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DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Manufacturing, 11th Edition

August 2011, ©2012
DeGarmo
Now in its eleventh edition, DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Manufacturing has been a market-leading text on manufacturing and manufacturing processes courses for more than fifty years. Authors J T. Black and Ron Kohser have continued this book's long and distinguished tradition of exceedingly clear presentation and highly practical approach to materials and processes, presenting mathematical models and analytical equations only when they enhance the basic understanding of the material. Completely revised and updated to reflect all current practices, standards, and materials, the eleventh edition has new coverage of additive manufacturing, lean engineering, and processes related to ceramics, polymers, and plastics.
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Preface

Chapter 1 Introduction to DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Manufacturing 1 

1.1 Materials, Manufacturing, and the Standard of Living 1 

1.2 Manufacturing and Production Systems 3

Case Study Famous Manufacturing Engineers 28

Chapter 2 Manufacturing Systems Design 30

2.1 Introduction 30

2.2 Manufacturing Systems 30

2.3 Control of the Manufacturing System 32

2.4 Classification of Manufacturing Systems 33 

2.5 Summary of Factory Designs 49

Case Study Jury Duty for an Engineer 58

Chapter 3 Properties of Materials 59

3.1 Introduction 59

3.2 Static Properties 61 

3.3 Dynamic Properties 74 

3.4 Temperature Effects (Both High and Low) 79

3.5 Machinability, Formability, and Weldability 83

3.6 Fracture Toughness and the Fracture Mechanics Approach 83

3.7 Physical Properties 85

3.8 Testing Standards and Testing Concerns 85 

Case Study Separation of Mixed Materials 88

Chapter 4 Nature of Metals and Alloys 89

4.1 Structure-Property-Processing-Performance Relationships 89 

4.2 The Structure of Atoms 90

4.3 Atomic Bonding 90

4.4 Secondary Bonds 92

4.5 Atom Arrangements in Materials 92 

4.6 Crystal Structures of Metals 93

4.7 Development of a Grain Structure 94 

4.8 Elastic Deformation 95

4.9 Plastic Deformation 96

4.10 Dislocation Theory of Slippage 97 

4.11 Strain Hardening or Work Hardening 98

4.12 Plastic Deformation in Polycrystalline Metals 99 

4.13 Grain Shape and Anisotropic Properties 100

4.14 Fracture of Metals 101

4.15 Cold Working, Recrystallization, and Hot Working 101

4.16 Grain Growth 102

4.17 Alloys and Alloy Types 102

4.18 Atomic Structure and Electrical Properties 103

Chapter 5 Equilibrium Phase Diagrams and the Iron-Carbon System 106

5.1 Introduction 106

5.2 Phases 106

5.3 Equilibrium Phase Diagrams 106

5.4 Iron-Carbon Equilibrium Diagram 114 

5.5 Steels and the Simplified Iron-Carbon Diagram 116

5.6 Cast Irons 117

Case Study Fish Hooks 120

Chapter 6 Heat Treatment 121

6.1 Introduction 121

6.2 Processing Heat Treatments 122

6.3 Heat Treatments Used to Increase Strength 125 

6.4 Strengthening Heat Treatments for Nonferrous Metals 125

6.5 Strengthening Heat Treatments for Steel 128

6.6 Surface Hardening of Steel 143

6.7 Furnaces 145

6.8 Heat Treatment and Energy 147

Case Study A Carpenter's Claw Hammer 150

Chapter 7 Ferrous Metals and Alloys 152

7.1 Introduction to History-Dependent Materials 152

7.2 Ferrous Metals 152

7.3 Iron 153

7.4 Steel 154

7.5 Stainless Steels 168 

7.6 Tool Steels 171

7.7 Cast Irons 173

7.8 Cast Steels 178

7.9 The Role of Processing on Cast Properties 179 

Case Study The Paper Clip 181

Chapter 8 Nonferrous Metals and Alloys 182 

8.1 Introduction 182

8.2 Copper and Copper Alloys 183

8.3 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 188

8.4 Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys 196

8.5 Zinc and Zinc Alloys 198

8.6 Titanium and Titanium Alloys 199

8.7 Nickel-Based Alloys 201

8.8 Superalloys, Refractory Metals, and Other Materials Designed for High-Temperature Service 201

8.9 Lead and Tin, and Their Alloys 203

8.10 Some Lesser-Known Metals and Alloys 204

8.11 Metallic Glasses 204

8.12 Graphite 205

Case Study Hip Replacement Prosthetics 207

Chapter 9 Nonmetallic Materials: Plastics, Elastomers, Ceramics, and Composites 208 

