical Background 3
1.5 Comparison of Reinforced Concrete and Structural
Steel for Buildings and Bridges 5
1.6 Compatibility of Concrete and Steel 6
1.7 Design Codes 7
1.8 SI Units and Shaded Areas 7
1.9 Types of Portland Cement 8
1.10 Admixtures 9
1.11 Properties of Reinforced Concrete 10
1.12 Aggregates 17
1.13 HighStrength Concretes 18
1.14 FiberReinforced Concretes 20
1.15 Concrete Durability 21
1.16 Reinforcing Steel 21
1.17 Grades of Reinforcing Steel 24
1.18 Bar Sizes and Material Strengths 25
1.19 Corrosive Environments 26
1.20 Identifying Marks on Reinforcing Bars 26
1.21 Introduction to Loads 28
1.22 Dead Loads 28
1.23 Live Loads 28
1.24 Environmental Loads 30
1.25 Selection of Design Loads 32
1.26 Calculation Accuracy 33
1.27 Impact of Computers on Reinforced
Concrete Design 34
Chapter 2. Flexural Analysis of Beams 35
2.1 Introduction 35
2.2 Cracking Moment 38
2.3 Elastic StressesConcrete Cracked 40
2.4 Ultimate or Nominal Flexural
Moments 46
2.5 Example Problem Using SI Units 49
2.6 Computer Spreadsheets 50
Chapter 3. Strength Analysis of Beams According to
ACI Code 63
3.1 Design Methods 63
3.2 Advantages of Strength Design 64
3.3 Structural Safety 64
3.4 Derivation of Beam Expressions 65
3.5 Strains in Flexural Members 68
3.6 Balanced Sections, TensionControlled
Sections, and CompressionControlled or
Brittle Sections 69
3.7 Strength Reduction or f Factors 70
3.8 Minimum Percentage of Steel 72
3.9 Balanced Steel Percentage 73
3.10 Example Problems 74
3.11 Computer Example 77
Chapter 4. Design of Rectangular Beams and
OneWay Slabs 79
4.1 Load Factors 79
4.2 Design of Rectangular Beams 81
4.3 Beam Design Examples 86
4.4 Miscellaneous Beam Considerations 92
4.5 Determining Steel Area When Beam
Dimensions Are Predetermined 93
4.6 Bundled Bars 95
4.7 OneWay Slabs 96
4.8 Cantilever Beams and Continuous Beams 99
4.9 SI Example 100
4.10 Computer Example 101
Chapter 5. Analysis and Design of T Beams and Doubly
Reinforced Beams 109
5.1 T Beams 111
5.2 Analysis of T Beams 111
5.3 Another Method for Analyzing T Beams 115
5.4 Design of T Beams 116
5.5 Design of T Beams for Negative Moments 122
5.6 LShaped Beams 124
5.7 Compression Steel 124
5.8 Design of Doubly Reinforced Beams 129
5.9 SI Examples 132
5.10 Computer Examples 134
Chapter 6. Serviceability 150
6.1 Introduction 150
6.2 Importance of Deflections 150
6.3 Control of Deflections 151
6.4 Calculation of Deflections 153
6.5 Effective Moments of Inertia 153
6.6 LongTerm Deflections 156
6.7 SimpleBeam Deflections 158
6.8 ContinuousBeam Deflections 160
6.9 Types of Cracks 166
6.10 Control of Flexural Cracks 167
6.11 ACI Code Provisions Concerning Cracks 171
6.12 Miscellaneous Cracks 172
6.13 SI Example 172
6.14 Computer Examples 173
Chapter 7. Bond, Development Lengths, and
Splices 180
7.1 Cutting Off or Bending Bars 180
7.2 Bond Stresses 183
7.3 Development Lengths for Tension
Reinforcing 186
7.4 Development Lengths for Bundled Bars 194
7.5 Hooks 195
7.6 Development Lengths for Welded Wire Fabric
in Tension 199
7.7 Development Lengths for Compression
Bars 200
7.8 Critical Sections for Development Length 202
7.9 Effect of Combined Shear and Moment
on Development Lengths 202
7.10 Effect of Shape of Moment Diagram
on Development Lengths 203
7.11 Cutting Off or Bending Bars
(Continued) 204
7.12 Bar Splices in Flexural Members 207
7.13 Tension Splices 208
7.14 Compression Splices 209
7.15 Headed and Mechanically
Anchored Bars 210
7.16 SI Example 211
7.17 Computer Example 212
Chapter 8. Shear and Diagonal Tension 219
8.1 Introduction 219
8.2 Shear Stresses in Concrete Beams 219
8.3 Lightweight Concrete 220
8.4 Shear Strength of Concrete 221
8.5 Shear Cracking of Reinforced Concrete
Beams 222
8.6 Web Reinforcement 223
8.7 Behavior of Beams with Web
Reinforcement 225
8.8 Design for Shear 226
8.9 ACI Code Requirements 228
8.10 Example Shear Design Problems 233
8.11 Economical Spacing of Stirrups 243
8.12 Shear Friction and Corbels 243
8.13 Shear Strength of Members Subjected
to Axial Forces 246
8.14 Shear Design Provisions for Deep Beams 248
8.15 Introductory Comments on Torsion 249
8.16 SI Example 251
8.17 Computer Example 252
Chapter 9. Introduction to Columns 257
9.1 General 257
9.2 Types of Columns 258
9.3 Axial Load Capacity of Columns 260
9.4 Failure of Tied and Spiral Columns 261
9.5 Code Requirements for CastinPlace
Columns 264
9.6 Safety Provisions for Columns 266
9.7 Design Formulas 266
9.8 Comments on Economical Column Design 266
9.9 Design of Axially Loaded Columns 269
9.10 SI Example 271
9.11 Computer Example 272
Chapter 10. Design of Short Columns Subject to Axial
Load and Bending 275
10.1 Axial Load and Bending 275
10.2 The Plastic Centroid 276
10.3 Development of Interaction Diagrams 278
10.4 Use of Interaction Diagrams 283
10.5 Code Modifications of Column Interaction
Diagrams 285
10.6 Design and Analysis of Eccentrically Loaded
Columns Using Interaction Diagrams 287
10.7 Shear in Columns 295
10.8 Biaxial Bending 296
10.9 Design of Biaxially Loaded Columns 300
10.10 Discussion of Capacity Reduction Factor, f 303
10.11 Computer Example 305
Chapter 11. Slender Columns 311
11.1 Introduction 311
11.2 Nonsway and Sway Frames 311
11.3 Slenderness Effects 312
11.4 Determining k Factors with Alignment
Charts 315
11.5 Determining k Factors with Equations 317
11.6 FirstOrder Analyses Using Special Member
Properties 318
11.7 Slender Columns in Nonsway or Sway
Frames 319
11.8 ACI Code Treatment of Slenderness Effects 322
11.9 Magnification of Column Moments in Nonsway
Frames 322
