Textbook
Introduction to Robotics: Analysis, Control, Applications, 2nd EditionSeptember 2010, ©2011

Chapter 1 Fundamentals.
1.1 Introduction.
1.2 What Is a Robot?
1.3 Classification of Robots.
1.4 What Is Robotics?
1.5 History of Robotics.
1.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Robots.
1.7 Robot Components.
1.8 Robot Degrees of Freedom.
1.9 Robot Joints.
1.10 Robot Coordinates.
1.11 Robot Reference Frames.
1.12 Programming Modes.
1.13 Robot Characteristics.
1.14 Robot Workspace.
1.15 Robot Languages.
1.16 Robot Applications.
1.17 Other Robots and Applications.
1.18 Social Issues.
Summary.
References.
Problems.
Chapter 2 Kinematics of Robots: Position Analysis.
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Robots as Mechanisms.
2.3 Conventions.
2.4 Matrix Representation.
2.4.1 Representation of a Point in Space.
2.4.2 Representation of a Vector in Space.
2.4.3 Representation of a Frame at the Origin of a Fixed Reference Frame.
2.4.4 Representation of a Frame Relative to a Fixed Reference Frame.
2.4.5 Representation of a Rigid Body.
2.5 Homogeneous Transformation Matrices.
2.6 Representation of Transformations.
2.6.1 Representation of a Pure Translation.
2.6.2 Representation of a Pure Rotation about an Axis.
2.6.3 Representation of Combined Transformations.
2.6.4 Transformations Relative to the Rotating Frame.
2.7 Inverse of Transformation Matrices.
2.8 Forward and Inverse Kinematics of Robots.
2.9 Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations: Position.
2.9.1 Cartesian (Gantry, Rectangular) Coordinates.
2.9.2 Cylindrical Coordinates.
2.9.3 Spherical Coordinates.
2.9.4 Articulated Coordinates.
2.10 Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations: Orientation.
2.10.1 Roll, Pitch Yam (RPY) Angles.
2.10.2 Euler Angles.
2.10.3 Articulated Joints.
2.11 Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations: Position and Orientation.
2.12 DenavitHartenberg Representation of Forward Kinematic Equations of Robots.
2.13 The Inverse Kinematic Solution of Robots.
2.13.1 General Solution for Articulated Robot Arms.
2.14 Inverse Kinematic Programming of Robots.
2.15 Degeneracy and Dexterity.
2.15.1 Degeneracy.
2.15.2 Dexterity.
2.16 The Fundamental Problem with the DenavitHartenberg Representation.
2.17 Design Projects.
2.17.1 A 3DOF Robot.
2.17.2 A 3DOF Mobile Robot.
Summary.
References.
Problems.
Chapter 3 Differential Motions and Velocities.
3.1 Introduction.
3.2 Differential Relationships.
3.3 Jacobian.
3.4 Differential versus LargeScale Motions.
3.5 Differential Motions of a Frame versus a Robot.
3.6 Differential Motions of a Frame.
3.6.1 Differential Translations.
3.6.2 Differential Rotations about the Reference Axes.
3.6.3 Differential Rotation about a General Axis q.
3.6.4 Differential Transformations of a Frame.
3.7 Interpretation of the Differential Change.
3.8 Differential Changes between Frames.
3.9 Differential Motions of a Robot and Its Hand Frame.
3.10 Calculation of the Jacobian.
3.11 How to Relate the Jacobian and the Differential Operator.
3.12 Inverse Jacobian.
3.13 Design Projects.
3.13.1 The 3DOF Robot.
3.13.2 The 3DOF Mobile Robot.
Summary.
References.
Problems.
Chapter 4 Dynamic Analysis and Forces.
4.1 Introduction.
4.2 Lagrangian Mechanics: A Short Overview.
4.3 Effective Moments of Inertia.
4.4 Dynamic Equations for MultipleDOF Robots.
4.4.1 Kinetic Energy.
4.4.2 Potential Energy.
4.4.3 The Lagrangian.
4.4.4 Robot's Equations of Motion.
4.5 Static Force Analysis of Robots.
4.6 Transformation of Forces and Moments between Coordinate Frames.
4.7 Design Project.
Summary.
References.
Problems.
Chapter 5 Trajectory Planning.
5.1 Introduction.
5.2 Path versus Trajectory.
5.3 JointSpace versus CartesianSpace Descriptions.
5.4 Basics of Trajectory Planning.
5.5 JointSpace Trajectory Planning.
5.5.1 ThirdOrder Polynomial Trajectory Planning.
5.5.2 FifthOrder Polynomial Trajectory Planning.
5.5.3 Linear Segments with Parabolic Blends.
5.5.4 Linear Segments with Parabolic Blends and Via Points.
5.5.5 HigherOrder Trajectories.
5.5.6 Other Trajectories.
5.6 CartesianSpace Trajectories.
5.7 Continuous Trajectory Recording.
5.8 Design Project.
Summary.