9.1 Introduction 208

9.2 Plastics 209

9.3 Elastomers 222

9.4 Ceramics 224

9.5 Composite Materials 234

Case Study Lightweight Armor 247

Chapter 10 Material Selection 248

10.1 Introduction 248

10.2 Material Selection and Manufacturing Processes 252 

10.3 The Design Process 252

10.4 Approaches to Material Selection 253 

10.5 Additional Factors to Consider 256

10.6 Consideration of the Manufacturing Process 258

10.7 Ultimate Objective 258

10.8 Materials Substitution 260

10.9 Effect of Product Liability on Materials Selection 261 

10.10 Aids to Material Selection 262

Case Study Material Selection 266

Chapter 11 Fundamentals of Casting 267

11.1 Introduction to Materials Processing 267

11.2 Introduction to Casting 269

11.3 Casting Terminology 270

11.4 The Solidification Process 271 

11.5 Patterns 281

11.6 Design Considerations in Castings 284 

11.7 The Casting Industry 287

Case Study The Cast Oil-Field Fitting 290

Chapter 12 Expendable-Mold Casting Processes 291 

12.1 Introduction 291

12.2 Sand Casting 292

12.3 Cores and Core Making 307

12.4 Other Expendable-Mold Processes with Multiple-Use Patterns 311 

12.5 Expendable-Mold Processes Using Single-Use Patterns 313

12.6 Shakeout, Cleaning, and Finishing 320

12.7 Summary 320

Case Study Movable and Fixed Jaw Pieces for a Heavy-Duty Bench Vise 322

Chapter 13 Multiple-Use-Mold Casting Processes 323

13.1 Introduction 323

13.2 Permanent-Mold Casting 323

13.3 Die Casting 327

13.4 Squeeze Casting and Semisolid Casting 331

13.5 Centrifugal Casting 333

13.6 Continuous Casting 335

13.7 Melting 336

13.8 Pouring Practice 339

13.9 Cleaning, Finishing, and Heat Treating of Castings 339 

13.10 Automation in Foundry Operations 341

13.11 Process Selection 341 

Case Study Baseplate for a Household Steam Iron 344

Chapter 14 Fabrication of Plastics, Ceramics, and Composites 345 

14.1 Introduction 345

14.2 Fabrication of Plastics 345 

14.3 Processing of Rubber and Elastomers 359 

14.4 Processing of Ceramics 360

14.5 Fabrication of Composite Materials 364 

Case Study Automotive and Light Truck Fuel Tanks 378

Chapter 15 Fundamentals of Metal Forming 379

15.1 Introduction 379

15.2 Forming Processes: Independent Variables 380 

15.3 Dependent Variables 382

15.4 Independent-Dependent Relationships 382 

15.5 Process Modeling 383

15.6 General Parameters 384

15.7 Friction and Lubrication Under Metalworking Conditions 385

15.8 Temperature Concerns 387

15.9 Formability 395

Case Study Interior Tub of a Top-Loading Washing Machine 397

Chapter 16 Bulk-Forming Processes 398

16.1 Introduction 398

16.2 Classification of Deformation Processes 398 

16.3 Bulk Deformation Processes 399

16.4 Rolling 399

16.5 Forging 406

16.6 Extrusion 418

16.7 Wire, Rod, and Tube Drawing 424

16.8 Cold Forming, Cold Forging, and Impact Extrusion 427

16.9 Piercing 431

16.10 Other Squeezing Processes 432

16.11 Surface Improvement by Deformation Processing 434

Case Study Handle and Body of a Large Ratchet Wrench 439

Chapter 17 Sheet-Forming Processes 440

17.1 Introduction 440 

17.2 Shearing Operations 440

17.3 Bending 449

17.4 Drawing and Stretching Processes 456 

17.5 Alternative Methods of Producing Sheet-Type Products 471 

17.6 Pipe Manufacture 472 

17.7 Presses 472 

Case Study Automotive Body Panels 480

Chapter 18 Powder Metallurgy 481 

18.1 Introduction 481

18.2 The Basic Process 482 

18.3 Powder Manufacture 483 

18.4 Microcrystalline and Amorphous Material Produced by Rapid Cooling 484 

18.5 Powder Testing and Evaluation 484

18.6 Powder Mixing and Blending 485 

18.7 Compacting 485 

18.8 Sintering 489 

18.9 Recent Advances in Sintering 490 

18.10 Hot-Isostatic Pressing 491 

18.11 Other Techniques to Produce High-Density Powder Metallurgy Products 492 

18.12 Metal Injection Molding or Powder Injection Molding 493 

18.13 Secondary Operations 495 

18.14 Properties of Powder Metallurgy Products 497 

18.15 Design of Powder Metallurgy Parts 498 

18.16 Powder Metallurgy Products 499 

18.17 Advantages and Disadvantages of Powder Metallurgy 501 

18.18 Process Summary 502 

Case Study Steering Gear for a Riding Lawn Mower/Garden Tractor 506

Chapter 19 Additive Processes: Rapid Prototyping and Direct-Digital Manufacturing 507 