11.10 Magnification of Column Moments in Sway
Frames 327
11.11 Analysis of Sway Frames 330
11.12 Computer Examples 336
Chapter 12. Footings 341
12.1 Introduction 341
12.2 Types of Footings 341
12.3 Actual Soil Pressures 342
12.4 Allowable Soil Pressures 345
12.5 Design of Wall Footings 346
12.6 Design of Square Isolated Footings 351
12.7 Footings Supporting Round or Regular
PolygonShaped Footings 357
12.8 Load Transfer from Columns to Footings 358
12.9 Rectangular Isolated Footings 362
12.10 Combined Footings 364
12.11 Footing Design for Equal Settlements 370
12.12 Footings Subjected to Lateral Moments 372
12.13 Transfer of Horizontal Forces 375
12.14 Plain Concrete Footings 376
12.15 SI Example 378
12.16 Computer Examples 379
Chapter 13. Retaining Walls 385
13.1 Introduction 385
13.2 Types of Retaining Walls 385
13.3 Drainage 387
13.4 Failures of Retaining Walls 390
13.5 Lateral Pressures on Retaining Walls 390
13.6 Footing Soil Pressures 395
13.7 Design of Semigravity Retaining Walls 396
13.8 Effect of Surcharge 399
13.9 Estimating the Sizes of Cantilever
Retaining Walls 400
13.10 Design Procedure for Cantilever
Retaining Walls 405
13.11 Cracks and Wall Joints 416
Chapter 14. Continuous Reinforced Concrete
Structures 422
14.1 Introduction 422
14.2 General Discussion of Analysis Methods 422
14.3 Qualitative Influence Lines 423
14.4 Limit Design 426
14.5 Limit Design under the ACI Code 433
14.6 Preliminary Design of Members 436
14.7 Approximate Analysis of Continuous Frames
for Vertical Loads 436
14.8 Approximate Analysis of Continuous Frames
for Lateral Loads 444
14.9 Computer Analysis of Building Frames 450
14.10 Lateral Bracing for Buildings 450
14.11 Development Length Requirements for
Continuous Members 451
Chapter 15. Torsion 462
15.1 Introduction 462
15.2 Torsional Reinforcing 463
15.3 The Torsional Moments That Have
to Be Considered in Design 466
15.4 Torsional Stresses 467
15.5 When Torsional Reinforcing is Required
by the ACI 468
15.6 Torsional Moment Strength 469
15.7 Design of Torsional Reinforcing 470
15.8 Additional ACI Requirements 471
15.9 Example Problems Using U.S.
Customary Units 472
15.10 SI Equations and Example Problem 475
15.11 Computer Example 479
Chapter 16. TwoWay Slabs, Direct Design Method 484
16.1 Introduction 484
16.2 Analysis of TwoWay Slabs 487
16.3 Design of TwoWay Slabs By the ACI Code 487
Contents ix
MacCormac_FM_1?10/14/2008 10
16.4 Column and Middle Strips 488
16.5 Shear Resistance of Slabs 489
16.6 Depth Limitations and Stiffness
Requirements 492
16.7 Limitations of Direct Design Method 497
16.8 Distribution of Moments in Slabs 498
16.9 Design of An Interior Flat Plate 503
16.10 Placing of Live Loads 508
16.11 Analysis of TwoWay Slabs with Beams 509
16.12 Transfer of Moments and Shears Between
Slabs and Columns 515
16.13 Openings in Slab Systems 520
16.14 Computer Examples 521
Problems 522
Chapter 17. TwoWay Slabs, Equivalent Frame
Method 524
17.1 Moment Distribution for Nonprismatic
Members 524
17.2 Introduction to the Equivalent Frame
Method 525
17.3 Properties of Slab Beams 527
17.4 Properties of Columns 530
17.5 Example Problem 531
17.6 Computer Analysis 535
Chapter 18. Walls 538
18.1 Introduction 538
18.2 NonLoadBearing Walls 538
18.3 LoadBearing Concrete WallsEmpirical Design
Method 540
18.4 LoadBearing Concrete WallsRational
Design 543
18.5 Shear Walls 545
18.6 ACI Provisions for Shear Walls 549
18.7 Economy in Wall Construction 554
18.8 Computer Examples 555
Chapter 19. Prestressed Concrete 558
19.1 Introduction 558
19.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Prestressed
Concrete 560
19.3 Pretensioning and Posttensioning 560
19.4 Materials Used for Prestressed Concrete 561
19.5 Stress Calculations 563
19.6 Shapes of Prestressed Sections 567
19.7 Prestess Losses 570
19.8 Ultimate Strength of Prestressed Sections 573
19.9 Deflections 577
19.10 Shear in Prestressed Sections 581
19.11 Design of Shear Reinforcement 582
19.12 Additional Topics 586
19.13 Computer Examples 588
Chapter 20. Formwork 594
20.1 Introduction 594
20.2 Responsibility for Formwork Design 594
20.3 Materials Used for Formwork 595
20.4 Furnishing of Formwork 596
20.5 Economy in Formwork 597
20.6 Form Maintenance 598
20.7 Definitions 599
20.8 Forces Applied to Concrete Forms 601
20.9 Analysis of Formwork for Floor and
Roof Slabs 604
20.10 Design of Formwork for Floor and
Roof Slabs 613
20.11 Design of Shoring 616
20.12 Bearing Stresses 622
20.13 Design of Formwork for Walls 625
Chapter 21. Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete
Structure 629
21.1 Introduction 629
21.2 Maximum Considered Earthquake 630
21.3 Soil Site Class 630
21.4 Occupancy and Importance Factors 632
21.5 Seismic Design Categories 632
21.6 Seismic Design Loads 632
21.7 Detailing Requirements for Different Classes
of Reinforce Concrete Moment Frames 638
A. Tables and Graphs: U.S. Customary
Units 646
B. Tables in SI Units 682
C. The StrutandTie Method of Design 688
Russell H. Brown chaired the Civil Engineering Department at Clemson University for 17 years and recently retired. He received his BS degree from the University of Houston and his Ph.D. from Rice University. He is former chairman of ASTM Committee C15, former chair of the Flexure and Axial Loads Subcommittee of the Masonry Standards Joint Committee, and Founding Member and Honorary Member of the Masonry Society. He received the John Scalzi Award for his research in structural masonry and twice received ASTM’s Alan Yorkdale Award for his research publications.

