Visualizing Elementary Social Studies Methods, 1st Edition
September 2007, ©2008
In this book, content and pedagogy are blended to take advantage of the rich visual context that National Geographic images provide. Students who use this book will explore central teacher education topics in elementary social studies along with concepts and ideas from social studies disciplines including history, geography, political science, economics and behavioral sciences.
Visualizing Elementary Social Studies is infused with explorations of how to teach in subject matter contexts given the democratic purposes of social studies.
This Wiley Visualizing title is a unique book that combines Wiley’s expertise in creating top quality textbooks with rich visual resources such as photographs, maps, illustrations, diagrammatic art, and videos, and the content and teaching expertise of new and current authors and unique partnerships. Visualizing Elementary Social Studies relies heavily on the integration of these visuals with text to elucidate concepts for students and solidify their understanding of them. The goal is to help students understand the world around them and interpret what they see in a meaningful, accurate and exciting way. The content, design and layout of the titles take advantage of the full capacity in which students process information – visual as well as verbal.
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1 What Is Social Studies? 2
Defining Social Studies 5
Social Studies as a School Subject 8
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL EXPLORATIONS 10
Approaches to Social Studies 11
IN THE CLASSROOM: TEACHING ABOUT CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 12
LESSON: IS DRILLING FOR OIL IN THE AMAZON RIVER BASIN WORTH THE CONSEQUENCES? 16
Social Studies and Content Disciplines 20
Standards-Based Social Studies 24
2 Reflective Social Studies Teaching 30
What Is Reflection? 32
Reflection Prior to Instruction 35
LESSON: THE ABRAHAMIC RELIGIONS 38
Reflection During and After Instruction 42
Using Reflection to Increase a Teacher’s Professional Knowledge 45
Reflection as Inquiry 48
IN THE CLASSROOM: A BRIEF CASE STUDY ON TEACHING ABOUT THE CONSTITUTION 50
3 Inquiry in Social Studies 54
Inquiry as Learning 56
Inquiry in Social Studies 60
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL EXPLORATIONS 65
Designing a Successful Inquiry 66
IN THE CLASSROOM: INQUIRING ABOUT THE TELLICO DAM 67
LESSON: A GREAT SCIENTIST IN HISTORY 69
Forms of Inquiry 70
Inquiry and the Curriculum 74
LESSON: “THAT’S NOT FAIR”: AN INQUIRY LESSON INTO THE MEANING OF “FAIR” 76
4 Standards, Curriculum, and Testing 82
Standards and Curriculum 84
IN THE CLASSROOM: A CURRICULUM UNIT ON ANIMALS 88
Standards and Testing 90
Teaching Subject Matter In-Depth While “Covering” the Curriculum 94
LESSON: MAP ESSENTIALS 96
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL EXPLORATIONS 99
Authentic Teaching with Standards 100
LESSON: GO WITH THE FLOW . . . RESOURCES 104
5 Teaching for Historical Understanding 110
History in the Schools 112
Constructing Historical Knowledge 114
IN THE CLASSROOM: USING HISTORICAL ARTIFACTS 116
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL EXPLORATIONS 119
Forms of Historical Understanding: Timelines, Stories, and Empathy 121
Three Approaches to Teaching History 126
LESSON: THE FIRST THANKSGIVING 128
6 Teaching for Geographic Awareness 138
The Need for Geographic Awareness 140
How Children Develop Geographic Awareness 148
IN THE CLASSROOM: UNDERSTANDING PHYSICAL AND CULTURAL PLACE 150
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL EXPLORATIONS 152
Elements of Geographic Understanding: Spaces, Places, and Systems 154
LESSON: POPULATION DENSITY 156
Using Maps to Teach Geographic Awareness 166
LESSON: MY CITY: PLANNING A NEW CITY 168
7 Teaching for Civic Competence 174
The Need for Civic Competence 176
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL EXPLORATIONS 179
Forms of Civic Awareness 180
IN THE CLASSROOM: CIVIC ACTION: SETTING CLASS RULES 183
Elements of Civic Competence 187
LESSON: TINKER V. DES MOINES AND THE FEDERAL COURTS 190
