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Aircraft Dynamics: From Modeling to Simulation

November 2011, ©2012
Aircraft Dynamics: From Modeling to Simulation (EHEP002021) cover image
The 1st edition of Aircraft Dynamics: from Modeling to Simulation by Marcello R. Napolitano is an innovative textbook with specific features for assisting, motivating and engaging aeronautical/aerospace engineering students in the challenging task of understanding the basic principles of aircraft dynamics and the necessary skills for the modeling of the aerodynamic and thrust forces and moments.  Additionally the textbook provides a detailed introduction to the development of simple but very effective simulation environments for today demanding students as well as professionals.  The book contains an abundance of real life students sample problems and problems along with very useful Matlab® codes.
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1. Aircraft Equations of Motion 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Reference Frames and Assumptions 2

1.3 Conservation of the Linear Momentum Equations (CLMEs) 3

1.4 Conservation of the Angular Momentum Equations (CAMEs) 6

1.5 Conservation of the Angular Momentum Equations (CAMEs) with Rotor Effects 10

1.6 Euler Angles 11

1.7 Flight Path Equations (FPEs) 12

1.8 Kinematic Equations (KEs) 14

1.9 Gravity Equations (GEs) 16

1.10 Summary of the Aircraft Equations of Motion 16

1.11 Definition of Steady-State and Perturbation Conditions 17

1.12 Aircraft Equations of Motion at Steady-State Conditions 18

1.13 Aircraft Equations of Motion at Perturbed Conditions 19

1.14 Small Perturbation Equations from a Steady-State Level Flight 22

1.15 Summary 23

References 26

Student Sample Problems 26

Problems 32

2. Review of Basic Concepts of Aerodynamic Modeling 37

2.1 Introduction 37

2.2 Review of Key Aerodynamic Characteristics for Wing Sections 37

2.3 Wing Planforms and Wing Lift Curve Slope 42

2.4 Review of the Downwash Effect and Effectiveness of Control Surfaces 48

2.5 Determination of the Aerodynamic Center for Wing and Wing1Fuselage 53

2.6 Approaches to the Modeling of Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 57

2.6.1 Wind Tunnel Analysis 57

2.6.2 CFD Analysis 58

2.6.3 Parameter IDentification from Flight Data 59

2.6.4 Correlation from Wind Tunnel Data and Empirical “Build-Up” Analysis 60

2.7 Summary 60

References 61

Student Sample Problems 62

Problems 75

3. Modeling of Longitudinal Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 78

3.1 Introduction 78

3.2 Aircraft Stability Axes 79

3.3 Modeling of the Longitudinal Steady-State Aerodynamic Forces and Moment 79

3.4 Modeling of FAX1 80

3.5 Modeling of FAZ1 83

3.6 Modeling of MA1 87

3.7 Aircraft Aerodynamic Center 89

3.8 Summary of the Longitudinal Steady-State Aerodynamic Forces and Moment 91

3.9 Modeling of the Longitudinal Small Perturbation Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 91

3.9.1 Modeling of (cD1 , cL1 , cm1) 93

3.9.2 Modeling of ðcDu , cLu , cmu Þ 93

3.9.3 Modeling of (cDa_ , cLa_ , cma_ ) and (cDq , cLq , cmq) 94

3.10 Summary of Longitudinal Stability and Control Derivatives 96

3.11 Summary 100

References 100

Student Sample Problems 101

Case Study 110

Short Problems 127

Problems 128

4. Modeling of Lateral Directional Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 135

4.1 Introduction 135

4.2 Modeling of FAY1 137

4.2.1 Conceptual Modeling of cYß 138

4.2.2 Mathematical Modeling of cYß 140

4.2.3 Modeling of cYdA 147

4.2.4 Modeling of cYdR 147

4.3 Modeling of LA1 149

4.3.1 Conceptual Modeling of clß 150

4.3.2 Mathematical Modeling of clß 155

4.3.3 Modeling of cldA 160

4.3.4 Modeling of cldR 166

4.4 Modeling of NA1 168

4.4.1 Conceptual Modeling of cnß 169

4.4.2 Mathematical Modeling of cnß 172

4.4.3 Modeling of cndA 174

4.4.4 Modeling of cndR 176

