Textbook

# Fundamentals of Microelectronics, 1st Edition

Designed to build a strong foundation in both design and analysis of electronic circuits, Razavi teaches conceptual understanding and mastery of the material by using modern examples to motivate and prepare students for advanced courses and their careers. Razavi s unique problem-solving framework enables students to deconstruct complex problems into components that they are familiar with which builds the confidence and intuitive skills needed for success.
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1 INTRODUCTION TO MICROELECTRONICS 1
1.1 Electronics versus Microelectronics 1
1.2 Examples of Electronic Systems 2
1.2.1 Cellular Telephone 2
1.2.2 Digital Camera 5
1.2.3 Analog Versus Digital 7
1.3 Basic Concepts 8
1.3.1 Analog and Digital Signals 8
1.3.2 Analog Circuits 10
1.3.3 Digital Circuits 11
1.3.4 Basic Circuit Theorems 13
1.4 Chapter Summary 20

2 BASIC PHYSICS OF SEMICONDUCTORS 21
2.1 Semiconductor Materials and Their Properties 22
2.1.1 Charge Carriers in Solids 22
2.1.2 Modification of Carrier Densities 25
2.1.3 Transport of Carriers 28
2.2 pn Junction 36
2.2.1 pn Junction in Equilibrium 37
2.2.2 pn Junction Under Reverse Bias 42
2.2.3 pn Junction Under Forward Bias 46
2.2.4 I/V Characteristics 49
2.3 Reverse Breakdown 54
2.3.1 Zener Breakdown 54
2.3.2 Avalanche Breakdown 55
2.4 Chapter Summary 55
Problems 56
SPICE Problems 60

3 DIODE MODELS AND CIRCUITS 62
3.1 Ideal Diode 62
3.1.1 Initial Thoughts 62
3.1.2 Ideal Diode 64
3.1.3 Application Examples 68
3.2 pn Junction as a Diode 73
3.4 Large-Signal and Small-Signal Operation 80
3.5 Applications of Diodes 89
3.5.1 Half-Wave and Full-Wave Rectifiers 89
3.5.2 Voltage Regulation 102
3.5.3 Limiting Circuits 104
3.5.4 Voltage Doublers 108
3.5.5 Diodes as Level Shifters and Switches 112
3.6 Chapter Summary 115
Problems 116
SPICE Problems 126

4 PHYSICS OF BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS 128
4.1 General Considerations 128
4.2 Structure of Bipolar Transistor 130
4.3 Operation of Bipolar Transistor in Active Mode 131
4.3.1 Collector Current 134
4.3.2 Base and Emitter Currents 137

4.4 Bipolar Transistor Models and Characteristics 139
4.4.1 Large-Signal Model 139
4.4.2 I/V Characteristics 141
4.4.3 Concept of Transconductance 143
4.4.4 Small-Signal Model 145
4.4.5 Early Effect 150
4.5 Operation of Bipolar Transistor in Saturation Mode 156
4.6 The PNP Transistor 159
4.6.1 Structure and Operation 160
4.6.2 Large-Signal Model 160
4.6.3 Small-Signal Model 163
4.7 Chapter Summary 167
Problems 167
SPICE Problems 178

5 BIPOLAR AMPLIFIERS 181
5.1 General Considerations 181
5.1.1 Input and Output Impedances 182
5.1.2 Biasing 186
5.1.3 DC and Small-Signal Analysis 186
5.2Operating Point Analysis and Design 188
5.2.1 Simple Biasing 189
5.2.2 Resistive Divider Biasing 192
5.2.3 Biasing with Emitter Degeneration 195
5.2.4 Self-Biased Stage 199
5.2.5 Biasing of PNP Transistors 202
5.3 Bipolar Amplifier Topologies 206
5.3.1 Common-Emitter Topology 207
5.3.2 Common-Base Topology 233
5.3.3 Emitter Follower 250
5.4 Summary and Additional Examples 258
5.5 Chapter Summary 264
Problems 264
SPICE Problems 285

