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Table of Contents
1 Introduction and Mathematical Concepts 1
1.1 The Nature of Physics 1
1.2 Units 1
1.3 The Role of Units in Problem Solving 3
1.4 Trigonometry 6
1.5 Scalars and Vectors 8
1.6 Vector Addition and Subtraction 10
1.7 The Components of a Vector 12
1.8 Addition of Vectors by Means of Components 15
1.9 Concepts & Calculations 18
CONCEPT SUMMARY 20
2 Kinematics in one Dimension 27
2.1 Displacement 27
2.2 Speed and Velocity 28
2.3 Acceleration 30
2.4 Equations of Kinematics for Constant Acceleration 34
2.5 Applications of the Equations of Kinematics 38
2.6 Freely Falling Bodies 43
2.7 Graphical Analysis of Velocity and Acceleration 47
2.8 Concepts & Calculations 49
CONCEPT SUMMARY 51
3 Kinematics in Two Dimensions 57
3.1 Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration 57
3.2 Equations of Kinematics in Two Dimensions 58
3.3 Projectile Motion 62
3.4 Relative Velocity 72
3.5 Concepts & Calculations 76
CONCEPT SUMMARY 78
4 Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion 85
4.1 The Concepts of Force and Mass 85
4.2 Newton’s First Law of Motion 86
4.3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion 87
4.4 The Vector Nature of Newton’s Second Law of Motion 90
4.5 Newton’s Third Law of Motion 91
4.6 Types of Forces: An Overview 92
4.7 The Gravitational Force 93
4.8 The Normal Force 97
4.9 Static and Kinetic Frictional Forces 100
4.10 The Tension Force 106
4.11 Equilibrium Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion 107
4.12 Nonequilibrium Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion 111
4.13 Concepts & Calculations 118
CONCEPT SUMMARY 120
5 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion 130
5.1 Uniform Circular Motion 130
5.2 Centripetal Acceleration 131
5.3 Centripetal Force 134
5.4 Banked Curves 138
5.5 Satellites in Circular Orbits 139
5.6 Apparent Weightlessness and Artificial Gravity 142
5.7 Vertical Circular Motion 146
5.8 Concepts & Calculations 147
CONCEPT SUMMARY 149
6 Work and Energy 155
6.1 Work Done by a Constant Force 155
6.2 The Work–Energy Theorem
and Kinetic Energy 158
6.3 Gravitational Potential Energy 165
6.4 Conservative Versus Nonconservative Forces 167
6.5 The Conservation of Mechanical Energy 169
6.6 Nonconservative Forces and the Work–Energy Theorem 172
6.7 Power 174
6.8 Other Forms of Energy and
the Conservation of Energy 176 6.9 Work Done by a Variable Force 177
6.10 Concepts & Calculations 178
CONCEPT SUMMARY 181
7 Impulse and Momentum 189
7.1 The Impulse–Momentum Theorem 189
7.2 The Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum 193
7.3 Collisions in One Dimension 198
7.4 Collisions in Two Dimensions 203
7.5 Center of Mass 205
7.6 Concepts & Calculations 207
CONCEPT SUMMARY 209
8 Rotational Kinematics 216
8.1 Rotational Motion and Angular Displacement 216
8.2 Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration 219
8.3 The Equations of Rotational Kinematics 221
8.4 Angular Variables and Tangential Variables 223
8.5 Centripetal Acceleration and Tangential Acceleration 225
8.6 Rolling Motion 228
8.7 The Vector Nature of Angular Variables 230
8.8 Concepts & Calculations 230
CONCEPT SUMMARY 233
9 Rotational Dynamics 240
9.1 The Action of Forces and Torques on Rigid Objects 240
9.2 Rigid Objects in Equilibrium 242
9.3 Center of Gravity 247
9.4 Newton’s Second Law for Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis 252
9.5 Rotational Work and Energy 260