4.5 Summary of the Lateral Directional Steady-State Force and Moments 177

4.6 Modeling of the Small Perturbation Lateral Directional Aerodynamic Force and Moments 178

4.6.1 Modeling of cYß_ , cl _ ß , cn _ ß 180

4.6.2 Modeling of cYp 180

4.6.3 Modeling of clp 181

4.6.4 Modeling of cnp 183

4.6.5 Modeling of cYr 185

4.6.6 Modeling of clr 185

4.6.7 Modeling of cnr 187

4.7 Summary of Longitudinal and Lateral Directional Aerodynamic Stability and Control Derivatives 189

4.8 Final Overview and Ranking of the Importance of the Aerodynamic Coefficients 196

4.9 Summary of the Modeling of the Longitudinal and Lateral-Directional Aerodynamic

Forces and Moments 198

References 200

Student Sample Problems 200

Case Study 236

Short Problems 262

Problems 263

5. Review of Basic Aircraft Performance and Modeling of Thrust Forces and Moments 268

5.1 Introduction 268

5.2 Review of Different Aircraft Propulsion Systems 268

5.2.1 Piston Engine (Propeller) Aircraft Engines 269

5.2.2 Turboprop Aircraft Engines 270

5.2.3 Turbojet Aircraft Engines 271

5.2.4 Turbofan Aircraft Engines 272

5.2.5 Ramjet Aircraft Engines 273

5.3 Review of Basic Aircraft Performance 273

5.4 Power at Level Flight 274

5.4.1 Maximum Aerodynamic Efficiency 275

5.4.2 Minimum Aerodynamic Drag 275

5.4.3 Minimum Power Required 277

5.5 Determination of Power Required 279

5.6 Determination of Power Available 282

5.7 Modeling of the Thrust Forces and Moments 287

5.7.1 Modeling of the Steady-State Thrust Forces and Moments 288

5.7.2 Modeling of the Small Perturbation Thrust Forces and Moments 291

5.8 Summary 294

References 296

Student Sample Problems 296

Problems 304

6. Aircraft Stability and Design for Trim Conditions 305

6.1 Introduction 305

6.2 Concept of Aircraft Stability 305

6.3 Criteria for Aircraft Static Stability 306

6.3.1 Static Stability Criteria #1 (SSC #1) 307

6.3.2 Static Stability Criteria #2 (SSC #2) 308

6.3.3 Static Stability Criteria #3 (SSC #3) 308

6.3.4 Static Stability Criteria #4 (SSC #4) 309

6.3.5 Static Stability Criteria #5 (SSC #5) 310

6.3.6 Static Stability Criteria #5, #6, and #7 (SSC #5, SSC #6, SSC #7) 311

6.3.7 Static Stability Criteria #9 (SSC #9) 311

6.3.8 Static Stability Criteria #10 (SSC #10) 312

6.4 Longitudinal Analysis of Steady-State Straight Flight 313

6.5 Lift Chart and Trim Diagram 322

6.5.1 Lift Chart 322

6.5.2 Trim Diagram 324

6.5.3 Trim Diagrams for Different Classes of Aircraft 329

6.5.4 Trim Diagrams for Thrust Axis Above/Below Center of Gravity 329

6.6 Lateral Directional Analysis of Steady-State Straight Flight 332

6.7 Summary 340

References 340

Student Sample Problems 340

Problems 349

7. Solution of the Aircraft Equations of Motion Based on Laplace Transformations and Transfer Functions 352

7.1 Introduction 352

7.2 Application of Laplace Transformations to the Longitudinal Small Perturbation Equations 353

7.3 RouthHurwitz Analysis of the Longitudinal Stability 358

7.4 Longitudinal Dynamic Modes: Short Period and Phugoid 360

7.5 Solution of the Longitudinal Equations 361

7.6 Short Period Approximation 363

7.7 Phugoid Approximation 366

7.8 Summary of the Longitudinal Equations 369

7.9 Application of Laplace Transformations to the Lateral Directional Small Perturbation Equations 371

7.10 RouthHurwitz Analysis of the Lateral Directional Stability 376

7.11 Lateral Directional Dynamic Modes: Rolling, Spiral, and Dutch Roll 377

7.12 Solution of the Lateral Directional Equations 379

7.13 Rolling Approximation 382

7.14 Summary of Lateral Directional Equations 385

7.15 Sensitivity Analysis for the Aircraft Dynamics 386

7.15.1 Short Period Sensitivity Analysis 387

7.15.2 Phugoid Sensitivity Analysis 394

7.15.3 Sensitivity Analysis for the Lateral Directional Parameters 398

7.16 Summary 407

References 407

Student Sample Problems 407

Problems 430

8. State Variable Modeling of the Aircraft Dynamics 432

8.1 Introduction 432