19.1 Introduction 507 

19.2 Rapid Prototyping and Direct-Digital Manufacturing 508 

19.3 Layerwise Manufacturing 510 

19.4 Liquid-Based Processes 514 

19.5 Powder-Based Processes 517 

19.6 Deposition-Based Processes 521 

19.7 Uses and Applications 524 

19.8 Pros, Cons, and Current and Future Trends 528 

19.9 Economic Considerations 529

Chapter 20 Fundamentals of Machining/Orthogonal Machining 533 

20.1 Introduction 533 

20.2 Fundamentals 533 

20.3 Forces and Power in Machining 541 

20.4 Orthogonal Machining (Two Forces) 547 

20.5 Chip Thickness Ratio 551

20.6 Mechanics of Machining (Statics) 553 

20.7 Shear Strain, g, and Shear Front Angle 555

20.8 Mechanics of Machining (Dynamics) 557 

20.9 Summary 564 

Case Study Orthogonal Plate Machining Experiment at Auburn University 568

Chapter 21 Cutting Tools for Machining 569 

21.1 Introduction 569

21.2 Cutting Tool Materials 573 

21.3 Tool Geometry 587 

21.4 Tool-Coating Processes 589 

21.5 Tool Failure and Tool Life 592 

21.6 Flank Wear 593 

21.7 Cutting Fluids 599 

21.8 Economics of Machining 600 

Case Study Comparing Tool Materials Based on Tool Life 608

Chapter 22 Turning and Boring Processes 609 

22.1 Introduction 609 

22.2 Fundamentals of Turning, Boring, and Facing Turning 611

22.3 Lathe Design and Terminology 617 

22.4 Cutting Tools for Lathes 625 

22.5 Workholding in Lathes 629 

Case Study Estimating the Machining Time for Turning 636

Chapter 23 Drilling and Related Hole-Making Processes 637 

23.1 Introduction 637 

23.2 Fundamentals of the Drilling Process 638 

23.3 Types of Drills 640

23.4 Tool Holders for Drills 652 

23.5 Workholding for Drilling 654 

23.6 Machine Tools for Drilling 654

23.7 Cutting Fluids for Drilling 657 

23.8 Counterboring, Countersinking, and Spot Facing 659 

23.9 Reaming 659 

Case Study Bolt-down Leg on a Casting 664

Chapter 24 Milling 665 

24.1 Introduction 665 

24.2 Fundamentals of Milling Processes 665 

24.3 Milling Tools and Cutters 672 

24.4 Machines for Milling 678 

Case Study HSS versus Tungsten Carbide Milling 685

Chapter 25 Sawing, Broaching, and Other Machining Processes 686 

25.1 Introduction 686 

25.2 Introduction to Sawing 686 

25.3 Introduction to Broaching 694 

25.4 Fundamentals of Broaching 695 

25.5 Broaching Machines 703 

25.6 Introduction to Shaping and Planing 704 

25.7 Introduction to Filing 709 

Case Study Cost Estimating-Planing vs. Milling 713

Chapter 26 Abrasive Machining Processes 714 

26.1 Introduction 714 

26.2 Abrasives 715

26.3 Grinding Wheel Structure and Grade 721 

26.4 Grinding Wheel Identification 726 

26.5 Grinding Machines 730 

26.6 Honing 738 

26.7 Superfinishing 740 

26.8 Free Abrasives 742 

26.9 Design Considerations In Grinding 746 

Case Study Process Planning for the MfE 748

Chapter 27 Workholding Devices for Machine Tools 749

27.1 Introduction 749

27.2 Conventional Fixture Design 749

27.3 Tool Design Steps 752

27.4 Clamping Considerations 753

27.5 Chip Disposal 755

27.6 Unloading and Loading Time 756

27.7 Example of Jig Design 756

27.8 Types of Jigs 758

27.9 Conventional Fixtures 759

27.10 Modular Fixturing 761

27.11 Setup and Changeover 763 

27.12 Clamps 765

27.13 Other Workholding Devices 766

27.14 Economic Justification of Jigs and Fixtures 769

Case Study Fixture versus No Fixture in Milling 774

Chapter 28 Nontraditional Manufacturing Processes 775 

28.1 Introduction 775 

28.2 Chemical Machining Processes 777 

28.3 Electrochemical Machining Processes 783

28.4 Electrical Discharge Machining 790

Case Study Vented Cap Screws 802

Chapter 29 Lean Engineering 803

29.1 Introduction 803 

29.2 The Lean Engineer 803 

29.3 The Lean Production System 804

29.4 Linked-Cell Manufacturing System Design Rules 804 

29.5 Manufacturing System Designs 806

29.6 Preliminary Steps to Lean Production 808

29.7 Methodology for Implementation of Lean Production 808

29.8 Design Rule MT < CT 823

