Textbook
Aircraft Dynamics: From Modeling to SimulationNovember 2011, ©2012

Description
Table of Contents
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Reference Frames and Assumptions 2
1.3 Conservation of the Linear Momentum Equations (CLMEs) 3
1.4 Conservation of the Angular Momentum Equations (CAMEs) 6
1.5 Conservation of the Angular Momentum Equations (CAMEs) with Rotor Effects 10
1.6 Euler Angles 11
1.7 Flight Path Equations (FPEs) 12
1.8 Kinematic Equations (KEs) 14
1.9 Gravity Equations (GEs) 16
1.10 Summary of the Aircraft Equations of Motion 16
1.11 Definition of SteadyState and Perturbation Conditions 17
1.12 Aircraft Equations of Motion at SteadyState Conditions 18
1.13 Aircraft Equations of Motion at Perturbed Conditions 19
1.14 Small Perturbation Equations from a SteadyState Level Flight 22
1.15 Summary 23
References 26
Student Sample Problems 26
Problems 32
2. Review of Basic Concepts of Aerodynamic Modeling 37
2.1 Introduction 37
2.2 Review of Key Aerodynamic Characteristics for Wing Sections 37
2.3 Wing Planforms and Wing Lift Curve Slope 42
2.4 Review of the Downwash Effect and Effectiveness of Control Surfaces 48
2.5 Determination of the Aerodynamic Center for Wing and Wing1Fuselage 53
2.6 Approaches to the Modeling of Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 57
2.6.1 Wind Tunnel Analysis 57
2.6.2 CFD Analysis 58
2.6.3 Parameter IDentification from Flight Data 59
2.6.4 Correlation from Wind Tunnel Data and Empirical “BuildUp” Analysis 60
2.7 Summary 60
References 61
Student Sample Problems 62
Problems 75
3. Modeling of Longitudinal Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 78
3.1 Introduction 78
3.2 Aircraft Stability Axes 79
3.3 Modeling of the Longitudinal SteadyState Aerodynamic Forces and Moment 79
3.4 Modeling of FAX1 80
3.5 Modeling of FAZ1 83
3.6 Modeling of MA1 87
3.7 Aircraft Aerodynamic Center 89
3.8 Summary of the Longitudinal SteadyState Aerodynamic Forces and Moment 91
3.9 Modeling of the Longitudinal Small Perturbation Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 91
3.9.1 Modeling of (cD1 , cL1 , cm1) 93
3.9.2 Modeling of ðcDu , cLu , cmu Þ 93
3.9.3 Modeling of (cDa_ , cLa_ , cma_ ) and (cDq , cLq , cmq) 94
3.10 Summary of Longitudinal Stability and Control Derivatives 96
3.11 Summary 100
References 100
Student Sample Problems 101
Case Study 110
Short Problems 127
Problems 128
4. Modeling of Lateral Directional Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 135
4.1 Introduction 135
4.2 Modeling of FAY1 137
4.2.1 Conceptual Modeling of cYß 138
4.2.2 Mathematical Modeling of cYß 140
4.2.3 Modeling of cYdA 147
4.2.4 Modeling of cYdR 147
4.3 Modeling of LA1 149
4.3.1 Conceptual Modeling of clß 150
4.3.2 Mathematical Modeling of clß 155
4.3.3 Modeling of cldA 160
4.3.4 Modeling of cldR 166
4.4 Modeling of NA1 168
4.4.1 Conceptual Modeling of cnß 169
4.4.2 Mathematical Modeling of cnß 172
4.4.3 Modeling of cndA 174
4.4.4 Modeling of cndR 176
4.5 Summary of the Lateral Directional SteadyState Force and Moments 177
4.6 Modeling of the Small Perturbation Lateral Directional Aerodynamic Force and Moments 178
4.6.1 Modeling of cYß_ , cl _ ß , cn _ ß 180
4.6.2 Modeling of cYp 180
4.6.3 Modeling of clp 181
4.6.4 Modeling of cnp 183
4.6.5 Modeling of cYr 185
4.6.6 Modeling of clr 185
4.6.7 Modeling of cnr 187
4.7 Summary of Longitudinal and Lateral Directional Aerodynamic Stability and Control Derivatives 189
