Research In Psychology: Methods and Design, 6th Edition
November 2009, ©2011
Why Take This Course?
Ways of Knowing.
Use of Reason.
The Ways of Knowing and Science.
Science as a Way of Knowing.
Science Assumes Determinism.
Science Makes Systematic Observations.
Science Produces Public Knowledge.
Box 1.1 ORIGINS—A Taste of Introspection.
Science Produces Data-Based Conclusions.
Science Produces Tentative Conclusions.
Science Asks Answerable Questions.
Science Develops Theories that Can Be Disproven.
Psychological Science and Pseudoscience.
Associates with True Science.
Box 1.2 CLASSIC STUDIES—Disproving Phrenology.
Relies on Anecdotal Evidence.
Reduces Complex Phenomena to Overly Simplistic Concepts.
The Goals of Research in Psychology.
A Passion for Research in Psychology (Part I).
Eleanor Gibson (1910-2002).
B. F. Skinner (1904-1990).
Chapter 2—Ethics in Psychological Research.
Box 2.1 CLASSIC STUDIES—Infants at Risk.
Developing the APA Code of Ethics.
Ethical Guidelines for Research with Humans.
Judging Benefits and Costs: The IRB.
Informed Consent and Deception in Research.
Box 2.2 ETHICS—Historical Problems with Informed Consent.
Informed Consent and Special Populations.
Treating Participants Well.
Research Ethics and the Internet.
Ethical Guidelines for Research with Animals.
The Issue of Animal Rights.
Box 2.3 ORIGINS—Antivivisection and the APA.
Using Animals in Psychological Research.
The APA Code for Animal Research.
Justifying the Study.
Caring for the Animals.
Using Animals for Educational Purposes.
Chapter 3—Developing Ideas for Research in Psychology.
Varieties of Psychological Research.
Basic versus Applied Research.
The Setting: Laboratory versus Field Research.
Box 3.1 ETHICS—A Matter of Privacy.
Quantitative versus Qualitative Research.
Asking Empirical Questions.
Developing Research from Observations of Behavior and Serendipity.
Box 3.2 ORIGINS—Serendipity and Edge Detectors.
Developing Research from Theory.
The Nature of Theory.
The Relationship between Theory and Data.
Attributes of Good Theories.
Box 3.3 CLASSIC STUDIES —Falsification and Der Kluge Hans.
Misunderstandings About Theories.
Developing Research from Other Research.
Research Teams and the "What’s Next?" Question.
Replication and Extension.
Creative Thinking in Science.
Reviewing the Literature.
Computerized Database Searches.
Chapter 4—Measurement and Data Analysis.
What to Measure—Varieties of Behavior.
Developing Measures from Constructs.
Box 4.1 ORIGINS—Reaction Time: From Mental Chronometry to Mental Rotation.
Reliability and Validity.
Scales of Measurement.
Box 4.2 CLASSIC STUDIES—Measuring Somatotypes on an Interval Scale: Hoping for 4-4-4.
Descriptive and Inferential Statistics.
Box 4.3 ETHICS—Lying with Statistics.
Type I and Type II Errors.
Interpreting Failures to Reject H0.
Going Beyond Hypothesis Testing.
Chapter 5—Introduction to Experimental Research.
Essential Features of Experimental Research.
Box 5.1 ORIGINS—John Stuart Mill and the Rules of Inductive Logic.
Establishing Independent Variables.
Varieties of Independent Variables.
Controlling Extraneous Variables.
Measuring Dependent Variables.
Manipulated versus Subject Variables.
Drawing Conclusions When Using Subject Variables.
Box 5.2 CLASSIC STUDIES—Bobo Dolls and Aggression.
The Validity of Experimental Research.
Statistical Conclusion Validity.
Box 5.3 ETHICS—Recruiting Participants: Everyone’s in the Pool.
A Note of Caution.
Threats to Internal Validity.
Studies Extending Over a Period of Time.
History and Maturation.
Testing and Instrumentation.
Subject Selection Effects.
Chapter 6—Control Problems in Experimental Research.
The Problem of Creating Equivalent Groups.
The Problem of Controlling Sequence Effects.
Testing Once per Condition.
Testing More Than Once per Condition.
Control Problems in Developmental Research.
Box 6.1 CLASSIC STUDIES—The Record for Repeated Measures.
Problems with Biasing.
Controlling for Experimenter Bias.
Box 6.2 ORIGINS—Productivity at Western Electric..
Controlling for Participant Bias.
Box 6.3 ETHICS—Research Participants Have Responsibilities Too.
Chapter 7—Experimental Design I: Single-Factor Designs.
Single Factor—Two Levels.
Between-Subjects, Single-Factor Designs.
Within-Subjects, Single-Factor Designs.
Box 7.1 CLASSIC STUDIES—Psychology’s Most Widely Replicated Finding?
Analyzing Single-Factor, Two-Level Designs.
Single Factor—More Than Two Levels.
Between-Subjects, Multilevel Designs.
Box 7.2 ORIGINS—Nonlinear Results: The Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve.
