Textbook
Understanding Physics, 1st EditionApril 2004, ©2004

CHAPTER 1. Measurement.
11 Introduction.
12 Basic Measurements in the Study of Motion.
13 The Quest for Precision.
14 The International System of Units.
15 The SI Standard of Time.
16 The SI Standards of Length.
17 SI Standards of Mass.
18 Measurement Tools for Physics Labs.
19 Changing Units.
110 Calculations with Uncertain Quantities.
CHAPTER 2. Motion Along a Straight Line.
21 Motion.
22 Position and Displacement Along a Line.
23 Velocity and Speed.
24 Describing Velocity Change.
25 Constant Acceleration : A Special Case.
CHAPTER 3. Forces and Motion Along a Line.
31 What Causes Acceleration?
32 Newton’s First Law.
33 A Single Force and Acceleration Along a Line.
34 Measuring Forces.
35 Defining and Measuring Mass.
36 Newton’s Second Law for a Single Force.
37 Combining Forces Along a Line.
38 All Forces Result from Interaction.
39 Gravitational Forces and Free Fall Motion.
310 Newton’s Third Law.
311 Comments on Classical Mechanics.
CHAPTER 4. Vectors.
41 Introduction.
42 Vector Displacements.
43 Adding Vectors Graphically.
44 Rectangular Vector Components.
45 Unit Vectors.
46 Adding Vectors Using Components.
47 Multiplying and Dividing a Vector by a Scalar.
48 Vectors and the Laws of Physics.
CHAPTER 5. Net Force and TwoDimensional Motion.
51 Introduction.
52 Projectile Motion.
53 Analyzing Ideal Projectile Motion.
54 Displacement in Two Dimensions.
55 Average and Instantaneous Velocity.
56 Average and Instantaneous Acceleration.
57 Uniform Circular Motion.
CHAPTER 6. Identifying and Using Forces.
61 Combining Everyday Forces.
62 Net Force as a Vector Sum.
63 Gravitational Force and Weight.
64 Contact Forces.
65 Drag Force and Terminal Speed.
66 Applying Newton’s Laws.
67 The Fundamental Forces of Nature.
CHAPTER 7. Translational Momentum.
71 Collisions and Explosions.
72 Translational Momentum of a Particle.
73 Isolated Systems of Particles.
74 Impulse and Momentum Change.
75 Newton’s Laws and Momentum Conservation.
76 Simple Collisions and Conservation of Momentum.
77 Conservation of Momentum in Two Dimensions.
78 A System with Mass Exchange—A Rocket and Its Ejected Fuel.
CHAPTER 8. Extended Systems.
81 The Motion of Complex Objects.
82 Defining the Position of a Complex Object.
83 The Effective Position—Center of Mass.
84 Locating a System’s Center of Mass.
85 Newton’s Laws for a System of Particles.
86 The Momentum of a Particle System.
CHAPTER 9 Kinetic Energy and Work.
91 Introduction.
92 Introduction to Work and Kinetic Energy.
93 The Concept of Physical Work.
94 Calculating Work for Constant Forces.
95 Work Done by a Spring Force.
96 Work for a OneDimensional Variable Force—General Considerations.
97 Force and Displacement in More Than One Dimension.
98 Multiplying a Vector by a Vector:The Dot Product.
99 Net Work and Translational Kinetic Energy.
910 Power.
CHAPTER 10. Potential Energy and Energy Conservation.
101 Introduction.
102 Work and Path Dependence.
103 Potential Energy as “Stored Work”.
104 Mechanical Energy Conservation.
105 Reading a Potential Energy Curve.
106 Nonconservative Forces and Enegy.
107 Conservation of Energy.
108 OneDimensional Energy and Momentum Conservation.
109 OneDimensional Elastic Collisions.
1010 TwoDimensional Energy and Momentum Conservation.
CHAPTER 11. Rotation.
111 Translation and Rotation.
112 The Rotational Variables.
113 Rotation with Constant Rotational Acceleration.
114 Relating Translational and Rotational Variables.
115 Kinetic Energy of Rotation.
116 Calculating Rotational Inertia.
117 Torque.
118 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation.
119 Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy.
CHAPTER 12. Complex Rotations.
