Visualizing Human Biology, 3rd Edition
October 2010, ©2011
1 What Is Life? 2
1.1 Living Organisms Display Nine Specific Characteristics 4
1.2 Human Biology Is Structured and Logical 6
1.3 Scientists Approach Questions Using the Scientific Method 12
1.4 Scientific Findings Often Lead to Ethical Dilemmas 16
2 Where Do We Come from and Where Do We Fit? 22
2.1 What Are the Origins of Modern Humans? 24
2.2 What Does the Human Body Have in Common with the World Around It? 31
2.3 We Reflect Our Environment: We Have a Habitat and a Niche 35
3 Everyday Chemistry of Life 42
3.1 Life Has a Unique Chemistry 44
3.2 Water Is Life’s Essential Chemical 51
3.3 There Are Four Main Categories of Organic Chemicals 54
4 Cells: Organization and Communication 68
4.1 The Cell Is Highly Organized and Dynamic 70
4.2 The Cell Membrane Isolates the Cell 73
4.3 The Components of a Cell Are Called Organelles 78
4.4 Cell Communication Is Important to Cellular Success 87
5 Tissues 94
5.1 Cells Are the Building Blocks of Tissues 96
5.2 Organization Increases with Organs, Organ Systems, and the Organism 107
5.3 Scientists Use a Road Map to the Human Body 111
UNIT 2 MOVING THROUGH THE ENVIRONMENT
6 The Skeleto-Muscular System 118
6.1 The Skeleto-Muscular System Is Multifunctional and Dynamic 120
6.2 Bone Is Strong and Light Tissue 122
6.3 The Skeleton Holds It All Together 127
6.4 Skeletal Muscles Exercise Power 137
6.5 Whole-Muscle Contractions Require Energy 144
7 The Nervous System 154
7.1 The Nervous System Is Categorized by Structure and Function 156
7.2 Neurons Work Through Action Potentials 160
7.3 The Brain and Spinal Cord Are Central to the Nervous System 167
7.4 The Peripheral Nervous System Extends the Central Nervous System 180
8 The Special Senses 188
8.1 The Special Senses Tell Us About Our Environment 190
8.2 Vision Is Our Most Acute Sense 196
8.3 The Special Senses Are Our Connection to the Outside World 203
UNIT 3 PROTECTION FROM THE ENVIRONMENT
9 Immunity and the Lymphatic System 210
9.1 How Do We Adapt to Stress? 212
9.2 Skin and Mucous Membranes Are the First Line of Defense 216
9.3 We Have a Second Line of Innate Defense 221
9.4 The Lymphatic System and Specific Immunity Are Our Third Line of Defense 224
9.5 Immunity Can Be Acquired Actively or Passively 236
10 Infectious Disease and Epidemiology 244
10.1 The Study of Epidemics Is Global in Scope 246
10.2 Bacteria Are Single-Celled Wonders that Can Cause Disease 251
10.3 Viruses Can Reproduce and Kill, but They Are Not Alive 258
10.4 AIDS and HIV Attack the Immune System 265
10.5 Other Pathogens Carry Other Dangers 270
11 Cancer 278
11.1 Cancer Cells Develop in Distinct Ways 280
11.2 Cancer Has Many Causes and Effects 285
11.3 Cancer Can Be Diagnosed and Treated Effectively 296
UNIT 4 THRIVING WITHIN THE ENVIRONMENT
12 The Cardiovascular System 308
12.1 The Heart Ensures Continual, 24/7 Nutrient Delivery 310
12.2 Blood Transport Involves Miles of Sophisticated Plumbing 318
12.3 Different Circulatory Pathways Have Specific Purposes 321
12.4 Cardiovascular Disorders Have Life-Threatening Consequences 322
12.5 Blood Consists of Plasma and Formed Elements 327
13 The Respiratory System: Movement of Air 344
13.1 The Respiratory System Provides Us with Essential Gas Exchange 346
13.2 Air Must Be Moved in and out of the Respiratory System 356
13.3 External Respiration Brings Supplies for Internal Respiration 360
13.4 Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Requires Hemoglobin and Plasma 362
13.5 Respiratory Health Is Critical to Survival 365
14 Nutrition: You Are What You Eat 376
14.1 Nutrients Are Life Sustaining 378
14.2 Nutrients Are Metabolized 390
14.3 Health Can Be Hurt by Nutritional Disorders 394
15 The Digestive System 402
15.1 Digestion Begins in the Oral Cavity 404
15.2 The Stomach Puts Food to the Acid Test 410
15.3 The Intestines and Accessory Organs Finish the Job 413
15.4 Digestion Is Both Mechanical and Chemical 422
16 The Urinary System 430
16.1 The Kidneys Are the Core of the Urinary System 432
16.2 Urine Is Made, Transported, and Stored 436
16.3 The Urinary System Maintains the Body’s Fluid and Solute Balance 442
16.4 Life-Threatening Diseases Affect the Urinary System 446
UNIT 5 POPULATING THE ENVIRONMENT
17 The Endocrine System and Development 454
17.1 Hormones Are Chemical Messengers 456
17.2 The Endocrine Glands Secrete Directly into the Bloodstream 461
17.3 Development Takes Us from Infancy to Adulthood 474