4.8 Final Overview and Ranking of the Importance of the Aerodynamic Coefficients 196
4.9 Summary of the Modeling of the Longitudinal and LateralDirectional Aerodynamic
Forces and Moments 198
References 200
Student Sample Problems 200
Case Study 236
Short Problems 262
Problems 263
5. Review of Basic Aircraft Performance and Modeling of Thrust Forces and Moments 268
5.1 Introduction 268
5.2 Review of Different Aircraft Propulsion Systems 268
5.2.1 Piston Engine (Propeller) Aircraft Engines 269
5.2.2 Turboprop Aircraft Engines 270
5.2.3 Turbojet Aircraft Engines 271
5.2.4 Turbofan Aircraft Engines 272
5.2.5 Ramjet Aircraft Engines 273
5.3 Review of Basic Aircraft Performance 273
5.4 Power at Level Flight 274
5.4.1 Maximum Aerodynamic Efficiency 275
5.4.2 Minimum Aerodynamic Drag 275
5.4.3 Minimum Power Required 277
5.5 Determination of Power Required 279
5.6 Determination of Power Available 282
5.7 Modeling of the Thrust Forces and Moments 287
5.7.1 Modeling of the SteadyState Thrust Forces and Moments 288
5.7.2 Modeling of the Small Perturbation Thrust Forces and Moments 291
5.8 Summary 294
References 296
Student Sample Problems 296
Problems 304
6. Aircraft Stability and Design for Trim Conditions 305
6.1 Introduction 305
6.2 Concept of Aircraft Stability 305
6.3 Criteria for Aircraft Static Stability 306
6.3.1 Static Stability Criteria #1 (SSC #1) 307
6.3.2 Static Stability Criteria #2 (SSC #2) 308
6.3.3 Static Stability Criteria #3 (SSC #3) 308
6.3.4 Static Stability Criteria #4 (SSC #4) 309
6.3.5 Static Stability Criteria #5 (SSC #5) 310
6.3.6 Static Stability Criteria #5, #6, and #7 (SSC #5, SSC #6, SSC #7) 311
6.3.7 Static Stability Criteria #9 (SSC #9) 311
6.3.8 Static Stability Criteria #10 (SSC #10) 312
6.4 Longitudinal Analysis of SteadyState Straight Flight 313
6.5 Lift Chart and Trim Diagram 322
6.5.1 Lift Chart 322
6.5.2 Trim Diagram 324
6.5.3 Trim Diagrams for Different Classes of Aircraft 329
6.5.4 Trim Diagrams for Thrust Axis Above/Below Center of Gravity 329
6.6 Lateral Directional Analysis of SteadyState Straight Flight 332
6.7 Summary 340
References 340
Student Sample Problems 340
Problems 349
7. Solution of the Aircraft Equations of Motion Based on Laplace Transformations and Transfer Functions 352
7.1 Introduction 352
7.2 Application of Laplace Transformations to the Longitudinal Small Perturbation Equations 353
7.3 RouthHurwitz Analysis of the Longitudinal Stability 358
7.4 Longitudinal Dynamic Modes: Short Period and Phugoid 360
7.5 Solution of the Longitudinal Equations 361
7.6 Short Period Approximation 363
7.7 Phugoid Approximation 366
7.8 Summary of the Longitudinal Equations 369
7.9 Application of Laplace Transformations to the Lateral Directional Small Perturbation Equations 371
7.10 RouthHurwitz Analysis of the Lateral Directional Stability 376
7.11 Lateral Directional Dynamic Modes: Rolling, Spiral, and Dutch Roll 377
7.12 Solution of the Lateral Directional Equations 379
7.13 Rolling Approximation 382
7.14 Summary of Lateral Directional Equations 385
7.15 Sensitivity Analysis for the Aircraft Dynamics 386
7.15.1 Short Period Sensitivity Analysis 387
7.15.2 Phugoid Sensitivity Analysis 394
7.15.3 Sensitivity Analysis for the Lateral Directional Parameters 398
7.16 Summary 407
References 407
Student Sample Problems 407
Problems 430
8. State Variable Modeling of the Aircraft Dynamics 432
