Textbook
Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 7th EditionApril 2011, ©2011

CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1
1.1 What and How? 2
1.2 Physical Origins and Rate Equations 3
1.3 Relationship to Thermodynamics 12
1.4 Units and Dimensions 36
1.5 Analysis of Heat Transfer Problems: Methodology 38
1.6 Relevance of Heat Transfer 41
1.7 Summary 45
References 48
Problems 49
CHAPTER 2 Introduction to Conduction 67
2.1 The Conduction Rate Equation 68
2.2 The Thermal Properties of Matter 70
2.3 The Heat Diffusion Equation 82
2.4 Boundary and Initial Conditions 90
2.5 Summary 94
References 95
Problems 95
CHAPTER 3 OneDimensional, SteadyState Conduction 111
3.1 The Plane Wall 112
3.2 An Alternative Conduction Analysis 132
3.3 Radial Systems 136
3.4 Summary of OneDimensional Conduction Results 142
3.5 Conduction with Thermal Energy Generation 142
3.6 Heat Transfer from Extended Surfaces 154
3.7 The Bioheat Equation 178
3.8 Thermoelectric Power Generation 182
3.9 Micro and Nanoscale Conduction 189
3.10 Summary 190
References 193
Problems 193
CHAPTER 4 TwoDimensional, SteadyState Conduction 229
4.1 Alternative Approaches 230
4.2 The Method of Separation of Variables 231
4.3 The Conduction Shape Factor and the Dimensionless Conduction Heat Rate 235
4.4 FiniteDifference Equations 241
4.5 Solving the FiniteDifference Equations 250
4.6 Summary 256
References 257
Problems 257
CHAPTER 5 Transient Conduction 279
5.1 The Lumped Capacitance Method 280
5.2 Validity of the Lumped Capacitance Method 283
5.3 General Lumped Capacitance Analysis 287
5.4 Spatial Effects 298
5.5 The Plane Wall with Convection 299
5.6 Radial Systems with Convection 303
5.7 The SemiInfinite Solid 310
5.8 Objects with Constant Surface Temperatures or Surface Heat Fluxes 317
5.9 Periodic Heating 327
5.10 FiniteDifference Methods 330
5.11 Summary 345
References 346
Problems 346
CHAPTER 6 Introduction to Convection 377
6.1 The Convection Boundary Layers 378
6.2 Local and Average Convection Coefficients 382
6.3 Laminar and Turbulent Flow 389
6.4 The Boundary Layer Equations 394
6.5 Boundary Layer Similarity: The Normalized Boundary Layer Equations 398
6.6 Physical Interpretation of the Dimensionless Parameters 407
6.7 Boundary Layer Analogies 409
6.8 Summary 417
References 418
Problems 419
CHAPTER 7 External Flow 433
7.1 The Empirical Method 435
7.2 The Flat Plate in Parallel Flow 436
7.3 Methodology for a Convection Calculation 447
7.4 The Cylinder in Cross Flow 455
7.5 The Sphere 465
7.6 Flow Across Banks of Tubes 468
7.7 Impinging Jets 477
7.8 Packed Beds 482
7.9 Summary 483
References 486
Problems 486
CHAPTER 8 Internal Flow 517
8.1 Hydrodynamic Considerations 518
8.2 Thermal Considerations 523
8.3 The Energy Balance 529
8.4 Laminar Flow in Circular Tubes: Thermal Analysis and Convection Correlations 537
8.5 Convection Correlations: Turbulent Flow in Circular Tubes 544
8.6 Convection Correlations: Noncircular Tubes and the Concentric Tube Annulus 552
8.7 Heat Transfer Enhancement 555
8.8 Flow in Small Channels 558
8.9 Convection Mass Transfer 563
8.10 Summary 565
References 568
Problems 569
CHAPTER 9 Free Convection 593
9.1 Physical Considerations 594
9.2 The Governing Equations for Laminar Boundary Layers 597
9.3 Similarity Considerations 598
9.4 Laminar Free Convection on a Vertical Surface 599
9.5 The Effects of Turbulence 602
9.6 Empirical Correlations: External Free Convection Flows 604
9.7 Free Convection Within Parallel Plate Channels 618
9.8 Empirical Correlations: Enclosures 621
9.9 Combined Free and Forced Convection 627
9.10 Convection Mass Transfer 628
9.11 Summary 629
References 630
Problems 631
CHAPTER 10 Boiling and Condensation 653
10.1 Dimensionless Parameters in Boiling and Condensation 654
10.2 Boiling Modes 655
10.3 Pool Boiling 656
10.4 Pool Boiling Correlations 660
10.5 Forced Convection Boiling 669
10.6 Condensation: Physical Mechanisms 673
10.7 Laminar Film Condensation on a Vertical Plate 675
10.8 Turbulent Film Condensation 679
10.9 Film Condensation on Radial Systems 684
10.10 Condensation in Horizontal Tubes 689
10.11 Dropwise Condensation 690
10.12 Summary 691
References 691
Problems 693
CHAPTER 11 Heat Exchangers 705
11.1 Heat Exchanger Types 706
11.2 The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 708
11.3 Heat Exchanger Analysis: Use of the Log Mean Temperature Difference 711
11.4 Heat Exchanger Analysis: The Effectiveness–NTU Method 722