29.9 Decouplers 825

29.10 Integrating Production Control 828

29.11 Integrating Inventory Control 832

29.12 Lean Manufacturing Cell Design 833

29.13 Machine Tool Design for Lean Manufacturing Cells 838 

29.14 L-CMS Strategy 841

Case Study Cycle Time for a Manufacturing Cell 844

Chapter 30 Fundamentals of Joining 845

30.1 Introduction to Consolidation Processes 845

30.2 Classification of Welding and Thermal Cutting Processes 846 

30.3 Some Common Concerns 847

30.4 Types of Fusion Welds and Types of Joints 847

30.5 Design Considerations 850

30.6 Heat Effects 850

30.7 Weldability or Joinability 857

30.8 Summary 858

Chapter 31 Gas Flame and Arc Processes 860 

31.1 Oxyfuel-Gas Welding 860

31.2 Oxygen Torch Cutting 864

31.3 Flame Straightening 866

31.4 Arc Welding 867

31.5 Consumable-Electrode Arc Welding 869 

31.6 Nonconsumable-Electrode Arc Welding 877

31.7 Welding Equipment 882

31.8 Arc Cutting 884

31.9 Metallurgical and Heat Effects in Thermal Cutting 886 

Case Study Bicycle Frame Construction and Repair 888

Chapter 32 Resistance- and Solid-State Welding Processes 890 

32.1 Introduction 890

32.2 Theory of Resistance Welding 890 

32.3 Resistance-Welding Processes 893

32.4 Advantages and Limitations of Resistance Welding 898 

32.5 Solid-State Welding Processes 899

Case Study Manufacture of an Automobile Muffler 909

Chapter 33 Other Welding Processes, Brazing, and Soldering 910 

33.1 Introduction 910

33.2 Other Welding and Cutting Processes 910 

33.3 Surface Modification by Welding-Related Processes 919 

33.4 Brazing 922

33.5 Soldering 931

Case Study Impeller of a Pharmaceutical Company Industrial Shredder/Disposal 937

Chapter 34 Adhesive Bonding, Mechanical Fastening, and Joining of Nonmetals 938 

34.1 Adhesive Bonding 938

34.2 Mechanical Fastening 947

34.3 Joining of Plastics 951

34.4 Joining of Ceramics and Glass 953 

34.5 Joining of Composites 954

Case Study Golf Club Heads with Insert 956

Chapter 35 Measurement and Inspection 958

35.1 Introduction 958

35.2 Standards of Measurement 959 

35.3 Allowance and Tolerance 964

35.4 Inspection Methods for Measurement 971 

35.5 Measuring Instruments 973

35.6 Vision Systems for Measurement 982 

35.7 Coordinate Measuring Machines 983

35.8 Angle-Measuring Instruments 984

35.9 Gages for Attributes Measuring 986

Case Study Measuring An Angle 993

Chapter 36 Quality Engineering 994

36.1 Introduction 994

36.2 Determining Process Capability 996

36.3 Introduction to Statistical Quality Control 1004

36.4 Sampling Errors 1008

36.5 Gage Capability 1009

36.6 Just in Time/Total Quality Control 1010

36.7 Six Sigma 1021

36.8 Summary 1024

Case Study Boring QC Chart Blunders 1029

Chapter 37 Surface Engineering 1030

37.1 Introduction 1030

37.2 Abrasive Cleaning and Finishing 1040

37.3 Chemical Cleaning 1045

37.4 Coatings 1048

37.5 Vaporized Metal Coatings 1058

37.6 Clad Materials 1058

37.7 Textured Surfaces 1058

37.8 Coil-Coated Sheets 1059

37.9 Edge Finishing and Burrs 1059

Case Study Dana Lynn's Fatigue Lesson 1064

Chapter 38 Micro/Meso/Nano Fabrication Processes 1067 

38.1 Introduction 1067

38.2 Additive Processes 1068

38.3 Metrology at the Micro/Meso/Nano Level 1083

Chapter 39 Manufacturing Automation 1086

39.1 Introduction 1086

39.2 The A(4) Level of Automation 1092 

39.3 A(5) Evaluation or Adaptive Control 1101 

39.4 A(6) Level of Automation and Beyond 1103

39.5 Robotics 1105

39.6 Computer-Integrated Manufacturing Automation 1113

39.7 Computer-Aided Design 1114

39.8 Computer-Aided Manufacturing 1117

39.9 Summary 1118

Chapter 40 NC/CNC Processes and Adaptive Control: A(4) and
A(5) Levels of Automation 1122

40.1 Introduction 1122

40.2 Basic Principles of Numerical Control 1122

40.3 Machining Center Features and Trends 1136

40.4 Ultra-High-Speed Machining Centers 1139

40.5 Summary 1140

Chapter 41 Microelectric Manufacturing and Assembly 1144 