8.1 Introduction 432
8.2 Introduction to State Variables for Nonlinear Systems 433
8.3 Introduction to State Variables for Linear/Linearized Systems 433
8.4 State Variable Modeling of the Longitudinal Dynamics 435
8.5 State Variable Modeling of the Lateral Directional Dynamics 440
8.6 Augmentation of the Aircraft State Variable Modeling 445
8.6.1 Modeling of the Altitude ðhÞ 445
8.6.2 Modeling of the Flight Path Angle ð?Þ 446
8.6.3 Modeling of the Engine Dynamics 446
8.6.4 Modeling of the Actuator Dynamics 446
8.6.5 Modeling of the Atmospheric Turbulence 447
8.7 Summary of State Variable Modeling of the Aircraft Dynamics 447
8.8 Summary 450
References 450
Student Sample Problems 450
Problems 470
9. Introduction to Modern Flight Simulation Codes 476
9.1 Introduction 476
9.2 Introduction to the Flight Dynamics & Control (FDC) Toolbox 479
9.2.1 Equations of Motion within the FDC Simulation Environment 479
9.2.2 FDC Modeling of Beaver Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 483
9.2.3 Alternative Approach for FDC Modeling of Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 485
9.2.4 Case Study #1: FDC Modeling of LookUp Tables Based Aerodynamic Coefficients 486
9.2.5 FDC Modeling of the Gravity Force 493
9.2.6 FDC Modeling of the Atmospheric Turbulence Force 493
9.2.7 FDC Modeling of the Beaver Propulsive Forces and Moments 494
9.2.8 Case Study #2: FDC Modeling of Propulsive Forces and Moments 496
9.2.9 Auxiliary FDC Blocks 498
9.2.10 Additional FDC Blocks 503
9.3 Introduction to the Aerospace Blockset by Mathworks 503
9.3.1 General Organization of the Aerospace Blockset 503
9.3.2 Introduction to the Environment Library 504
9.3.3 Introduction to the Flight Parameters Library 506
9.3.4 Introduction to the Equations of Motion Library 506
9.3.5 Introduction to the Aerodynamics Library 508
9.3.6 Introduction to the Propulsion Library 508
9.3.7 Introduction to the Utilities Library 509
9.3.8 Introduction to the Mass Properties Library 510
9.3.9 Introduction to the Actuators Library 511
9.3.10 Introduction to the GNC and Animation Libraries 511
9.4 Introduction to AIRLIB 512
9.4.1 AIRLIB’s Strucure 512
9.4.2 Generic Aircraft Model: Continuoustime Block 512
9.4.3 Generic Aircraft Model: Discretetime Block 515
9.4.4 Collection of Aircraft Models 516
9.4.5 Alternative Model Implementation 517
9.4.6 Additional Tools within AIRLIB: The Function ‘air3m’ 517
9.4.7 Additional Tools within AIRLIB: The Function ‘ab2dv’ 518
9.5 Summary 518
References 518
Student Sample Problems 519
10. Pilot Ratings and Aircraft Handling Qualities 523
10.1 Introduction 523
10.2 Aircraft Flight Envelope 524
10.3 Levels of Aircraft Flying Qualities: CooperHarper Pilot Rating 526
10.3.1 Aircraft Control Authority 526
10.3.2 Pilot Workload 526
10.3.3 Pilot Compensation 529
10.3.4 Levels of Flying Qualities 529
10.4 Classes of Aircraft 531
10.5 Classification of Aircraft Maneuvers and Mission Profile 531
10.6 Flying Quality Requirements for the Longitudinal Dynamics 532
10.6.1 Longitudinal Control Forces 533
10.6.2 Requirements for the Damping for the Phugoid Mode 535
10.6.3 Requirements for the Short Period Mode 536
10.7 Flying Quality Requirements for the Lateral Directional Dynamics 536
10.7.1 Lateral Directional Control Forces 536
10.7.2 Requirements for the Dutch Roll Mode 538
10.7.3 Requirements for the Spiral Mode 539
10.7.4 Requirements for the Rolling Mode 539