11.5 Heat Exchanger Design and Performance Calculations 730
11.6 Additional Considerations 739
11.7 Summary 747
References 748
Problems 748
CHAPTER 12 Radiation: Processes and Properties 767
12.1 Fundamental Concepts 768
12.2 Radiation Heat Fluxes 771
12.3 Radiation Intensity 773
12.4 Blackbody Radiation 782
12.5 Emission from Real Surfaces 792
12.6 Absorption, Reflection, and Transmission by Real Surfaces 801
12.7 Kirchhoff’s Law 810
12.8 The Gray Surface 812
12.9 Environmental Radiation 818
12.10 Summary 826
References 830
Problems 830
CHAPTER 13 Radiation Exchange Between Surfaces 861
13.1 The View Factor 862
13.2 Blackbody Radiation Exchange 872
13.3 Radiation Exchange Between Opaque, Diffuse, Gray Surfaces in an Enclosure 876
13.4 Multimode Heat Transfer 893
13.5 Implications of the Simplifying Assumptions 896
13.6 Radiation Exchange with Participating Media 896
13.7 Summary 901
References 902
Problems 903
CHAPTER 14 Diffusion Mass Transfer 933
14.1 Physical Origins and Rate Equations 934
14.2 Mass Transfer in Nonstationary Media 939
14.3 The Stationary Medium Approximation 947
14.4 Conservation of Species for a Stationary Medium 947
14.5 Boundary Conditions and Discontinuous Concentrations at Interfaces 954
14.6 Mass Diffusion with Homogeneous Chemical Reactions 962
14.7 Transient Diffusion 965
14.8 Summary 971
References 972
Problems 972
APPENDIX A Thermophysical Properties of Matter 981
APPENDIX B Mathematical Relations and Functions 1013
APPENDIX C Thermal Conditions Associated with Uniform Energy
Generation in OneDimensional, SteadyState Systems 1019
APPENDIX D The Gauss–Seidel Method 1025
APPENDIX E The Convection Transfer Equations 1027
APPENDIX F Boundary Layer Equations for Turbulent Flow 1031
APPENDIX G An Integral Laminar Boundary Layer Solution for Parallel Flow over a Flat Plate 1035
Index 1039
 Richness of the problems and examples – numerous contemporary applications have been added, especially in the area of ‘energy and the environment,’ including topics such as solar energy systems, renewable energy systems, and new manufacturing processes
 Additional coverage of environmental issues, included an updated and augmented section on environmental radiation (12.9)
 As appropriate, the topic of thermodynamics has been augmented and carefully blended throughout the text, allowing readers to build upon those concepts and skills.
 Additional focus on and tailoring coverage down to the core fundamental concepts, while clearly indicating content that is either optional and/or more appropriate for a second course
 Modernization and streamlining of the convection correlations helps students focus on the most useful correlations instead of getting lost or confused by the vast quantity of correlations
 New version of Interactive Heat Transfer software – new Quickstart companion, new navigation that makes it easier
 New version of Interactive Heat Transfer software – Problems involving complex models and/or exploratory, whatif, and parameter sensitivity considerations can efficiently and accurately be addressed using a computational equationsolving package. IHT has been designed for that specific purpose, and this new version provides a new Quickstart companion guide as well as a new, easier to use navigation scheme
 The definitive text on Heat and Mass Transfer, this book continues to be built around the four central learning objectives, including:
 The reader should internalize the meaning of the terminology and physical principles associated with heat transfer.
 The reader should be able to delineate pertinent transport phenomena for any process or system involving heat transfer.
 The reader should be able to use requisite inputs for computing heat transfer rates and/or material temperatures.
 The reader should be able to develop representative models of real processes and systems and draw conclusions concerning process/system design or performance from the attendant analysis.
 Teaches students the rigorous and systematic problemsolving methodology developed and honed by the Incropera author team
 A wealth of example problems to better show how to apply the material across various engineering disciplines and fields
 Identifies problems that are uniquely suited for solving with a computational software tool, both to increase efficiency and to decrease errors
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