121 About Complex Rotations.
122 Combining Translations with Simple Rotations.
123 Rotational Variables as Vectors.
124 The Vector or Cross Product.
125 Torque as a Vector Product.
126 Rotational Form of Newton’s Second Law.
127 Rotational Momentum.
128 The Rotational Momentum of a System of Particles.
129 The Rotational Momentum of a Rigid Body Rotating About a Fixed Axis.
1210 Conservation of Rotational Momentum.
CHAPTER 13 Equilibrium and Elasticity.
131 Introduction.
132 Equilibrium.
133 The Center of Gravity.
134 Indeterminate Equilibrium Problems.
135 Elasticity.
CHAPTER 14. Gravitation.
141 Our Galaxy and the Gravitational Force.
142 Newton’s Law of Gravitation.
143 Gravitation and Superposition.
144 Gravitation in the Earth's Vicinity.
145 Gravitation Inside Earth.
146 Gravitational Potential Energy.
147 Einstein and Gravitation.
CHAPTER 15. Fluids.
151 Fluids and the World Around Us.
152 What Is a Fluid.
153 Pressure and Density.
154 Gravitational Forces and Fluids at Rest.
155 Measuring Pressure.
156 Pascal's Principle.
157 Archimedes’ Principle.
158 Ideal Fluids in Motion.
159 The Equation of Continuity.
1510 Volume Flux.
1511 Bernoulli’s Equation.
CHAPTER 16. Oscillations.
161 Periodic Motion: An Overview.
162 The Mathematics of Sinusoidal Oscillations.
163 Simple Harmonic Motion:The Mass–Spring System.
164 Velocity and Acceleration for SHM.
165 Gravitational Pendula.
166 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion.
167 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion.
168 Forced Oscillations and Resonance.
CHAPTER 17. Transverse Mechanical Waves.
171 Waves and Particles.
172 Types of Waves.
173 Pulses and Waves.
174 The Mathematical Expression for a Sinusoidal Wave.
175 Wave Velocity.
176 Wave Speed on a Stretched String.
177 Energy and Power Transported by a Traveling Wave in a String.
178 The Principle of Superposition for Waves.
179 Interference of Waves.
1710 Reflections at a Boundary and Standing Waves.
1711 Standing Waves and Resonance.
1712 Phasors.
CHAPTER 18. Sound Waves.
181 Sound Waves.
182 The Speed of Sound.
183 Interference.
184 Intensity and Sound Level.
185 Sources of Musical Sound.
186 Beats.
187 The Doppler Effect.
188 Supersonic Speeds; Shock Waves.
CHAPTER 19. The First Law of Therodynamics.
191 Thermodynamics.
192 Thermometers and Temperature Scales.
193 Thermal Interactions.
194 Heating, Cooling, and Temperature.
195 Thermal Energy Transfer to Solids and Liquids.
196 Thermal Energy and Work.
197 The First Law of Thermodynamics.
198 Some Special Cases of the First Law of Thermodynamics.
199 More on Temperature Measurement.
1910 Thermal Expansion.
1911 More on Thermal Energy Transfer Mechanisms.
CHAPTER 20. The Kinetic Theory of Gases.
201 Molecules and Thermal Gas Behavior.
202 The Macroscopic Behavior of Gases.
203 Work Done by Ideal Gases.
204 Pressure,Temperature, and Molecular Kinetic Energy.
205 Mean Free Path.
206 The Distribution of Molecular Speeds.
207 The Molar Specific Heats of an Ideal Gas.
208 Degrees of Freedom and Molar Specific Heats.
209 A Hint of Quantum Theory.
2010 The Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas.
CHAPTER 21. Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
211 Some OneWay Processes.
212 Change in Entropy.
213 The Second Law of Thermodynamics.
214 Entropy in the Real World: Engines.
215 Entropy in the Real World: Refrigerators.
216 Efficiency Limits of Real Engines.
217 A Statistical View of Entropy.
CHAPTER 22. Electric Charge.
221 The Importance of Electricity.
222 The Discovery of Electric Interactions.
223 The Concept of Charge.
224 Using Atomic Theory to Explain Charging.
225 Induction.
226 Conductors and Insulators.
227 Coulomb’s Law.
228 Solving Problems Using Coulomb’s Law.
229 Comparing Electrical and Gravitational Frces.
2210 Many Everyday Forces Are Electrostatic.
CHAPTER 23. Electric Fields.