41.1 Introduction 1144

41.2 How Electronic Products Are Made 1144 

41.3 Semiconductors 1145

41.4 How Integrated Circuits Are Made 1146 

41.5 How the Silicon Wafer Is Made 1149

41.6 Fabricating Integrated Circuits on Silicon Wafers 1150

41.7 Thin-Film Deposition 1157

41.8 Integrated Circuit Packaging 1163

41.9 Printed Circuit Boards 1170

41.10 Electronic Assembly 1175

Chapter 42 Thread and Gear Manufacturing 1181 

42.1 Introduction 1181

42.2 Thread Making 1186

42.3 Internal Thread CuttingTapping 1190 

42.4 Thread Milling 1193

42.5 Thread Grinding 1195

42.6 Thread Rolling 1195

42.7 Gear Making 1197

42.8 Gear Types 1200

42.9 Gear Manufacturing 1202

42.10 Machining of Gears 1203

42.11 Gear Finishing 1210

42.12 Gear Inspection 1212

Chapter 43 Nondestructive Inspection and Testing 1215 

43.1 Destructive versus Nondestructive Testing 1215 (web-based chapter)

43.2 Other Methods of Nondestructive Testing and Inspection 1226

Chapter 44 The Enterprise (Production Systems) 1230 (web-based chapter)

44.1 Introduction 1230

44.2 Axiomatic Design of Systems 1231

44.3 Enterprise System Design Principles 1232

44.4 Functional Areas in the Production System 1235

44.5 Human Resources (Personnel) Department 1240

Index I-2

Selected References for Additional Study S1 

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• New chapter on Additive Manufacturing--This chapter incorporates the aspects of rapid prototyping, rapid tooling, and direct-digital manufacturing, and provide updated information on many recent advances in this area.
• Reflecting the growing role of plastics, ceramics and composites, the chapter on the processes used with these materials has also been expanded.
• New chapter on lean engineering
• New and emerging technology is incorporated, and existing technologies are updated to accurately reflect current capabilities. Throughout its distinguished history, this text was often the first introductory-level book to incorporate processes such as friction-stir welding, microwave heating and sintering, and machining dynamics
• New open-ended case studies have been incorporated throughout the text. These have been designed to make students aware of the great importance of properly coordinating design, material selection, and manufacturing to produce cost competitive, reliable products.
• Four additional chapters are provided online at the book website: these chapters cover electronic manufacturing, thread and gear manufacture, nondestructive testing and inspection, and the enterprise (production system).
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• Materials section focuses on properties and behaviors, while coverage of processes offers a descriptive introduction to the wide variety of options
o Students learn how each process works
o Students see relative advantages and limitations of different approaches
• Emphasizes application and design
o Provides real-world examples to motivate students
o Interesting applications highlight relevance of course material
• Presents mathematical models and analytical equations sparingly
o Enhances student understanding of basic concepts and course material
• Numerous illustrations, photographs, and diagrams presented throughout
o Clarifies complex concepts and processes
o Provides students with visual information to support learning
• Cases studies provide real-world examples
o Emphasizes the importance of properly coordinating design, material selection, and manufacturing
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Purchase Options
Wiley E-Text   
DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Manufacturing, 11th Edition
ISBN : 978-1-118-21513-5
1184 pages
November 2011, ©2012
$71.50   BUY

Hardcover   
DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Manufacturing, 11th Edition
ISBN : 978-0-470-92467-9
1184 pages
August 2011, ©2012
$228.95   BUY

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