9.6 Angular Momentum 263
9.7 Concepts & Calculations 265
CONCEPT SUMMARY 267
10 Simple Harmonic Motion and Elasticity 276
10.1 The Ideal Spring and Simple Harmonic Motion 276
10.2 Simple Harmonic Motion and
the Reference Circle 280
10.3 Energy and Simple Harmonic Motion 285
10.4 The Pendulum 288
10.5 Damped Harmonic Motion 291
10.6 Driven Harmonic Motion and Resonance 292
10.7 Elastic Deformation 293
10.8 Stress, Strain, and Hooke’s Law 298
10.9 Concepts & Calculations 299
CONCEPT SUMMARY 301
11 Fluids 310
11.1 Mass Density 310
11.2 Pressure 311
11.3 Pressure and Depth in a Static Fluid 313
11.4 Pressure Gauges 316
11.5 Pascal’s Principle 317
11.6 Archimedes’ Principle 320
11.7 Fluids in Motion 324
11.8 The Equation of Continuity 326
11.9 Bernoulli’s Equation 328
11.10 Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation 330
11.11 Viscous Flow 335
11.12 Concepts & Calculations 337
CONCEPT SUMMARY 340
12 Temperature and Heat 348
12.1 Common Temperature Scales 348
12.2 The Kelvin Temperature Scale 349
12.3 Thermometers 350
12.4 Linear Thermal Expansion 352
12.5 Volume Thermal Expansion 358
12.6 Heat and Internal Energy 360
12.7 Heat and Temperature Change: Specific Heat Capacity 360
12.8 Heat and Phase Change: Latent Heat 365
12.9 Equilibrium Between Phases of Matter 369
12.10 Humidity 372
12.11 Concepts & Calculations 374
CONCEPT SUMMARY 376
13 The Transfer of Heat 384
13.1 Convection 384
13.2 Conduction 387
13.3 Radiation 393
13.4 Applications 398
13.5 Concepts & Calculations 399
CONCEPT SUMMARY 401
14 The Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory 406
14.1 Molecular Mass, the Mole, and Avogadro’s Number 406
14.2 The Ideal Gas Law 409
14.3 Kinetic Theory of Gases 414
14.4 Diffusion 419
14.5 Concepts & Calculations 422
CONCEPT SUMMARY 425
15 Thermodynamics 431
15.1 Thermodynamic Systems and Their Surroundings 431
15.2 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 431
15.3 The First Law of Thermodynamics 432
15.4 Thermal Processes 434
15.5 Thermal Processes Using an Ideal Gas 438
15.6 Specific Heat Capacities 441
15.7 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 442
15.8 Heat Engines 443
15.9 Carnot’s Principle and the Carnot Engine 444
15.10 Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps 447
15.11 Entropy 451
15.12 The Third Law of Thermodynamics 455
15.13 Concepts & Calculations 455
CONCEPT SUMMARY 458
16 Waves and Sound 467
16.1 The Nature of Waves 467
16.2 Periodic Waves 469
16.3 The Speed of a Wave on a String 470
16.4 The Mathematical Description of a Wave 473
16.5 The Nature of Sound 473
16.6 The Speed of Sound 476
16.7 Sound Intensity 480
16.8 Decibels 482
16.9 The Doppler Effect 484
16.10 Applications of Sound in Medicine 490
16.11 The Sensitivity of the Human Ear 491
16.12 Concepts & Calculations 492
CONCEPT SUMMARY 494
17 The Principle of Linear Superposition and Interference Phenomena 503
17.1 The Principle of Linear Superposition 503
17.2 Constructive and Destructive Interference of Sound Waves 504
17.3 Diffraction 508
17.4 Beats 510
17.5 Transverse Standing Waves 512
17.6 Longitudinal Standing Waves 516
17.7 Complex Sound Waves 520
17.8 Concepts & Calculations 520
CONCEPT SUMMARY 522
18 Electric Forces and Electric Fields 529
18.1 The Origin of Electricity 529
18.2 Charged Objects and the Electric Force 530
18.3 Conductors and Insulators 532
18.4 Charging by Contact and by Induction 533
18.5 Coulomb’s Law 534
18.6 The Electric Field 539