Promoting Civic Competence 192
IN THE CLASSROOM: THE STORY OF CÉSAR CHÁVEZ 194
8 Direct Teaching and Learning 202
Direct Instruction and Teacher-Directed Instruction 204
IN THE CLASSROOM: TEACHER-DIRECTED INSTRUCTIONLEARNING ABOUT THE PURPOSE AND LEVEL
OF GOVERNMENT 208
Factors Influencing Teacher-Directed Instruction 210
LESSON: USING TEACHER-DIRECTED INSTRUCTION IN A LESSON ON AN IMPORTANT INVENTION 213
Types of Teacher-Directed Instruction 214
Whole Class and Independent Teacher-Directed Instruction 218
IN THE CLASSROOM: DECISION MAKING 219
LESSON: HOW MUCH SPACE IS ENOUGH? 220
9 Interactive Teaching and Learning 226
What Is Interactive Instruction? 228
LESSON: INTERACTIVE LESSON ON STATE GEOGRAPHY 232
Characteristics of Interactive Instruction 234
IN THE CLASSROOM: LEARNING ABOUT CIVIC LEADERS 235
Types of Interactive Instruction 238
Grouping Strategies 243
Interactive Instruction and Learners 248
IN THE CLASSROOM: AN INTERACTIVE APPROACH TO LEARNING ABOUT SOCIETAL RULES 250
10 Literacy in Social Studies 256
The Importance of Literacy 258
Reading in Social Studies 262
IN THE CLASSROOM: USING LITERARY RESOURCES IN A LESSON ABOUT TRANSPORTATION 264
Using Textbooks in Social Studies 268
Using Authentic Texts in Social Studies 271
IN THE CLASSROOM: AUTHENTIC LEARNING ABOUT CUSTOMS 272
Writing in Social Studies 275
LESSON: USING WRITING SKILLS TO ARGUE ALTERNATIVE ENERGY POWER 278
Literacy and the Social Studies Curriculum 280
11 Planning for Active Learning 288
Active Learning in Social Studies 290
LESSON: WEATHER AND THE EARTH’S MOVEMENTS 294
Initial Considerations for Instructional Planning 296
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL EXPLORATIONS 298
Planning Instruction for Active Learning 302
Lesson Plans and Reflection 307
12 Teaching Social Studies in a Diverse Society 314
Teaching Children in Diverse Environments 316
Cultural Diversity and Social Studies 322
IN THE CLASSROOM: TEACHING ABOUT CALENDARS 325
Individual Diversity and Social Studies 326
IN THE CLASSROOM: DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION IN A LESSON ABOUT PIONEER LIFE IN AMERICA 329
Teaching in Schools with Homogeneous Social and Cultural Characteristics 330
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL EXPLORATIONS 332
13 Assessing Learning 338
Types of Assessment 340
Assessment as a Part of Instruction 346
IN THE CLASSROOM: ASSESSMENT AS INSTRUCTION 348
Using Assessments to Improve Teaching and Learning 351
LESSON: THE DEATH OF TUTANKHAMEN 352
IN THE CLASSROOM: A NEW METAPHOR: CHANGING METHODS FOR EXPLANATION DURING A LESSON 354
IN THE CLASSROOM: AN ASSESSMENT CASE STUDY 357
Designing and Using Rubrics 358
14 Promoting Student Learning with Technology 364
Using Technology in Social Studies 366
Technological Applications 371
Instruction and Technology 376
IN THE CLASSROOM: GAMES
AS INSTRUCTION 379
Appendix A 385
Appendix B 401
- Visualizing features: Multi-part visual spreads that focus on a key issue, concept, or topic in the chapter, exploring it in detail or in broader context using a combination of photos.
- Chapter Introductions: Illustrate a particular idea with relevant stories, as a way to heighten and initiate consideration of the chapter theme.
- Unique Lesson Plans include illustrations, photos and maps that are focused on authentic, curriculum-based subject matter for elementary audiences.
- Process Diagrams: Diagrams and figures presented along with photos or illustrations that describe and depict a complex process.
- In the Classroom: Features specific events or a series of events from an elementary classroom that highlight a specific idea from each chapter.
- Social and Cultural Explorations: Focuses on social studies methods and issues through the lens of culture and society using images of people from various countries.
- What is Happening in This Picture?: An end-of-chapter feature that presents students with a photograph paired with questions designed to stimulate creative thinking.
- Critical and Creative Thinking Questions: Encourage critical thinking and highlight each chapter's important concepts and applications.
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