6 PHYSICS OF MOS TRANSISTORS 288
6.1 Structure of MOSFET 288
6.2 Operation of MOSFET 291
6.2.1 Qualitative Analysis 291
6.2.2 Derivation of I/V Characteristics 297
6.2.3 Channel-Length Modulation 306
6.2.4 MOS Transconductance 308
6.2.5 Velocity Saturation 310
6.2.6 Other Second-Order Effects 310
6.3 MOS Device Models 311
6.3.1 Large-Signal Model 311
6.3.2 Small-Signal Model 313
6.4 PMOS Transistor 314
6.5 CMOS Technology 316
6.6 Comparison of Bipolar and MOS Devices 317
6.7 Chapter Summary 317
Problems 318
SPICE Problems 327

7 CMOS AMPLIFIERS 329

7.1 General Considerations 329
7.1.1 MOS Amplifier Topologies 329
7.1.2 Biasing 329
7.1.3 Realization of Current Sources 333
7.2 Common-Source Stage 334
7.2.1 CS Core 334
7.2.2 CS Stage With Current-Source Load 337
7.2.3 CS Stage With Diode-Connected Load 338
7.2.4 CS Stage With Degeneration 340
7.2.5 CS Core With Biasing 343
7.3 Common-Gate Stage 345
7.3.1 CG Stage With Biasing 350
7.4 Source Follower 351
7.4.1 Source Follower Core 352
7.4.2 Source Follower With Biasing 354
7.5 Summary and Additional Examples 356
7.6 Chapter Summary 360
Problems 360
SPICE Problems 378

8 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER AS A BLACK BOX 380
8.1 General Considerations 381
8.2 Op-Amp-Based Circuits 383
8.2.1 Noninverting Amplifier 383
8.2.2 Inverting Amplifier 385
8.2.3 Integrator and Differentiator 388
8.3 Nonlinear Functions 396
8.3.1 Precision Rectifier 396
8.3.2 Logarithmic Amplifier 397
8.3.3 Square-Root Amplifier 398
8.4 Op Amp Nonidealities 399
8.4.1 DC Offsets 399
8.4.2 Input Bias Current 402
8.4.3 Speed Limitations 405
8.4.4 Finite Input and Output Impedances 410
8.5 Design Examples 411
8.6 Chapter Summary 413
Problems 414
SPICE Problems 423

9 CASCODE STAGES AND CURRENT MIRRORS 425
9.1 Cascode Stage 425
9.1.1 Cascode as a Current Source 425
9.1.2 Cascode as an Amplifier 432
9.2 Current Mirrors 441
9.2.1 Initial Thoughts 441
9.2.2 Bipolar Current Mirror 442
9.2.3 MOS Current Mirror 451
9.3 Chapter Summary 454
Problems 455
SPICE Problems 470

10 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS 473
10.1 General Considerations 473
10.1.1 Initial Thoughts 473
10.1.2 Differential Signals 475
10.1.3 Differential Pair 478
10.2 Bipolar Differential Pair 479
10.2.1 Qualitative Analysis 479
10.2.2 Large-Signal Analysis 484
10.2.3 Small-Signal Analysis 488
10.3 MOS Differential Pair 494
10.3.1 Qualitative Analysis 495
10.3.2 Large-Signal Analysis 499
10.3.3 Small-Signal Analysis 503
10.4 Cascode Differential Amplifiers 507
10.5 Common-Mode Rejection 511
10.6 Differential Pair with Active Load 515
10.6.1 Qualitative Analysis 516
10.6.2 Quantitative Analysis 518
10.7 Chapter Summary 523
Problems 524
PICE Problems 541