18 The Reproductive Systems: Maintaining the Species 484
18.1 Survival of the Species Depends on Gamete Formation 486
181.2 The Male Reproductive System Produces, Stores, and Delivers Sperm 488
18.3 The Female Reproductive System Produces and Nourishes Eggs 498
18.4 There Are Many Birth Control Choices 508
18.5 Sexual Contact Carries a Danger: Sexually Transmitted Diseases 515
19 Pregnancy: Development from Conception to Newborn 522
19.1 Days 1 Through 14 Include Fertilization and Implantation 524
19.2 The Embryonic Stage Is Marked by Differentiation and Morphogenesis 531
19.3 Fetal Development Is a Stage of Rapid Organ Growth 537
19.4 Labor Initiates the End of Pregnancy 543
20 Inheritance, Genetics, and Molecular Biology 554
20.1 Traits Are Inherited in Specific Patterns 556
20.2 Modern Genetics Uncovers a Molecular Picture 562
20.3 The Central Dogma: Genes Direct the Formation of Proteins 566
20.4 Genetic Theory Is Put to Practical Use 569
20.5 Biotechnology Has Far-Reaching Effects 575
21 Populations Evolve in Ecosystems 592
21.1 The Theory of Evolution Is the Foundation of Biology 594
21.2 Natural Selection Has Far-Reaching Effects on Populations 599
21.3 Ecosystems Sustain Life 602
21.4 Population Growth Is Regulated by the Environment 617
21.5 Humans Have a Tremendous Impact on the Environment 619
Appendix A: Periodic Table 630
B: Measurements 631
C: Answers to Self-Tests 633
- New “Clinical Click” feature has been added to give students a chance at engaging in more health and wellness related issues. Clinical Click provides a short case study for the student to consider, relating the puzzle to the material in the chapter.
- New Data Interpretation questions provide many avenues for critical thought in each chapter.
- Over half the introductory vignettes have been updated, keeping topics from the new current and relevant for the student.
- Half the photos have been upgraded, and the material covered in the Health and Wellness, Ethics and Issues and I Wonder boxes has been changed to reflect current topics in medicine, the media, and research.
- Seventeen key illustrations have been re-worked to include more data or to present a more visually appealing layout to be more useful for students and instructors.
- Visuals, as used throughout this text, are instructional components that display facts, concepts, processes, or principles. The visuals include diagrams, graphs, maps, photographs, illustrations, schematics, animations, and videos, and together they create the foundation for the text.
- Promises to engage today’s students with a visually rich textbook and dynamic multimedia resources that make human biology as exciting and relevant to students as it is to their professors.
- Balanced coverage of both the “human” and the “biology” of human biology to show students both what affects their own bodies and the science of how humans live in, move through, and populate their environment.
- Continues to answer authentic student questions in each chapter and to introduce the science behind the stories of human biology in an engaging, personable style, following the natural curiosity of today’s students.
- Each chapter begins with an engaging vignette designed to stimulate a desire for more information. Throughout the chapter, students are further involved in the topics with the striking and stimulating photos and illustrations that demonstrate the concepts, the questions and stories behind the science in the Health, Wellness, and Disease boxes, Ethics and Issue boxes, and “I Wonder…” boxes. Tools and resources throughout the chapter help students check their understanding and focus on the most essential information.
- Wiley E-Texts are powered by VitalSource technologies e-book software.
- With Wiley E-Texts you can access your e-book how and where you want to study: Online, Download and Mobile.
- Wiley e-texts are non-returnable and non-refundable.
- WileyPLUS registration codes are NOT included with the Wiley E-Text. For informationon WileyPLUS, click here .
- To learn more about Wiley e-texts, please refer to our FAQ.
- E-books are offered as e-Pubs or PDFs. To download and read them, users must install Adobe Digital Editions (ADE) on their PC.
- E-books have DRM protection on them, which means only the person who purchases and downloads the e-book can access it.
- E-books are non-returnable and non-refundable.
- To learn more about our e-books, please refer to our FAQ.