18.7 Electric Field Lines 545
18.8 The Electric Field Inside a Conductor: Shielding 548
18.9 Gauss’ Law 550
18.10 Copiers and Computer Printers 554
18.11 Concepts & Calculations 555
CONCEPT SUMMARY 558
19 Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential 565
19.1 Potential Energy 565
19.2 The Electric Potential Difference 566
19.3 The Electric Potential Difference Created by Point Charges 572
19.4 Equipotential Surfaces and Their Relation to the Electric Field 576
19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics 579
19.6 Biomedical Applications
of Electric Potential Differences 584
19.7 Concepts & Calculations 587
CONCEPT SUMMARY 589
20 Electric Circuits 595
20.1 Electromotive Force and Current 595
20.2 Ohm’s Law 597
20.3 Resistance and Resistivity 598
20.4 Electric Power 601
20.5 Alternating Current 603
20.6 Series Wiring 606
20.7 Parallel Wiring 609
20.8 Circuits Wired Partially in Series and Partially in Parallel 613
20.9 Internal Resistance 614
20.10 Kirchhoff’s Rules 615
20.11 The Measurement of Current and Voltage 618
20.12 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel 620
20.13 RC Circuits 622
20.14 Safety and the Physiological Effects of Current 623
20.15 Concepts & Calculations 624
CONCEPT SUMMARY 626
21 Magnetic Forces and Magnetic Fields 637
21.1 Magnetic Fields 637
21.2 The Force that a Magnetic Field Exerts
on a Moving Charge 639
21.3 The Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field 642
21.4 The Mass Spectrometer 646
21.5 The Force on a Current in a Magnetic Field 647
21.6 The Torque on a CurrentCarrying Coil 649
21.7 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents 651
21.8 Ampère’s Law 660
21.9 Magnetic Materials 661
21.10 Concepts & Calculations 664
CONCEPT SUMMARY 666
22 Electromagnetic Induction 674
22.1 Induced Emf and Induced Current 674
22.2 Motional Emf 676
22.3 Magnetic Flux 681
22.4 Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction 683
22.5 Lenz’s Law 686
22.6 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction to the Reproduction of Sound 689
22.7 The Electric Generator 690
22.8 Mutual Inductance and SelfInductance 695
22.9 Transformers 700
22.10 Concepts & Calculations 702
CONCEPT SUMMARY 705
23 Alternating Current Circuits 713
23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance 713
23.2 Inductors and Inductive Reactance 715
23.3 Circuits Containing Resistance, Capacitance, and Inductance 717
23.4 Resonance in Electric Circuits 722
23.5 Semiconductor Devices 726
23.6 Concepts & Calculations 731
CONCEPT SUMMARY 734
24 Electromagnetic Waves 739
24.1 The Nature of Electromagnetic Waves 739
24.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 743
24.3 The Speed of Light 745
24.4 The Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves 747
24.5 The Doppler Effect and Electromagnetic Waves 751
24.6 Polarization 754
24.7 Concepts & Calculations 759
CONCEPT SUMMARY 761
25 The Reflection of Light: Mirrors 768
25.1 Wave Fronts and Rays 768
25.2 The Reflection of Light 769
25.3 The Formation of Images by a Plane Mirror 770
25.4 Spherical Mirrors 772
25.5 The Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors 775
25.6 The Mirror Equation and
the Magnification Equation 779
25.7 Concepts & Calculations 784
CONCEPT SUMMARY 785
26 The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments 790
26.1 The Index of Refraction 790
26.2 Snell’s Law and the Refraction of Light 791
26.3 Total Internal Reflection 796