8.2 Introduction to State Variables for Nonlinear Systems 433

8.3 Introduction to State Variables for Linear/Linearized Systems 433

8.4 State Variable Modeling of the Longitudinal Dynamics 435

8.5 State Variable Modeling of the Lateral Directional Dynamics 440

8.6 Augmentation of the Aircraft State Variable Modeling 445

8.6.1 Modeling of the Altitude ðhÞ 445

8.6.2 Modeling of the Flight Path Angle ð?Þ 446

8.6.3 Modeling of the Engine Dynamics 446

8.6.4 Modeling of the Actuator Dynamics 446

8.6.5 Modeling of the Atmospheric Turbulence 447

8.7 Summary of State Variable Modeling of the Aircraft Dynamics 447

8.8 Summary 450

References 450

Student Sample Problems 450

Problems 470

9. Introduction to Modern Flight Simulation Codes 476

9.1 Introduction 476

9.2 Introduction to the Flight Dynamics & Control (FDC) Toolbox 479

9.2.1 Equations of Motion within the FDC Simulation Environment 479

9.2.2 FDC Modeling of Beaver Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 483

9.2.3 Alternative Approach for FDC Modeling of Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 485

9.2.4 Case Study #1: FDC Modeling of Look-Up Tables Based Aerodynamic Coefficients 486

9.2.5 FDC Modeling of the Gravity Force 493

9.2.6 FDC Modeling of the Atmospheric Turbulence Force 493

9.2.7 FDC Modeling of the Beaver Propulsive Forces and Moments 494

9.2.8 Case Study #2: FDC Modeling of Propulsive Forces and Moments 496

9.2.9 Auxiliary FDC Blocks 498

9.2.10 Additional FDC Blocks 503

9.3 Introduction to the Aerospace Blockset by Mathworks 503

9.3.1 General Organization of the Aerospace Blockset 503

9.3.2 Introduction to the Environment Library 504

9.3.3 Introduction to the Flight Parameters Library 506

9.3.4 Introduction to the Equations of Motion Library 506

9.3.5 Introduction to the Aerodynamics Library 508

9.3.6 Introduction to the Propulsion Library 508

9.3.7 Introduction to the Utilities Library 509

9.3.8 Introduction to the Mass Properties Library 510

9.3.9 Introduction to the Actuators Library 511

9.3.10 Introduction to the GNC and Animation Libraries 511

9.4 Introduction to AIRLIB 512

9.4.1 AIRLIB’s Strucure 512

9.4.2 Generic Aircraft Model: Continuous-time Block 512

9.4.3 Generic Aircraft Model: Discrete-time Block 515

9.4.4 Collection of Aircraft Models 516

9.4.5 Alternative Model Implementation 517

9.4.6 Additional Tools within AIRLIB: The Function ‘air3m’ 517

9.4.7 Additional Tools within AIRLIB: The Function ‘ab2dv’ 518

9.5 Summary 518

References 518

Student Sample Problems 519

10. Pilot Ratings and Aircraft Handling Qualities 523

10.1 Introduction 523

10.2 Aircraft Flight Envelope 524

10.3 Levels of Aircraft Flying Qualities: Cooper-Harper Pilot Rating 526

10.3.1 Aircraft Control Authority 526

10.3.2 Pilot Workload 526

10.3.3 Pilot Compensation 529

10.3.4 Levels of Flying Qualities 529

10.4 Classes of Aircraft 531

10.5 Classification of Aircraft Maneuvers and Mission Profile 531

10.6 Flying Quality Requirements for the Longitudinal Dynamics 532

10.6.1 Longitudinal Control Forces 533

10.6.2 Requirements for the Damping for the Phugoid Mode 535

10.6.3 Requirements for the Short Period Mode 536

10.7 Flying Quality Requirements for the Lateral Directional Dynamics 536

10.7.1 Lateral Directional Control Forces 536

10.7.2 Requirements for the Dutch Roll Mode 538

10.7.3 Requirements for the Spiral Mode 539

10.7.4 Requirements for the Rolling Mode 539

10.7.5 Requirements for the Roll Control Effectiveness 539

10.7.6 Additional Requirements for Steady Sideslips 541

10.8 Summary 541

References 541

Appendix A Review of Useful Topics 543

Appendix A.1 Review of Vector Operations 544

Appendix A.2 Review of Matrix Operations 548

Appendix A.3 Review of Center of Gravity and Inertial Properties 558

Appendix A.4 Review of Application of Laplace Transform to Linear Constant Coefficients Differential Equations 564