231 Implications of Strong Electric Forces.
232 Introduction to the Concept of a Field.
233 Gravitational and Electric Fields.
234 The Electric Field Due to a Point Charge.
235 The Electric Field Due to Multiple Chargs.
236 The Electric Field Due to an Electric Dipoe.
237 The Electric Field Due to a Ring of Charge.
238 Motion of Point Charges in an Electric Field.
239 A Dipole in an Electric Field.
2310 Electric Field Lines.
CHAPTER 24. Gauss’ Law.
241 An Alternative to Coulomb’s Law.
242 Electric Flux.
243 Net Flux at a Closed Surface.
244 Gauss’ Law.
245 Symmetry in Charge Distributions.
246 Application of Gauss’ Law to Symmetric Charge Distributions.
247 Gauss’ Law and Coulomb’s Law.
248 A Charged Isolated Conductor.
CHAPTER 25. Electric Potential.
251 Introduction.
252 Electric Potential Energy.
253 Electric Potential.
254 Equipotential Surfaces.
255 Calculating Potential from an EField.
256 Potential Due to a Point Charge.
257 Potential and Potential Energy Due to a Group of Point Charges.
258 Potential Due to an Electric Dipole.
259 Potential Due to a Continuous Charge Distribution.
2510 Calculating the Electric Field from the Potential.
2511 Potential of a Charged Isolated Conductor.
CHAPTER 26. Current and Resistance.
261 Introduction.
262 Batteries and Charge Flow.
263 Batteries and Electric Current.
264 Circuit Diagrams and Meters.
265 Resistance and Ohm’s Law.
266 Resistance and Resistivity.
267 Power in Electric Circuits.
268 Current Density in a Conductor.
269 Resistivity and Current Density.
2610 A Microscopic View of Current and Resistance.
2611 Other Types of Conductors.
CHAPTER 27. Circuits.
271 Electric Currents and Circuits.
272 Current and Potential Difference in SingleLoop Circuits.
273 Series Resistance.
274 Multiloop Circuits.
275 Parallel Resistance.
276 Batteries and Energy.
277 Internal Resistance and Power.
CHAPTER 28. Capacitance.
281 The Uses of Capacitors.
282 Capacitance.
283 Calculating the Capacitance.
284 Capacitors in Parallel and in Series.
285 Energy Stored in an Electric Field.
286 Capacitor with a Dielectric.
287 Dielectrics: An Atomic View.
288 Dielectrics and Gauss’ Law.
289 RC Circuits.
CHAPTER 29 Magnetic Fields.
291 A New Kind of Force?
292 Probing Magnetic Interactions.
293 Defining a Magnetic Field B.
294 Relating Magnetic Force and Field.
295 A Circulating Charged Particle.
296 Crossed Fields: Discovery of the Electron.
297 The Hall Effect.
298 Magnetic Force on a CurrentCarrying Wire.
299 Torque on a Current Loop.
2910 The Magnetic Dipole Moment.
2911 The Cyclotron.
CHAPTER 30. Magnetic Fields Due to Currents.
301 Introduction.
302 Magnetic Effects of Currents—Oersted’s Observations.
303 Calculating the Magnetic Field Due to a Current.
304 Force Between Parallel Currents.
305 Ampère’s Law.
306 Solenoids and Toroids.
307 A CurrentCarrying Coil as a Magnetic Dipole.
CHAPTER 31. Induction and Maxwell’s Equations.
311 Introduction.
312 Induction by Motion in a Magnetic Field.
313 Induction by a Changing Magnetic Field.
314 Faraday’s Law.
315 Lenz’s Law.
316 Induction and Energy Transfers.
317 Induced Electric Fields.
318 Induced Magnetic Fields.
319 Displacement Current.
3110 Gauss’ Law for Magnetic Fields.
3111 Maxwell’s Equations in a Vacuum.
CHAPTER 32. Inductors and Magnetic Materials.
