Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning: Analysis and Design, 6th Edition
August 2004, ©2005
Suitable for one or two semester, Junior/Senior/Graduate course in HVAC taught in Mechanical Engineering, Architectural Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering Technology departments.
About the Authors.
1-1 Historical Notes.
1-2 Common HVAC Units and Dimensions.
1-3 Fundamental Physical Concepts.
1-4 Additional Comments.
2. Air-Conditioning Systems.
2-1 The Complete System.
2-2 System Selection and Arrangement.
2-3 HVAC Components and Distribution Systems.
2-4 Types of All-Air Systems.
2-5 Air-and-Water Systems.
2-6 All-Water Systems.
2-7 Decentralized Cooling and Heating.
2-8 Heat Pump Systems.
2-9 Heat Recovery Systems.
2-10 Thermal Energy Storage.
3. Moist Air Properties and Conditioning Processes.
3-1 Moist Air and the Standard Atmosphere.
3-2 Fundamental Parameters.
3-3 Adiabatic Saturation.
3-4 Wet Bulb Temperature and the Psychrometric Chart.
3-5 Classic Moist Air Processes.
3-6 Space Air Conditioning—Design Conditions.
3-7 Space Air Conditioning—Off-Design Conditions.
4. Comfort and Health—Indoor Environmental Quality.
4-1 Comfort—Physiological Considerations.
4-2 Environmental Comfort Indices.
4-3 Comfort Conditions.
4-4 The Basic Concerns of IAQ.
4-5 Common Contaminants.
4-6 Methods to Control Humidity.
4-7 Methods to Control Contaminants.
5. Heat Transmission in Building Structures.
5-1 Basic Heat-Transfer Modes.
5-2 Tabulated Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficients.
5-3 Moisture Transmission.
6. Space Heating Load.
6-1 Outdoor Design Conditions.
6-2 Indoor Design Conditions.
6-3 Transmission Heat Losses.
6-5 Heat Losses from Air Ducts.
6-6 Auxiliary Heat Sources.
6-7 Intermittently Heated Structures.
6-8 Supply Air For Space Heating.
6-9 Source Media for Space Heating.
6-10 Computer Calculation of Heating Loads.
7. Solar Radiation.
7-1 Thermal Radiation.
7-2 The Earth’s Motion About the Sun.
7-4 Solar Angles.
7-5 Solar Irradiation.
7-6 Heat Gain Through Fenestrations.
7-7 Energy Calculations.
8. The Cooling Load.
8-1 Heat Gain, Cooling Load, and Heat Extraction Rate.
8-2 Application of Cooling Load Calculation Procedures.
8-3 Design Conditions.
8-4 Internal Heat Gains.
8-5 Overview of the Heat Balance Method.
8-6 Transient Conduction Heat Transfer.
8-7 Outside Surface Heat Balance—Opaque Surfaces.
8-8 Fenestration—Transmitted Solar Radiation.
8-9 Interior Surface Heat Balance—Opaque Surfaces.
8-10 Surface Heat Balance—Transparent Surfaces.
8-11 Zone Air Heat Balance.
8-12 Implementation of the Heat Balance Method.
8-13 Radiant Time Series Method.
8-14 Implementation of the Radiant Time Series Method.
8-15 Supply Air Quantities.
9. Energy Calculations and Building Simulation.
9-1 Degree-Day Procedure.
9-2 Bin Method.
9-3 Comprehensive Simulation Methods.
9-4 Energy Calculation Tools.
9-5 Other Aspects of Building Simulation.
10. Flow, Pumps, and Piping Design.
10-1 Fluid Flow Basics.
10-2 Centrifugal Pumps.
10-3 Combined System and Pump Characteristics.
10-4 Piping System Fundamentals.
10-5 System Design.
10-6 Steam Heating Systems.
11. Space Air Diffusion.
11-1 Behavior of Jets.
11-2 Air-Distribution System Design.
12. Fans and Building Air Distribution.
12-2 Fan Relations.
12-3 Fan Performance and Selection.
12-4 Fan Installation.
12-5 Field Performance Testing.
12-6 Fans and Variable-Air-Volume Systems.
12-7 Air Flow in Ducts.
12-8 Air Flow in Fittings.
12-10 Duct Design—General.
12-11 Duct Design—Sizing.
13. Direct Contact Heat and Mass Transfer.
13-1 Combined Heat and Mass Transfer.
13-2 Spray Chambers.
13-3 Cooling Towers.
14. Extended Surface Heat Exchangers.
14-1 The Log Mean Temperature Deficiency (LMTD) Method.
14-2 The Number of Transfer Units (NTU) Method.
14-3 Heat Transfer–Single-Component Fluids.
14-4 Transport Coefficients Inside Tubes.
14-5 Transport Coefficients Outside Tubes and Compact Surfaces.
14-6 Design Procedures for Sensible Heat Transfer.
14-7 Combined Heat and Mass Transfer.
15-1 The Performance of Refrigeration Systems.
