Fox and McDonald's Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 8th Edition
October 2011, ©2011
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Note to Students 3
1.2 Scope of Fluid Mechanics 4
1.3 Definition of a Fluid 4
1.4 Basic Equations 5
1.5 Methods of Analysis 6
1.6 Dimensions and Units 11
1.7 Analysis of Experimental Error 15
1.8 Summary 16
CHAPTER 2 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 20
2.1 Fluid as a Continuum 21
2.2 Velocity Field 23
2.3 Stress Field 29
2.4 Viscosity 31
2.5 Surface Tension 36
2.6 Description and Classification of Fluid Motions 38
2.7 Summary and Useful Equations 44
CHAPTER 3 FLUID STATICS 55
3.1 The Basic Equation of Fluid Statics 56
3.2 The Standard Atmosphere 60
3.3 Pressure Variation in a Static Fluid 61
3.4 Hydraulic Systems 69
3.5 Hydrostatic Force on Submerged Surfaces 69
*3.6 Buoyancy and Stability 80
3.7 Fluids in Rigid-Body Motion (on the Web) W-1
3.8 Summary and Useful Equations 83
CHAPTER 4 BASIC EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM FOR A CONTROL VOLUME 96
4.1 Basic Laws for a System 98
4.2 Relation of System Derivatives to the Control Volume Formulation 100
4.3 Conservation of Mass 104
4.4 Momentum Equation for Inertial Control Volume 110
4.5 Momentum Equation for Control Volume with Rectilinear Acceleration 128
4.6 Momentum Equation for Control Volume with Arbitrary Acceleration (on the Web) W-6
*4.7 The Angular-Momentum Principle 135
4.8 The First Law of Thermodynamics 139
4.9 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 146
4.10 Summary and Useful Equations 147
CHAPTER 5 INTRODUCTION TO DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS OF FLUID MOTION 171
5.1 Conservation of Mass 172
*5.2 Stream Function for Two-Dimensional Incompressible Flow 180
5.3 Motion of a Fluid Particle (Kinematics) 184
5.4 Momentum Equation 197
*5.5 Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics 208
5.6 Summary and Useful Equations 224
CHAPTER 6 INCOMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW 235
6.1 Momentum Equation for Frictionless Flow: Euler's Equation 237
6.2 Euler's Equations in Streamline Coordinates 238
6.3 Bernoulli EquationIntegration of Euler’s Equation Along a Streamline for Steady Flow 241
6.4 The Bernoulli Equation Interpreted as an Energy Equation 253
6.5 Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line 257
*6.6 Unsteady Bernoulli Equation: Integration of Euler’s Equation Along a Streamline (on the Web) W-16
*6.7 Irrotational Flow 259
6.8 Summary and Useful Equations 276
CHAPTER 7 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS AND SIMILITUDE 290
7.1 Nondimensionalizing the Basic Differential Equations 292
7.2 Nature of Dimensional Analysis 294
7.3 Buckingham Pi Theorem 296
7.4 Determining the
Π Groups 297
7.5 Significant Dimensionless Groups in Fluid Mechanics 303
7.6 Flow Similarity and Model Studies 305
7.7 Summary and Useful Equations 318
CHAPTER 8 INTERNAL INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLOW 328
8.1 Introduction 330
PART A. FULLY DEVELOPED LAMINAR FLOW 332
8.2 Fully Developed Laminar Flow between Infinite Parallel Plates 332
8.3 Fully Developed Laminar Flow in a Pipe 344
PART B. FLOW IN PIPES AND DUCTS 348
8.4 Shear Stress Distribution in Fully Developed Pipe Flow 349
8.5 Turbulent Velocity Profiles in Fully Developed Pipe Flow 351
8.6 Energy Considerations in Pipe Flow 353
8.7 Calculation of Head Loss 357
8.8 Solution of Pipe Flow Problems 369
PART C. FLOW MEASUREMENT 387
8.9 Direct Methods 387
8.10 Restriction Flow Meters for Internal Flows 387
8.11 Linear Flow Meters 397
8.12 Traversing Methods 399
8.13 Summary and Useful Equations 400
CHAPTER 9 EXTERNAL INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLOW 421
PART A. BOUNDARY LAYERS 423
9.1 The Boundary-Layer Concept 423
9.2 Boundary-Layer Thicknesses 425
9.3 Laminar Flat-Plate Boundary Layer: Exact Solution (on the Web) W-19
9.4 Momentum Integral Equation 428
9.5 Use of the Momentum Integral Equation for Flow with Zero Pressure Gradient 433
9.6 Pressure Gradients in Boundary-Layer Flow 442
PART B. FLUID FLOW ABOUT IMMERSED BODIES 445
9.7 Drag 445
9.8 Lift 459
9.9 Summary and Useful Equations 474
CHAPTER 10 FLUID MACHINERY 492
10.1 Introduction and Classification of Fluid Machines 494
10.2 Turbomachinery Analysis 499
