Construction Equipment and Methods: Planning, Innovation, Safety
February 2013, ©2013
Construction Equipment and Methods: Planning, Innovation, Safety fosters information literate engineers able to approach complex engineering and managerial problems with confidence and skill. Students of this text will fully appreciate the practical aspects of being a construction engineer and manager, and the dual nature—both technical and managerial—of the responsibilities. The text helps build skills through a cohesive view of construction technology; it’s safe use to maximize productivity and how the principles of science are being applied; linking the material in this course to previous courses (such as statics or geotechnical engineering); and utilizing a pedagogy designed to promote knowledge, and skill acquisition, such as case studies and open-ended problems.
Students will be engaged by relevant subject matter, informed by the author’s hands-on research in advanced technologies, mechatronics, robotics, ergonomics and safety.
The wide variety of pedagogical tools in the text will appeal to many different learning styles, and provide teachers with more opportunities and resources to get students to reflect about what they are learning; to connect the new to their past experiences; and to understand the relevance of this knowledge to their future.
Chapter One Human Ingenuity Builds Miracles 1
1.1 Each Construction Equipment Is an Assembly of Classical Machines 2
1.2 The Need for Construction Equipment and Methods 8
1.3 Chapter One Review 14
Journaling Questions 14
Open-Ended Question 14
Chapter Two Costing the Operation of Equipment 17
2.1 The Economics of Deploying Machinery 18
2.2 Cash, Credit, and Capital 20
2.3 Costing Construction Equipment 25
2.4 Computing Ownership Costs 26
2.5 Computing Operating Costs 29
2.6 Equipment Overhead 43
2.7 Reducing Income Taxes with the Help of Tax Depreciation 43
2.8 Buy, Lease, or Rent? 51
2.9 Chapter Two Review 57
Journaling Questions 58
Traditional Homework 58
Open-Ended Question 58
Chapter Three Safely Deploying Massive Power 61
3.1 The Mechanical Powertrain 62
3.2 Taking Advantage of Hydraulic Fluid Power 73
3.3 Protecting the Health of People Working with Equipment and Tools 83
3.4 Chapter Three Review 93
Journaling Questions 94
Traditional Homework 94
Open-Ended Problems 95
Chapter Four The Omnipresent Backhoes 97
4.1 The Family Tree of Today’s Backhoes 98
4.2 From the Accident File 99
4.3 Modeling Forces and Motion at Work 99
4.4 The Capabilities of the Universal Workhorse 101
4.5 Principles of Safe Trenching 112
4.6 The Backhoe as a Mobile Crane 117
4.7 Planning for a Productive Backhoe Operation 125
4.8 Smart Add-Ons to Boost Backhoe Safety and Productivity 138
4.9 What Certifies a Skilled Backhoe Operator? 143
4.10 Chapter Four Review 146
Journaling Questions 147
Traditional Homework 147
Open-Ended Problems 148
Appendix A: Steps to the Safe
Operation of a Loader/Backhoe 149
Appendix B: Safety Quiz for Backhoe Operators 149
Chapter Five Dozers, Scrapers, and Graders 151
5.1 The Family History of Dozers, Scrapers, and Graders 152
5.2 From the Accident File 153
5.3 Modeling Forces and Motions 154
5.4 The Dynamics of Dozing, Scraping, and Hauling 156
5.5 Power and Traction to Cut, Rip, and Doze 165
5.6 Boosting Productivity with Electronics 185
5.7 Planning for Safe and Healthy Work 190
5.8 Chapter Five Review 194
Journaling Questions 195
Basic Concepts and Definitions 195
Lessons from the Accident File 195
Traditional Homework 195
Open-Ended Problems 196
Chapter Six Trucks, Loaders, and the Quarry Operation 199
6.1 From 4 to 800 HP Trucks Within One Century 200
6.2 From the Accident File 201
6.3 About Trucks and Trailers 202
6.4 Equipment in the Quarry 209
6.5 Off-Road Trucks: Earth Haulers 251
6.6 Electronics and Satellites Boost Truck Performance and
6.7 Chapter Six Review 260
Journaling Questions 261
Traditional Homework 261
Lessons from the Accident File 262
Open-Ended Problems 263
Chapter Seven Cranes—Gentle Giants in Construction 265
7.1 An Impressive Family Tree 266
7.2 From the Accident File 267
7.3 Forces and Moments Affecting Crane Tipping 267
7.4 The Astonishing Capabilities of Ropes and Sheaves 270
7.5 Keeping Mobile Cranes Erect 279
7.6 Reaching High and Out with a Jib 288
