How Baking Works: Exploring the Fundamentals of Baking Science, 3rd Edition
November 2010, ©2011
The essence of baking is chemistry, and anyone who wants to be a master pastry chef must understand the principles and science that make baking work. This book explains the whys and hows of every chemical reaction, essential ingredient, and technique, revealing the complex mysteries of bread loaves, pastries, and everything in between. Among other additions, How Baking Works, Third Edition includes an all-new chapter on baking for health and wellness, with detailed information on using whole grains, allergy-free baking, and reducing salt, sugar, and fat in a variety of baked goods. This detailed and informative guide features:
- An introduction to the major ingredient groups, including sweeteners, fats, milk, and leavening agents, and how each affects finished baked goods
- Practical exercises and experiments that vividly illustrate how different ingredients function
- Photographs and illustrations that show the science of baking at work
- End-of-chapter discussion and review questions that reinforce key concepts and test learning
For both practicing and future bakers and pastry chefs, How Baking Works, Third Edition offers an unrivaled hands-on learning experience.
1 Introduction to Baking 1
The Importance of Accuracy in the Bakeshop 2
Balances and Scales 3
Units of Measure 5
Weight and Volume Measurements 5
The Difference Between Weight Ounces and Fluid Ounces 7
The Difference Between Density and Thickness 8
Baker's Percentages 9
The Importance of Controlling Ingredient Temperatures 11
The Importance of Controlling Oven Temperatures 12
2 Heat Transfer 19
Methods of Heat Transfer 20
3 Overview of the Baking Process 33
Setting the Stage for Success 34
Stage I: Mixing 36
Stage II: Baking 38
Stage III: Cooling 44
4 Sensory Properties of Food 57
5 Wheat Flour 79
The Wheat Kernel 80
Makeup of Flour 82
Classifying Wheat 83
Particle Size 84
Flour and Dough Additives and Treatments 85
Commercial Grades of White Flours 89
Types of Patent Wheat Flours 91
Other Wheat Flours 94
Functions of Flour 96
Storage of Flours 98
6 Variety Grains and Flours 117
Cereal Grains 118
Alternative Wheat Grains 122
Cereal-Free Grains and Flours 123
7 Gluten 135
The Formation and Development of Gluten 136
Determining Gluten Requirements 138
Controlling Gluten Development 140
Dough Relaxation 150
8 Sugar and Other Sweeteners 163
Dry Crystalline Sugars 167
Specialty Sweeteners 183
Functions of Sweeteners 186
Storage and Handling 191
9 Fats, Oils, and Emulsifiers 213
Chemistry of Fats, Oils, and Emulsifi ers 214
Processing of Fats and Oils 217
Fats and Oils 221
Functions of Fats, Oils, and Emulsifi ers 233
Storage and Handling 238
10 Eggs and Egg Products 257
The Makeup of an Egg 258
Commercial Classifi cation of Shell Eggs 261
Egg Products 263
Functions of Eggs 265
More on Coagulation: Basic Egg Custard 269
More on Aeration: Meringue 272
Storage and Handling 275
11 Leavening Agents 299
The Process of Leavening 300
Leavening Gases 301
Yeast Fermentation 304
Chemical Leaveners 308
Storage and Handling 313
12 Thickening and Gelling Agents 323
The Process of Thickening and Gelling 324
Vegetable Gums 328
Functions of Thickening and Gelling Agents 336
Storage and Handling 338
13 Milk and Milk Products 355
Common Commercial Processes to Milk and Milk Products 356
Makeup of Milk 358
Milk Products 359
Functions of Milk and Milk Products 365
Storage and Handling 366
14 Nuts and Seeds 377
Composition of Nuts, Kernels, and Seeds 378
Common Nuts, Kernels, and Seeds 380
Toasting Nuts 383
Storage and Handling 384
15 Cocoa and Chocolate Products 395
Cocoa Beans 396
Common Cocoa and Chocolate Products 399
Handling Chocolate Products 412
Functions of Cocoa and Chocolate Products 414
16 Fruit and Fruit Products 427
How Fruit is Purchased 428
Common Fruits 434
Fruit Ripening 437
Storage and Handling 439
17 Natural and Artificial Flavorings 453
A Brief Review of Flavor 454
Flavor Profi les 454
Types of Flavorings 455
Evaluating New Flavorings 462
Storage and Handling 463
18 Baking for Health and Wellness 471
Healthful Baking with the Customer in Mind 472
Guidelines for a Healthful Diet 473
Strategies for Healthful Baking 475
Food Allergies 481
Questions for Review 487
Exercises and Experiments 487
ILLUSTRATION CREDITS 504
Paula Figoni is a food scientist and associate professor at the International Baking and Pastry Institute in the College of Culinary Arts at Johnson & Wales University in Providence, Rhode Island. She has more than ten years of experience in product development and food science at The Pillsbury Company and Ocean Spray Cranberries, Inc.
Provides in-depth coverage of the "whys" of baking, taking students beyond the basic techniques.
Ingredient-oriented approach includes chapters on grains, sweeteners, fats, leavening agents, milk products, natural and artificial flavorings, and much more. Each chapter explains the sensory properties and functions of each ingredient, and applies that knowledge to the baking process.
Completely revised and updated third edition includes an all-new chapter on Baking for Health and Wellness, with detailed information on using whole grains, allergy-free baking, and reducing salt, sugar, and fat in popular baked goods.
Strong pedagogy includes chapter objectives, end-of-chapter review questions, and exercises that reinforce key concepts, along with lab experiments that bring baking science to life in the kitchen and vividly illustrate the functions of each major ingredient.
Accompanied by a full instructor ancillary package, including PowerPoint slides, a Respondus test bank, and an Instructor's Manual with additional experiments and classroom projects.
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