With the eighth edition of this text the contents have been updated to conform to the 2008 building code of the American Concrete Institute (ACI 31808).

This edition of the Code includes numerous changes in notations and section numbers. In addition, a change in the treatment of the design of lightweight aggregate concrete throughout the Code was introduced.

The strength reduction factor for spiral columns was increased and headed deformed bars were introduced as an alternative to hooks for providing development length.

The new Code provided clarifications for development length of galvanized, stainless steel and bundled bars.

Use of small concrete cylinders was introduced, allowing 4 x 8 in. cylinders instead of 6 x 12 in.

Earthquakeresistant design requirements are now related to the seismic design category (SDC) leave Seismic Design

Category with initial caps to be consistent with other documents that prescribe design loads.
Updated Material

Most of the chapters have been modified reflecting the viewpoints of the new coauthor, with the concurrence of the original author.

The new spreadsheets included with the text were created to provide the student and the instructor with tools to analyze and design reinforced concrete elements quickly to compare alternative solutions.
Seismic Design

A new chapter on seismic design was added. This chapter is intended only as an introduction to the topic. An entire textbook could be written on this subject alone. It does, however, familiarize the student with issues related to design of reinforced concrete structures to resist earthquakes.
Shear Wall Design

The section on shear wall design in Chapter has been expanded. The new material gives details and examples on how to design shear walls for combined axial load and bending moment.

Interaction diagrams are developed for shear walls similar to those for columns in Chapter 10.
 Excel Spreadsheets: Excel spreadsheets for many examples in the text provide the student and the instructor with tools to analyze and design reinforced concrete elements quickly to compare alternative solutions.
 Seismic Design: A new introductory chapter on seismic designfamiliarizes students with issues related to design of reinforced concrete structures to resist earthquakes.
 Shear Wall Design: Expanded material on shear wall design in Chapter 18 gives details and examples on how to design shear walls for combined axial load and bending moment. Interaction diagrams are developed for shear walls similar to those for columns in Chapter 10.
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