10.7.5 Requirements for the Roll Control Effectiveness 539
10.7.6 Additional Requirements for Steady Sideslips 541
10.8 Summary 541
References 541
Appendix A Review of Useful Topics 543
Appendix A.1 Review of Vector Operations 544
Appendix A.2 Review of Matrix Operations 548
Appendix A.3 Review of Center of Gravity and Inertial Properties 558
Appendix A.4 Review of Application of Laplace Transform to Linear Constant Coefficients Differential Equations 564
Appendix A.5 Review of First and Second Order Systems 575
Appendix A.6 Review of Standard Atmospheric Model 581
Appendix B Data for Different Aircraft 584
Appendix B.1 Introduction 584
Appendix B.2 Aircraft 1—Cessna 182 586
Appendix B.3 Aircraft 2—Cessna 310 589
Appendix B.4 Aircraft 3—Beech 99 592
Appendix B.5 Aircraft 4—Cessna T37A 595
Appendix B.6 Aircraft 5—Cessna 620 598
Appendix B.7 Aircraft 6—Learjet 24 601
Appendix B.8 Aircraft 7—Boeing 747200 604
Appendix B.9 Aircraft 8—SIAI Marchetti S211 607
Appendix B.10 Aircraft 9—Lockheed F104 610
Appendix B.11 Aircraft 10—McDonnell Douglas F4 613
Reference 615
Appendix C Detailed Drawings for Different Aircraft 616
Appendix C.1 Introduction 617
Appendix C.2 Aircraft 1—Aeritalia Fiat G91 618
Appendix C.3 Aircraft 2—Beech 99 621
Appendix C.4 Aircraft 3—Boeing B52 624
Appendix C.5 Aircraft 4—Boeing B727200 627
Appendix C.6 Aircraft 5—Boeing B737600 630
Appendix C.7 Aircraft 6—Boeing B747200 633
Appendix C.8 Aircraft 7—Boeing B757200 637
Appendix C.9 Aircraft 8—Boeing B767200 640
Appendix C.10 Aircraft 9—Cessna Citation CJ3 643
Appendix C.11 Aircraft 10—Cessna T37 645
Appendix C.12 Aircraft 11—General Dynamics F16 649
Appendix C.13 Aircraft 12—Grumman F14 652
Appendix C.14 Aircraft 13—Learjet 24 655
Appendix C.15 Aircraft 14—Lockheed F104 658
Appendix C.16 Aircraft 15—Lockheed F22 661
Appendix C.17 Aircraft 16—Lockheed L1011 664
Appendix C.18 Aircraft 17—McDonnell Douglas C17 667
Appendix C.19 Aircraft 18—McDonnell Douglas DC8 670
Appendix C.20 Aircraft 19.1—McDonnell Douglas DC9 Series 10 673
Appendix C.21 Aircraft 19.2—McDonnell Douglas DC9 Series 30 677
Appendix C.22 Aircraft 19.3—McDonnell Douglas DC9 Series 40 679
Appendix C.23 Aircraft 19.4—McDonnell Douglas DC9 Series 50 681
Appendix C.24 Aircraft 20—McDonnell Douglas DC10 683
Appendix C.25 Aircraft 21—McDonnell Douglas F4 686
Appendix C.26 Aircraft 22—McDonnell Douglas F15 689
Appendix C.27 Aircraft 23—Rockwell B1 692
Appendix C.28 Aircraft 24—SIAI Marchetti S211 695
Appendix C.29 Aircraft 25—Supermarine Spitfire 699
Index 703
The Wiley Advantage
 Strong emphasis on ‘high level’ synthesis following detailed description of the key concepts of the discipline (aircraft equations of motion, modeling of aerodynamic forces and moments, and solution of the aircraft dynamics). See charts in Chapter 1, 3, 4, and 7.

Critical chapter dedicated to the critical skills of developing a Matlab®/Simulink based simulation environment for realistic aircraft dynamic simulations. See Chapter 9.

Powerful ‘oneofakind’ database (Appendix C) of detailed CAD drawings for 25 aircraft  representing virtually all the classes of aircraft – along with all the associated geometric data ideal for estimating all the aerodynamic coefficients. For a number of these aircraft comparisons of the above estimates with the true values in Appendix B.
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