References.
Problems.
Chapter 6 Motion Control Systems.
6.1 Introduction.
6.2 Basic Components and Terminology.
6.3 Block Diagrams.
6.4 System Dynamics.
6.5 The Laplace Transform.
6.6 Inverse Laplace Transform.
6.6.1 Partial Fraction Expansion when F(s) Involves Only Distinct Poles.
6.6.2 Partial Fraction Expansion when F(s) Involves Repeated Poles.
6.6.3 Partial Fraction Expansion when F(s) Involves Complex Conjugate Poles.
6.7 Transfer Function.
6.8 Block Diagram Algebra.
6.9 Characteristics of FirstOrder Transfer Functions.
6.10 Characteristics of SecondOrder Transfer Functions.
6.11 Characteristic Equation: Pole/Zero Mapping.
6.12 SteadyState Error.
6.13 Root Locus Method.
6.14 Proportional Controllers.
6.15 ProportionalplusIntegral Controllers.
6.16 ProportionalplusDerivative Controllers.
6.17 ProportionalIntegralDerivative Controller (PID).
6.18 Lead and Lag Compensators.
6.19 The Bode Diagram and Frequency Domain Analysis.
6.20 OpenLoop versus ClosedLoop Applications.
6.21 MultipleInput and MultipleOutput Systems.
6.22 StateSpace Control Methodology.
6.23 Digital Control
6.24 Nonlinear Control Systems.
6.25 Electromechanical Systems Dynamics: Robot Actuation and Control.
6.26 Design Projects.
Summary.
References.
Problems.
Chapter 7 Actuators and Drive Systems.
7.1 Introduction.
7.2 Characteristics of Actuating Systems.
7.2.1 Nominal CharacteristicsWeight, Power to Weight Ratio, Operating Pressure, Voltage, and Others.
7.2.2 Stiffness versus Compliance.
7.2.3 Use of Reduction Gears.
7.3 Comparison of Actuating Systems.
7.4 Hydraulic Actuators.
7.5 Pneumatic Devices.
7.6 Electric Motors.
7.6.1 Fundamental Differences between AC and DCType Motors.
7.6.2 DC Motors.
7.6.3 AC Motors.
7.6.4 Brushless DC Motors.
7.6.5 Direct Drive Electric Motors.
7.6.7 Servomotors.
7.6.8 Stepper Motors.
7.7 Microprocessor Control of Electric Motors.
7.7.1 Pulse Width Modulation.
7.7.2 Direction Control of DC Motors with an HBridge.
7.8 Magnetostrictive Actuators.
7.9 ShapeMemory Type Metals.
7.10 Electroactive Polymer Actuators (EAP).
7.11 Speed Reduction.
7.12 Other Systems.
7.13 Design Projects.
7.13.1 Design Project 1.
7.13.2 Design Project 2.
7.13.3 Design Project 3.
7.13.4 Design Project 4.
Summary.
References.
Problems.
Chapter 8 Sensors.
8.1 Introduction.
8.2 Sensor Characteristics.
8.3 Sensor Utilization.
8.4 Position Sensors.
8.4.1 Potentiometers.
8.4.2 Encoders.
8.4.3 Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDT).
8.4.4 Resolvers.
8.4.5 (Linear) Magnetostrictive Displacement Transducers.
8.4.6 HallEffect Sensors.
8.4.7 Other Devices.
8.5 Velocity Sensors.
8.5.1 Encoders.
8.5.2 Tachometers.
8.5.3 Differentiation of Position Signal.
8.6 Acceleration Sensors.
8.7 Force and Pressure Sensors.
8.7.1 Piezoelectric.
8.7.2 Force Sensing Resistor.
8.7.3 Strain Gauge.
8.7.4 Antistatic Foam.
8.8 Torque Sensors.
8.9 Microswitches.
8.10 Visible Light and Infrared Sensors.
8.11 Touch and Tactile Sensors.
8.12 Proximity Sensors.
8.12.1 Magnetic Proximity Sensors.
8.12.2 Optical Proximity Sensors.
8.12.3 Ultrasonic Proximity Sensors.
8.12.4 Inductive Proximity Sensors.
8.12.5 Capacitive Proximity Sensors.
8.12.6 Eddy Current Proximity Sensors.
8.13 Range Finders.
8.13.1 Ultrasonic Range Finders.
8.13.2 LightBased Range Finders.
8.13.3 Global Positioning System (GPS).
8.14 Sniff Sensors.
8.15 Taste Sensors.
8.16 Vision Systems.
8.17 Voice Recognition Devices.
8.18 Voice Synthesizers.
8.19 Remote Center Compliance (RCC) Device.
8.20 Design Project.
Summary.