Within-Subjects, Multilevel Designs.
Presenting the Data.
Types of Graphs.
Analyzing Single-Factor, Multilevel Designs.
Control Group Designs.
Placebo Control Groups.
Waiting List Control Groups.
Box 7.3 ETHICS—Who’s in the Control Group?.
Yoked Control Groups.
Chapter 8—Experimental Design II: Factorial Designs.
Identifying Factorial Designs.
Outcomes—Main Effects and Interactions.
Interactions Sometimes Trump Main effects.
Combinations of Main Effects and Interactions.
Box 8.1 CLASSIC STUDIES—To Sleep, Perchance to Recall.
Varieties of Factorial Designs.
Mixed Factorial Designs.
Factorials with Subject and Manipulated Variables: P x E Designs.
Recruiting Participants for Factorial Designs.
Box 8.2 ETHICS—On Being a Competent and Ethical researcher.
Analyzing Factorial Designs.
Box 8.3 ORIGINS—Factorials Down on the Farm.
Chapter 9—Correlational Research.
Psychology’s Two Disciplines.
Box 9.1 ORIGINS—Galton’s Studies of Genius.
Correlation and Regression—The Basics.
Positive and Negative Correlations.
Restricting the Range.
Coefficient of Determination—r2.
Regression Analysis—Making Predictions.
Correlations and Causality.
Caution: Correlational Statistics versus Correlational Research.
The Need for Correlational Research.
Varieties of Correlational Research.
Box 9.2 ETHICS—APA Guidelines for Psychological Testing.
Box 9.3 CLASSIC STUDIES—The Achieving Society.
Chapter 10—Quasi-Experimental Designs and Applied Research.
Beyond the Laboratory.
Applied Psychology in Historical Context.
Box 10.1 ORIGINS—The Hollingworths, Applied Psychology, and Coca-Cola.
Design Problems in Applied Research.
Nonequivalent Control Group Designs.
Regression and Matching.
Interrupted Time Series Designs.
Variations on the Basic Time Series Design.
Research Using Archival Data.
Box 10.2 CLASSIC STUDIES—Reforms as Experiments.
Planning for Programs—Needs Analysis.
Monitoring Programs—Formative Evaluation.
Evaluating Outcomes—Summative Evaluation.
Weighing Costs—Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.
A Note on Qualitative Analysis.
Box 10.3 ETHICS—Evaluation Research and Ethics.
Chapter 11—Small N Designs.
Research in Psychology Began with Small N.
Box 11.1 ORIGINS—Cats in Puzzle Boxes.
Reasons for Small N Designs.
Misleading Results from Statistical Summaries of Grouped Data.
Practical Problems with Large N Designs.
The Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Applied Behavior Analysis.
Box 11.2 ETHICS—Controlling Human Behavior.
Small N Designs in Applied Behavior Analysis.
Elements of Single-Subject Designs.
Multiple Baseline Designs.
Changing Criterion Designs.
Evaluating Single-Subject Designs.
Case Study Designs.
Box 11.3 CLASSIC STUDIES—The Mind of a Mnemonist.
Evaluating Case Studies.
Chapter 12—Observational and Survey Research Methods.
Varieties of Observational Research.
Box 12.1 CLASSIC STUDIES—When Prophecy Fails.
Challenges Facing Observational Methods.
Absence of Control.
Box 12.2 ORIGINS—Creating the "Questionary"
Varieties of Survey Methods.
Creating an Effective Survey.
Types of Survey Questions or Statements.
Assessing Memory and Knowledge.
Adding Demographic Information.
A Key Problem: Survey Wording.
Surveys and Ethics.
Box 12.3 ETHICS—Using and Abusing Surveys.
What I Learned in My Research Methods Course.
A Passion for Research in Psychology (Part II).
Appendix A—Communicating the Results of Research in Psychology.
Research Reports, APA Style.
Reducing Bias in Language.
Main Sections of the Lab Report.
The Manuscript Page Header/Page Number.
APA Citation Format.
Reporting the Data: Statistics.
Portraying the Data: Tables and Figures.
Presentations and Posters.
Tips for Presenting a Paper.
Tips for Presenting a Poster.
A Sample Lab Report.
Appendix B—The Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association.
Category 8: Research and Publication.
Appendix C—Answers to Selected End-of-Chapter Applications Exercises.
Summary of Research Examples.
- The ethics chapter has been placed earlier in the book (Chapter 2) to immediately illustrate the importance of the ethical dimensions of research.
- Ethics Boxes have been placed in every chapter after Chapter 2 to further emphasize the importance of ethics in research.
- Research examples including several that are new to this edition, range from contemporary research to classic studies in order to illustrate various methodological points and enhance critical thinking
- Early coverage of experiments: The text gets to experiments as quickly as possible, and covers non-experimental research after experiments.
- Engaging historical material: Origins boxes show how different research methods and concepts have evolved.
- Extensive student review and applications exercises: These provide opportunities for instructors to engage their students in active learning.
- Self Tests are found throughout the chapters to give students the chance to test their knowledge.