7.7 The Omnipresent Tower Crane 294
7.8 Calculating Crane Productivity 298
7.9 Electronic Devices to Boost Safety and Productivity 305
7.10 Traits of the Master Crane Operator 311
7.11 Signaling with Hand Signs and Voice—Danger of Miscommunications 314
7.12 Chapter Seven Review 316
Journaling Questions 317
Basic Concepts and Definitions 317
Lessons from the Accident File 317
Calculation Problems 318
Open-Ended Problems 319
Chapter Eight Creating and Securing a Deep Dig 321
8.1 The History of Digging Deep and Retaining the Earth 322
8.2 From the Accident File 322
8.3 Building on Soft Ground 324
8.4 Dewatering the Ground to Excavate in the Dry 325
8.5 Preventing Collapse of a Vertical Earth Wall 335
8.6 Bracing Systems to Support Retaining Walls 352
8.7 Chapter Eight Review 362
Journaling Questions 363
Homework Problems 363
Lessons from the Accident File 365
Open-Ended Problems 365
Chapter Nine The Many Ways to Construct Deep Foundations 367
9.1 From Wooden Stilts to Jetted Piles 368
9.2 From the Accident File 369
9.3 Problems with Building on Soft Ground 370
9.4 Pile-Driving Technology 373
9.5 Non-Driven Load-Carrying Piles, Columns, and Caissons 382
9.6 Chapter Nine Review 411
Journaling Questions 412
Homework Problems 412
Lessons from the Accident File 413
Open-Ended Problems 413
Chapter Ten Forms and Temporary Structures for Material and Laborers 417
10.1 The Family Tree of Temporary Supports 418
10.2 From the Accident File 420
10.3 The Principles of Shoring 420
10.4 The Ubiquitous Scaffold 431
10.5 The Large World of Concrete Formwork 443
10.6 Chapter Ten Review 465
Journaling Questions 466
Homework Problems 466
Lessons from the Accident File 466
Open-Ended Problems 467
Chapter Eleven How Do They Build These Magnificent Bridges? 469
11.1 History of Bridge Construction 470
11.2 From the Accident File 472
11.3 Characteristics of Modern Bridges 473
11.4 Properties of Key Building Materials 480
11.5 Conventional Construction of the Superstructure 505
11.6 Bridge Building with Launching Gantry (LG) 513
11.7 Cable-Stayed Bridge Construction 525
11.8 The Construction of Arch Bridges 531
11.9 Chapter Eleven Review 538
Journaling Questions 538
Traditional Homework 539
Open-Ended Problems 539
- An engaging and cohesive view of construction technology --with a particular focus on safety-- covers ways to maximize productivity and demonstrates how the principles of science are being applied within the field.
- Designed to advance students’ information literacy skills for life-long learning (and supporting ABET criteria) by offering open-ended exercises, journal writing, and creative problem solving.
- Employs inquiry-based learning and teaching paradigms,
- homework with varying difficulty levels,
- “what-if” sensitivity questions,
- open-ended multiple-objective exercises,
- historical and global viewpoints, and
- real-life cases.
- Provides relevance through case-studies, chapter summaries, open-ended as well as single-answer exercises, and projects requiring application of theory to the field.
- Chapters are integrated with one or two theme problems based on realistic problems a manager will face, and they are expanded upon in successive chapters of the book.
- Presents the material with direct and apparent links to other topics that make up the body of knowledge of construction engineering management, including: history in technology, economics, finance, computers, statistics, statics, construction law, and geotechnical engineering.
- Emphasizes the importance of safety in the construction environment, particularly in Chapter 3: Creating and Deploying Massive Power Safely, and in “From the Accident File” sections throughout.
- Problems and/or worked-out problems, are embedded in real-world case situations that can occur during a construction project. Readers are guided through problem-solving exercises, and required to make assumptions and collect and analyze data. The problems conclude with a discussion of the results, adding a qualitative component and final recommendations to make to a “virtual boss.”
—Richard Coble, PhD., AIC, CPC, CGC, CUC, AAA-Arbitrator, ASCE-CRC, MASCE, University of Salford Visiting Professor, Indiana State University Affiliate Research Professor, CEO Shiloh Consltants
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