11 FREQUENCY RESPONSE 544
11.1 Fundamental Concepts 544
11.1.1 General Considerations 544
11.1.2 Relationship Between Transfer Function and Frequency Response 547
11.1.3 Bode’s Rules 550
11.1.4 Association of Poles with Nodes 551
11.1.5 Miller’s Theorem 553
11.1.6 General Frequency Response 556
11.2 High-Frequency Models of Transistors 559
11.2.1 High-Frequency Model of Bipolar Transistor 559
11.2.2 High-Frequency Model of MOSFET 561
11.2.3 Transit Frequency 563
11.3 Analysis Procedure 564
11.4 Frequency Response of CE and CS Stages 565
11.4.1 Low-Frequency Response 565
11.4.2 High-Frequency Response 566
11.4.3 Use of Miller’s Theorem 566
11.4.4 Direct Analysis 569
11.4.5 Input Impedance 572
11.5 Frequency Response of CB and CG Stages 573
11.5.1 Low-Frequency Response 573
11.5.2 High-Frequency Response 574
11.6 Frequency Response of Followers 576
11.6.1 Input and Output Impedances 580
11.7 Frequency Response of Cascode Stage 583
11.7.1 Input and Output Impedances 587
11.8 Frequency Response of Differential Pairs 588
11.8.1 Common-Mode Frequency Response 590
11.10 Chapter Summary 595
Problems 596
SPICE Problems 607

12 FEEDBACK 610
12.1 General Considerations 610
12.1.1 Loop Gain 613
12.2 Properties of Negative Feedback 614
12.2.1 Gain Desensitization 614
12.2.2 Bandwidth Extension 616
12.2.3 Modification of I/O Impedances 618
12.2.4 Linearity Improvement 622
12.3 Types of Amplifiers 622
12.3.1 Simple Amplifier Models 623
12.3.2 Examples of Amplifier Types 624
12.4 Sense and Return Techniques 626
12.5 Polarity of Feedback 629
12.6 Feedback Topologies 631
12.6.1 Voltage-Voltage Feedback 631
12.6.2 Voltage-Current Feedback 636
12.6.3 Current-Voltage Feedback 639
12.6.4 Current-Current Feedback 644
12.7 Effect of Nonideal I/O Impedances 647
12.7.1 Inclusion of I/O Effects 648
12.8 Stability in Feedback Systems 660
12.8.1 Review of Bode’s Rules 660
12.8.2 Problem of Instability 662
12.8.3 Stability Condition 665
12.8.4 Phase Margin 668
12.8.5 Frequency Compensation 670
12.8.6 Miller Compensation 673
12.9 Chapter Summary 674
Problems 675
SPICE Problems 691

13 OUTPUT STAGES AND POWER AMPLIFIERS 694
13.1 General Considerations 694
13.2 Emitter Follower as Power Amplifier 695
13.3 Push-Pull Stage 698
13.4 Improved Push-Pull Stage 701
13.4.1 Reduction of Crossover Distortion 701
13.4.2 Addition of CE Stage 705
13.5 Large-Signal Considerations 708
13.5.1Biasing Issues 708
13.5.2Omission of PNP Power Transistor 709
13.5.3High-Fidelity Design 712
13.6 Short-Circuit Protection 713
13.7 Heat Dissipation 713
13.7.1 Emitter Follower Power Rating
13.7.2 Push-Pull Stage Power Rating
13.7.3 Thermal Runaway 716
13.8 Efficiency 718
13.8.1 Efficiency of Emitter Follower
13.8.2 Efficiency of Push-Pull Stage 719
13.9 Power Amplifier Classes 720
13.10 Chapter Summary 721
Problems 722
SPICE Problems 728

14 ANALOG FILTERS 731
14.1 General Considerations 731
14.1.1 Filter Characteristics 732
14.1.2 Classification of Filters 733
14.1.3 Filter Transfer Function 737
14.1.4 Problem of Sensitivity 740
14.2 First-Order Filters 741
14.3 Second-Order Filters 744
14.3.1 Special Cases 744
14.3.2 RLC Realizations 748
14.4 Active Filters 753
14.4.1 Sallen and Key Filter 753
14.4.3 Biquads Using Simulated Inductors 762
14.5 Approximation of Filter Response 768
14.5.1 Butterworth Response 768
14.5.2 Chebyshev Response 772
14.6 Chapter Summary 777Problems 778SPICE Problems 784