26.4 Polarization and the Reflection and Refraction of Light 802
26.5 The Dispersion of Light: Prisms and Rainbows 802
26.6 Lenses 804
26.7 The Formation of Images by Lenses 805
26.8 The ThinLens Equation and
the Magnification Equation 808
26.9 Lenses in Combination 811
26.10 The Human Eye 813
26.11 Angular Magnification and the Magnifying Glass 817
26.12 The Compound Microscope 819
26.13 The Telescope 820
26.14 Lens Aberrations 822
26.15 Concepts & Calculations 823
CONCEPT SUMMARY 825
27 Interference and the Wave Nature of Light 836
27.1 The Principle of Linear Superposition 836
27.2 Young’s DoubleSlit Experiment 838
27.3 ThinFilm Interference 841
27.4 The Michelson Interferometer 845
27.5 Diffraction 846
27.6 Resolving Power 850
27.7 The Diffraction Grating 855
27.8 Compact Discs, Digital Video Discs, and the Use of Interference 857
27.9 XRay Diffraction 858
27.10 Concepts & Calculations 859
CONCEPT SUMMARY 862
28 Special Relativity 869
28.1 Events and Inertial Reference Frames 869
28.2 The Postulates of Special Relativity 870
28.3 The Relativity of Time: Time Dilation 872
28.4 The Relativity of Length: Length Contraction 876
28.5 Relativistic Momentum 878
28.6 The Equivalence of Mass and Energy 880
28.7 The Relativistic Addition of Velocities 885
28.8 Concepts & Calculations 888
CONCEPT SUMMARY 890
29 Particles and Waves 895
29.1 The Wave–Particle Duality 895
29.2 Blackbody Radiation and Planck’s Constant 896
29.3 Photons and the Photoelectric Effect 897
29.4 The Momentum of a Photon and the Compton Effect 903
29.5 The De Broglie Wavelength and the Wave Nature of Matter 906
29.6 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 908
29.7 Concepts & Calculations 911
CONCEPT SUMMARY 913
30 The Nature of the Atom 918
30.1 Rutherford Scattering and the Nuclear Atom 918
30.2 Line Spectra 919
30.3 The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom 921
30.4 De Broglie’s Explanation of Bohr’s Assumption about Angular Momentum 926
30.5 The Quantum Mechanical Picture of the Hydrogen Atom 926
30.6 The Pauli Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table of the Elements 930
30.7 XRays 933
30.8 The Laser 937
30.9 Medical Applications of the Laser 939
30.10 Holography 941
30.11 Concepts & Calculations 943
CONCEPT SUMMARY 946
31 Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity 952
31.1 Nuclear Structure 952
31.2 The Strong Nuclear Force and the Stability of the Nucleus 954
31.3 The Mass Defect of the Nucleus and Nuclear Binding Energy 955
31.4 Radioactivity 958
31.5 The Neutrino 965
31.6 Radioactive Decay and Activity 966
31.7 Radioactive Dating 969
31.8 Radioactive Decay Series 973
31.9 Radiation Detectors 973
31.10 Concepts & Calculations 975
CONCEPT SUMMARY 976
32 Ionizing Radiation, Nuclear Energy, and Elementary Particles 982
32.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation 982
32.2 Induced Nuclear Reactions 986
32.3 Nuclear Fission 988
32.4 Nuclear Reactors 990
32.5 Nuclear Fusion 991
32.6 Elementary Particles 994
32.7 Cosmology 999
32.8 Concepts & Calculations 1001
CONCEPT SUMMARY 1004
Appendixes A1
Appendix A Powers of Ten and Scientific Notation A1
Appendix B Significant Figures A1
Appendix C Algebra A2
Appendix D Exponents and Logarithms A3
Appendix E Geometry and Trigonometry A4
Appendix F Selected Isotopes A5
Answers to Check Your Understanding A9
Answers to OddNumbered Problems A16
Index A27
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