10.3 Pumps, Fans, and Blowers 510
10.4 Positive Displacement Pumps 548
10.5 Hydraulic Turbines 552
10.6 Propellers and Wind-Power Machines 562
10.7 Compressible Flow Turbomachines 581
10.8 Summary and Useful Equations 586
CHAPTER 11 FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS 600
11.1 Basic Concepts and Definitions 603
11.2 Energy Equation for Open-Channel Flows 610
11.3 Localized Effect of Area Change (Frictionless Flow) 619
11.4 The Hydraulic Jump 625
11.5 Steady Uniform Flow 631
11.6 Flow with Gradually Varying Depth 641
11.7 Discharge Measurement Using Weirs 646
11.8 Summary and Useful Equations 650
CHAPTER 12 INTRODUCTION TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW 657
12.1 Review of Thermodynamics 659
12.2 Propagation of Sound Waves 665
12.3 Reference State: Local Isentropic Stagnation Properties 673
12.4 Critical Conditions 681
12.5 Summary and Useful Equations 681
CHAPTER 13 COMPRESSIBLE FLOW 689
13.1 Basic Equations for One-Dimensional Compressible Flow 691
13.2 Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas: Area Variation 694
13.3 Normal Shocks 715
13.4 Supersonic Channel Flow with Shocks 724
13.5 Flow in a Constant-Area Duct with Friction 727
13.6 Frictionless Flow in a Constant-Area Duct with Heat Exchange 740
13.7 Oblique Shocks and Expansion Waves 750
13.8 Summary and Useful Equations 768
APPENDIX A FLUID PROPERTY DATA 785
APPENDIX B EQUATIONS OF MOTION IN CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES 798
APPENDIX C VIDEOS FOR FLUID MECHANICS 800
APPENDIX D SELECTED PERFORMANCE CURVES FOR PUMPS AND FANS 803
APPENDIX E FLOW FUNCTIONS FOR COMPUTATION OF COMPRESSIBLE FLOW 818
APPENDIX F ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL UNCERTAINTY 829
APPENDIX G SI UNITS, PREFIXES, AND CONVERSION FACTORS 836
APPENDIX H A BRIEF REVIEW OF MICROSOFT EXCEL (ON THE WEB) W-33
Answers to Selected Problems 838
- Case Studies in Energy and the Environment: A new case study begins each chapter, providing a survey of the most interesting and novel applications of fluid mechanics for generating increasing amounts of the world s energy from renewable sources.
- Demonstration Videos: The classic NCFMF video references from the previous edition have all been retained and supplemented with new videos from a variety of sources. The videos provide visual aids for many of the concepts covered in the text, and are available on the student and instructor sections of the book website.
- CFD: The section on basic concepts of computational fluid dynamics in Chapter 5 now includes material on using the spreadsheet for numerical analysis of simple 1D and 2D flows; it includes an introduction to the Euler method.
- Many Restructured and Updated Chapters: Including those chapters relating to Fluid Machinery, Open-Channel Flow, and Compressible Flow.
- New Homework Problems: Over 500 of the roughly 1700 problems are new or modified for this edition, some created by a panel of instructors and subject matter experts. End-of-chapter homework problems are now grouped and labeled according to text sections.
- This book sets the benchmark for undergraduate textbooks in terms of its comprehensive treatment of all the main areas of fluid mechanics, as well as its level of presentation.
- Proven, consistent problem-solving methodology: A consistent problem methodology is demonstrated in every example, demonstrating best practices for students.
- Over 100 detailed example problems illustrate important fluid mechanics concepts and incorporate problem-solving techniques that allow students to see the advantages of using a systematic procedure.
- More than 1,700 end-of-chapter problems with varying degrees of difficulty give instructors many options when creating assignments.
- Integration with Excel: The problem-solving approach is integrated with Excel so instructors can focus more class time on fundamental concepts. Instructors can also use the 51 Example Excel workbooks to present a variety of fluid mechanics phenomena, especially the effects produced when varying input parameters.
- Extensive explanations of theoretical derivations give instructors the choice to either review theory in class or assign it as homework so that lecture time can be more flexible.
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