15 DIGITAL CMOS CIRCUITS 786
15.1 General Considerations 786
15.1.1 Static Characterization of Gates 787
15.1.2 Dynamic Characterization of Gates 794
15.2 CMOS Inverter 799
15.2.1 Initial Thoughts 799
15.2.2 Voltage Transfer Characteristic 801
15.2.3 Dynamic Characteristics 807
15.2.4 Power Dissipation 812
15.3 CMOS NOR and NAND Gates 816
15.3.1 NOR Gate 816
15.3.2 NAND Gate 819
15.4 Chapter Summary 820
Problems 821
SPICE Problems 827

16 CMOS AMPLIFIERS 829
16.1 General Considerations 829
16.1.1 Input and Output Impedances 830
16.1.2 Biasing 834
16.1.3 DC and Small-Signal Analysis 835
16.2 Operating Point Analysis and Design 836
16.2.1 Simple Biasing 838
16.2.2 Biasing with Source Degeneration 840
16.2.3 Self-Biased Stage 843
16.2.4 Biasing of PMOS Transistors 844
16.2.5 Realization of Current Sources 845
16.3 CMOS Amplifier Topologies 846
16.4 Common-Source Topology 847
16.4.1 CS Stage with Current-Source Load 852
16.4.2 CS Stage with Diode-Connected Load 853
16.4.3 CS Stage with Source Degeneration 854
16.4.4 Common-Gate Topology 866
16.4.5 Source Follower 877
16.6 Chapter Summary 887
Problems 888
SPICE Problems 906

Appendix A Introduction to SPICE

Index

Author Information
Behzad Razavi is an award-winning teacher, researcher, and author. He holds a Ph.D. degree from Stanford University and has been Professor of Electrical Engineering at University of California, Los Angeles, since 1996. His current research encompasses RF and wireless design, broadband data communication circuits, phase-locking phenomena, and data converter design.

Professor Razavi's research and teaching have garnered numerous awards. He received the Beatrice Winner Award for Editorial Excellence at the 1994 ISSCC, the best paper award at the 1994 European Solid-State Circuits Conference, the best panel award at the 1995 and 1997 ISSCC, the TRW Innovative Teaching Award in 1997, and the best paper award at the IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference in 1998. He was the co-recipient of both the Hack Kilby Outstanding Student Paper Award and the Beatrice Winner Award for Editorial Excellence at teh 2001. International Solid-State Circuits conference (ISSCC). He received the Lockheed Martin Excellence in Teaching Award in 2006 and the UCLA Faculty Senate Teaching Award in 2007. He was also recognized as one of the top ten authors in the fifty-year history of ISSCC.

Professor Razavi is an IEEE Distinguished Lecturer, a Fellow of IEEE, and the author of a number of books, including Principles of Data Conversion System Design, RF Microelectronics (translated to Chinese and Japanese), Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits (translated to Chinese and Japanese), Design of Integrated Circuits for Optical communications, and Fundamentals of Microelectronics. he is also the editor of Monolithic Phase-Locked Loops and Clock recovery circuits and Phase-Locking in High-Performance Systems.

Hallmark Features
• Flexible device coverage allows instructors to tailor their course based on their preference. See the Preface for a diagram outlining this flexibility.
• A powerful motivational tool is to offer the “big picture” i.e. the “practical” application of a concept. Razavi utilizes applications to create a context for the material being covered.  For example, in chapter 2 on semiconductor devices, he asks….“What would our world look like without semiconductors? Is there a semiconductor in your watch? In your cell phone? In your laptop? In your digital camera?"  It is what makes his book today’s electronics.

• Algorithmically generated problems provide ample opportunity for students to practice. Stepped-out GO! Problems and Tutorials present guided steps to solving complex problems.

## Available Versions

Fundamentals of Microelectronics, 1st Edition
ISBN 978-0-471-47846-1
Hardcover, 960 pages
E-book
Fundamentals of Microelectronics, 1st Edition