References.
Chapter 9 Image Processing and Analysis with Vision Systems.
9.1 Introduction.
9.2 Basic Concepts.
9.2.1 Image Processing versus Image Analysis.
9.2.2 Two and ThreeDimensional Image Types.
9.2.3 The Nature of an Image.
9.2.4 Acquisition of Images.
9.2.5 Digital Images.
9.2.6 Frequency Domain versus Spatial Domain.
9.3 Fourier Transform and Frequency Content of a Signal.
9.4 Frequency Content of an Image; Noise, Edges.
9.5 Resolution and Quantization.
9.6 Sampling Theorem.
9.7 ImageProcessing Techniques.
9.8 Histogram of Images.
9.9 Thresholding.
9.10 Spatial Domain Operations: Convolution Mask.
9.11 Connectivity.
9.12 Noise Reduction.
9.12.1 Neighborhood Averaging with Convolution Masks.
9.12.2 Image Averaging.
9.12.3 Frequency Domain.
9.12.4 Median Filters.
9.13 Edge Detection.
9.14 Sharpening an Image.
9.15 Hough Transform.
9.16 Segmentation.
9.17 Segmentation by Region Growing and Region Splitting.
9.18 Binary Morphology Operations.
9.18.1 Thickening Operation.
9.18.2 Dilation.
9.18.3 Erosion.
9.18.4 Skeletonization.
9.18.5 Open Operation.
9.18.6 Close Operation.
9.18.7 Fill Operation.
9.19 Gray Morphology Operations.
9.19.1 Erosion.
9.19.2 Dilation.
9.20 Image Analysis.
9.21 Object Recognition by Features.
9.21.1 Basic Features Used for Object Identification.
9.21.2 Moments.
9.21.3 Template Matching.
9.21.4 Discrete Fourier Descriptors.
9.21.5 Computed Tomography (CT).
9.22 Depth Measurement with Vision Systems.
9.22.1 Scene Analysis versus Mapping.
9.22.2 Range Detection and Depth Analysis.
9.22.3 Stereo Imaging.
9.22.4 Scene Analysis with Shading and Sizes.
9.23 Specialized Lighting.
9.24 Image Data Compression.
9.24.1 Intraframe Spatial Domain.
9.24.2 Interframe Coding.
9.24.3 Compression Techniques.
9.25 Color Images.
9.26 Heuristics.
9.27 Applications of Vision Systems.
9.28 Design Project.
Summary.
References.
Problems.
Chapter 10 Fuzzy Logic Control.
10.1 Introduction.
10.2 Fuzzy Control: What Is Needed.
10.3 Crisp Values versus Fuzzy Values.
10.4 Fuzzy Sets: Degrees of Membership and Truth.
10.5 Fuzzification.
10.6 Fuzzy Inference Rule Base.
10.7 Defuzzification.
10.7.1 Center of Gravity Method.
10.7.2 Mamdani's Inference Method.
10.8 Simulation of Fuzzy Logic Controller.
10.9 Applications of Fuzzy Logic in Robotics.
10.10 Design Project.
Summary.
References.
Problems.
Appendix A Review of Matrix Algebra and Trigonometry.
A.1 Matrix Algebra and Notation: A Review.
A.2 Calculation of an Angle from Its Sine, Cosine, or Tangent.
Problems.
Appendix B Image Acquisition Systems.
B.1 Vidicon Camera.
B.2 Digital Camera.
References.
Appendix C Root Locus and Bode Diagram with Matlab^{TM}.
C.1 Root Locus.
C.2 Bode Diagram.
Appendix D Simulation of Robots with Commercial Software.
Index.
 Integrates numerous realworld, engineeringlevel applications from a wide variety of disciplines.
 Emphasizes design along with analysis and modeling, with running design projects in each chapter and design project ideas for students.
 Features a chapter in fuzzy logic control.
 Includes information on a commerciallyavailable software package called SimulationX (free student version is publicly available).
 Presents new and revised examples, homework problems, projects.
? The mathematical principles behind robotics are quite complex. This text presents the mathematical principles in a manner that is easy for students to digest .
? Design, a critical issue in robotics, is strongly emphasized in this text.
? Kinematics and dynamics are covered extensively and presented in an accessible manner
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