Appendix A.5 Review of First and Second Order Systems 575

Appendix A.6 Review of Standard Atmospheric Model 581

Appendix B Data for Different Aircraft 584

Appendix B.1 Introduction 584

Appendix B.2 Aircraft 1—Cessna 182 586

Appendix B.3 Aircraft 2—Cessna 310 589

Appendix B.4 Aircraft 3—Beech 99 592

Appendix B.5 Aircraft 4—Cessna T37-A 595

Appendix B.6 Aircraft 5—Cessna 620 598

Appendix B.7 Aircraft 6—Learjet 24 601

Appendix B.8 Aircraft 7—Boeing 747-200 604

Appendix B.9 Aircraft 8—SIAI Marchetti S-211 607

Appendix B.10 Aircraft 9—Lockheed F-104 610

Appendix B.11 Aircraft 10—McDonnell Douglas F-4 613

Reference 615

Appendix C Detailed Drawings for Different Aircraft 616

Appendix C.1 Introduction 617

Appendix C.2 Aircraft 1—Aeritalia Fiat G-91 618

Appendix C.3 Aircraft 2—Beech 99 621

Appendix C.4 Aircraft 3—Boeing B52 624

Appendix C.5 Aircraft 4—Boeing B727-200 627

Appendix C.6 Aircraft 5—Boeing B737-600 630

Appendix C.7 Aircraft 6—Boeing B747-200 633

Appendix C.8 Aircraft 7—Boeing B757-200 637

Appendix C.9 Aircraft 8—Boeing B767-200 640

Appendix C.10 Aircraft 9—Cessna Citation CJ3 643

Appendix C.11 Aircraft 10—Cessna T37 645

Appendix C.12 Aircraft 11—General Dynamics F-16 649

Appendix C.13 Aircraft 12—Grumman F-14 652

Appendix C.14 Aircraft 13—Learjet 24 655

Appendix C.15 Aircraft 14—Lockheed F-104 658

Appendix C.16 Aircraft 15—Lockheed F-22 661

Appendix C.17 Aircraft 16—Lockheed L-1011 664

Appendix C.18 Aircraft 17—McDonnell Douglas C-17 667

Appendix C.19 Aircraft 18—McDonnell Douglas DC-8 670

Appendix C.20 Aircraft 19.1—McDonnell Douglas DC-9 Series 10 673

Appendix C.21 Aircraft 19.2—McDonnell Douglas DC-9 Series 30 677

Appendix C.22 Aircraft 19.3—McDonnell Douglas DC-9 Series 40 679

Appendix C.23 Aircraft 19.4—McDonnell Douglas DC-9 Series 50 681

Appendix C.24 Aircraft 20—McDonnell Douglas DC-10 683

Appendix C.25 Aircraft 21—McDonnell Douglas F-4 686

Appendix C.26 Aircraft 22—McDonnell Douglas F-15 689

Appendix C.27 Aircraft 23—Rockwell B-1 692

Appendix C.28 Aircraft 24—SIAI Marchetti S211 695

Appendix C.29 Aircraft 25—Supermarine Spitfire 699

Index 703

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  • Strong emphasis on ‘high level’ synthesis following detailed description of the key concepts of the discipline (aircraft equations of motion, modeling of aerodynamic forces and moments, and solution of the aircraft dynamics).  See charts in Chapter 1, 3, 4, and 7.
  •  Critical chapter dedicated to the critical skills of developing a Matlab®/Simulink based simulation environment for realistic aircraft dynamic simulations. See Chapter 9.
  • Powerful ‘one-of-a-kind’ database (Appendix C) of detailed CAD drawings for 25 aircraft - representing virtually all the classes of aircraft – along with all the associated geometric data ideal for estimating all the aerodynamic coefficients.  For a number of these aircraft comparisons of the above estimates with the true values in Appendix B.
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Instructors Resources
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Instructor's Solutions Manual
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All figures in the text are available in electronic format for use in creating lecture presentations.
Comprehensive teaching notes
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Large set of student sample problems
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Purchase Options
Wiley E-Text   
Aircraft Dynamics: From Modeling to Simulation
ISBN : 978-1-118-21492-3
720 pages
December 2011, ©2012
$69.50   BUY

Hardcover   
Aircraft Dynamics: From Modeling to Simulation
ISBN : 978-0-470-62667-2
720 pages
November 2011, ©2012
$226.95   BUY

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