321 Introduction.
322 SelfInductance.
323 Mutual Induction.
324 RL Circuits (with Ideal Inductors).
325 Inductors,Transformers, and Electric Power.
326 Magnetic Materials—An Introduction.
327 Ferromagnetis.
328 Other Magnetic Materials.
329 The Earth’s Magnetism.
CHAPTER 33. Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current.
331 Advantages of Alternating Current.
332 Energy Stored in a –Field.
333 Energy Density of a –Field.
334 LC Oscillations, Qualitatively.
335 The Electrical–Mechanical Analogy.
336 LC Oscillations, Quantitatively.
337 Damped Oscillations in an RLC Circuit.
338 More About Alternating Current.
339 Forced Oscillations.
3310 Representing Oscillations with Phasors: Three Simple Circuits.
3311 The Series RLC Circuit.
3312 Power in AlternatingCurrent Circuits.
CHAPTER 34. Electromagnetic Waves.
341 Introduction.
342 Maxwell’s Prediction of Electromagnetism.
343 The Generation of Electromagnetic Waves.
344 Describing Electromagnetic Wave Properties Mathematically.
345 Transporting Energy with Electromagnetic Waves.
346 Radiation Pressure.
347 Polarization.
348 Maxwell’s Rainbow.
CHAPTER 35. Images.
351 Introduction.
352 Reflection and Refraction.
353 Total Internal Reflection.
354 Polarization by Reflection.
355 Two Types of Image.
356 Plane Mirrors.
357 Spherical Mirrors.
358 Images from Spherical Mirrors.
359 Spherical Refracting Surfaces.
3510 Thin Lenses.
3511 Optical Instruments.
3512 Three Proofs.
CHAPTER 36. Interference.
361 Interference.
362 Light as a Wave.
363 Diffraction.
364 Young’s Interference Experiment.
365 Coherence.
366 Intensity in DoubleSlit Interference.
367 Interference from Thin Films.
368 Michelson’s Interferometer.
CHAPTER 37. Diffraction.
371 Diffraction and the Wave Theory of Light.
372 Diffraction by a Single Slit: Locating the Minima.
373 Intensity in SingleSlit Diffraction, Qualitatively.
374 Intensity in SingleSlit Diffraction, Quantitatively.
375 Diffraction by a Circular Aperture.
376 Diffraction by a Double Slit.
377 Diffraction Gratings.
378 Gratings: Dispersion and Resolving Power.
379 XRay Diffraction.
CHAPTER 38. Special Relativity.
381 Introduction.
382 Origins of Special Relativity.
383 The Principle of Relativity.
384 Locating Events with an Intelligent Observer.
385 Laboratory and Rocket Latticeworks of Clocks.
386 Time Stretching.
387 The Metric Equation.
388 Cause and Effect.
389 Relativity of Simultaneity.
3810 Momentum and Energy.
3811 The Lorentz Transformation.
3812 Lorentz Contraction.
3813 Relativity of Velocities.
3814 Doppler Shift.
Appendices.
Appendix A. The International System of Units (SI).
Appendix B. Some Fundamental Constants of Physics.
Appendix C. Some Astronomical Data.
Appendix D. Conversion Factors.
Appendix E. Mathematical Formulas.
Appendix F. Properties of Common Elements.
Appendix G. Periodic Table of the Elements.
Answers to Reading Exercises and OddNumbered Problems.
Photo Credits.
Index.
 A narrative style that supports student learning  Rather than fragmenting the text with sidebars, extraboxes, and examples, this text presents a smooth expository flow that facilitates understanding. Critical examples (sample problems) are positioned as Touchstone Examples.
 Emphasis on observation and experimentation  The experimental evidence for many of the physical laws and relationships discussed in the narrative have been presented in graphical form.
 Incorporates active learning  The story line is reinforced by the use of Reading Exercises that help students focus on thoughtful reading of the text sections in each chapter.
 Alternative problem selections  Based on the authors' knowledge of research on student learning difficulties, these new problems require careful qualitative reasoning and explicitly connect conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving. In addition, estimation problems, video analysis problems, and 'real life' problems add to student understanding.
 Presentations that are known to be associated with common student confusions have been rewritten and clarified. Some topics have been rearranged (especially the introduction of the New Mechanics Sequence) to provide a more pedagogically coherent learning path and story line.
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