15-2 The Theoretical Single-Stage Compression Cycle.
15-4 Refrigeration Equipment Components.
15-5 The Real Single-Stage Cycle.
15-6 Absorption Refrigeration.
15-7 The Theoretical Absorption Refrigeration System.
15-8 The Aqua–Ammonia Absorption System.
15-9 The Lithium Bromide–Water System.
Appendix A. Thermophysical Properties.
Table A-1a. Properties of Refrigerant 718 (Water–Steam)— English Units.
Table A-1b. Properties of Refrigerant 718 (Water–Steam)—SI Units.
Table A-2a. Properties of Refrigerant 134a (1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane)—English Units.
Table A-2b. Properties of Refrigerant 134a (1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane)—SI Units.
Table A-3a. Properties of Refrigerant 22 (Chlorodifluoromethane)— English Units.
Table A-3b. Properties of Refrigerant 22 (Chlorodifluoromethane)— SI Units.
Table A-4a. Air—English Units.
Table A-4b. Air—SI Units.
Appendix B. Weather Data.
Table B-1a. Heating and Cooling Design Conditions—United States, Canada, and the World—English Units.
Table B-1b. Heating and Cooling Design Conditions—United States, Canada, and the World—SI Units.
Table B-2. Annual BinWeather Data for Oklahoma City,OK.
Table B-3. Annual Bin Weather Data for Chicago, IL.
Table B-4. Annual Bin Weather Data for Denver, CO.
Table B-5. Annual Bin Weather Data for Washington, DC.
Appendix C. Pipe and Tube Data.
Table C-1. Steel Pipe Dimensions—English and SI Units.
Table C-2. Type L Copper Tube Dimensions—English and SI Units.
Appendix D. Useful Data.
Table D-1. Conversion Factors.
Appendix E: Charts.
Chart 1a. ASHRAE Psychrometric Chart No. 1 (IP) (Reprinted by permission of ASHRAE.).
Chart 1b. ASHRAE Psychrometric Chart No. 1 (SI) (Reprinted by permission of ASHRAE.).
Chart 1Ha. ASHRAE Psychrometric Chart No. 4 (IP) (Reprinted by permission of ASHRAE.).
Chart 1Hb. ASHRAE Psychrometric Chart No. 6 (SI) (Reprinted by permission of ASHRAE.).
Chart 2. Enthalpy–concentration diagram for ammonia–water solutions (From Unit Operations by G. G. Brown, Copyright 1951 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).
Chart 3. Pressure–enthalpy diagram for refrigerant 134a (Reprinted by permission.).
Chart 4. Pressure–enthalpy diagram for refrigerant 22 (Reprinted by permission.).
Chart 5. Enthalpy-concentration diagram for Lithium Bromide–water solutions (Courtesy of Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago IL.).
Jerald D. Parker is a professor emeritus of mechanical engineering at Oklahoma Christian University after serving 33 years on the mechanical engineering faculty at Oklahoma State University. During his tenure at Oklahoma State, he spent one year on leave with the engineering department of Du Pont in Newark, Delaware. He has been active at both the local and national level in ASME, where he is a fellow. In ASHRAE he has served as chairman of the Technical Committee on Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, chairman of a standards project committee, and a member of the Continuing Education Committee. He is a registered professional engineer
Jeffrey D. Spitler is a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at Oklahoma State University, Stillwater.. He is an active member of ASHRAE and has served on several technical committees, a standards committee, and the Student Activities Committee. He also serves on the board of directors of the International Building Performance Simulation Association. He is a registered professional engineer and has consulted on a number of different projects.
Additional new worked examples are provided on CD, some of which are interactive and enable students to load exam-ples into the provided computer programs to run different scenarios when calculating heating/cooling loads.
Chapters 6-9 have been extensively revised to be more accessible to students.
Chapter 7, Solar Radiation, has been simplified for easier comprehension and to match ASHRAE approach.
Chapter 8, The Cooling Load, includes two approaches: the heat balance method, as recommended by ASHRAE, and the simpler RTS method. Both approaches include computer applications to aid in calculations.
- Complete, authoritative treatment of all aspects of HVAC, based on ASHRAE standards.
- Numerous worked examples and homework problems provide realistic scenarios to apply concepts learned in the chapters.
- Authoritative author team, active in ASHRAE, that continue to provide up-to-date coverage of modern HVAC principles.
- Discussion of ground source systems, boilers and free cooling is included in Chapter 2, Air-conditioning Systems.
- Chapter 8, The Cooling Load, covers cooling load calculations to state-of-the-art, heat balance methods, as recommended by new ASHRAE guidelines.
- Information related to air elimination in liquid distribution systems is included in Chapter 10, Flow, Pumps, and Piping Design. A specific section discussing steam piping design is also included.
- Five computer programs are provided. The programs cover Psychometrics & Air Quality, Load Calculations, Piping System Design, Duct System Design, and Cooling Coil Simulation.