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Ground and Surface Water Hydrology

July 2011, ©2012
Ground and Surface Water Hydrology (EHEP002138) cover image
From best-selling and well-respected author Larry Mays, Ground and Surface Water Hydrology provides balanced coverage of surface and groundwater hydrology. The text includes current and emerging topics such as sustainability, climate change, GIS, and new models and data sources, so readers will gain a complete and current understanding of hydrology.

This book may be used for at least three different undergraduate courses including:
1. First course with an emphasis in surface water hydrology
2. First course with emphasis in groundwater hydrology
3. First course in hydrology with similar emphasis on ground and surface water hydrology.

This book is also a valuable reference for practicing civil engineers, hydrologists, environmental engineers, and geologists.

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About the Author v

Preface vii

Chapter 1 Hydrology, Climate Change, and Sustainability 1

1.1 Introduction to Hydrologic Processes 1

1.1.1 What is Hydrology? 1

1.1.2 Why Study Hydrology? 1

1.1.3 The Hydrologic Cycle 3

1.1.4 Hydrologic Systems 4

1.1.5 Surface Water in the Hydrologic Cycle 5

1.1.6 Groundwater in the Hydrologic Cycle 5

1.1.7 Control Volume Approach for Hydrologic Processes 7

1.2 Climate Change Effects and the Hydrologic Cycle 8

1.2.1 The Climate System 8

1.2.2 What is Climate Change? 10

1.2.3 Climate Change Prediction 11

1.2.4 Hydrologic Effects of Climate Change 12

1.3 Anthropogenic Effects on the Hydrologic Cycle 16

1.3.1 Urbanization 16

1.3.2 Land and Water Management Effects on the Hydrologic Cycle 17

1.4 Water Resources Sustainability 18

1.5 Hydrologic Budgets 19

1.6 Hydrologic Data and Publication Sources 21

1.7 U.S. Geological Survey Publications 22

Problems 25

References 25

Chapter 2 Occurrence of Groundwater 27

2.1 Origin of Groundwater 27

2.2 Rock Properties Affecting Groundwater 27

2.2.1 Aquifers 27

2.2.2 Porosity 28

2.2.3 Soil Classification 31

2.2.4 Porosity and Representative Elementary Volume 33

2.2.5 Specific Surface 33

2.3 Vertical Distribution of Groundwater 36

2.4 Zone of Aeration 37

2.4.1 Soil Water Zone 37

2.4.2 Intermediate Vadose Zone 38

2.4.3 Capillary Zone 38

2.4.4 Measurement of Water Content 40

2.4.5 Available Water 40

2.5 Zone of Saturation 41

2.5.1 Specific Retention 41

2.5.2 Specific Yield 41

2.6 Geologic Formations as Aquifers 42

2.6.1 Alluvial Deposits 43

2.6.2 Limestone 43

2.6.3 Volcanic Rock 44

2.6.4 Sandstone 46

2.6.5 Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks 46

2.6.6 Clay 46

2.7 Types of Aquifers 46

2.7.1 Unconfined Aquifer 46

2.7.2 Confined Aquifers 46

2.7.3 Leaky Aquifer 48

2.7.4 Idealized Aquifer 48

2.8 Storage Coefficient 48

2.9 Groundwater Basins/Regional Groundwater Flow Systems 50

2.9.1 High Plains Aquifer 52

2.9.2 Gulf Coastal Plain Aquifer System 54

2.10 Springs 54

2.10.1 What Are Springs? 54

2.10.2 Edwards Aquifer—Discharge of Springs 61

2.11 Groundwater in the United States 63

Problems 70

References 71

Chapter 3 Groundwater Movement 75

3.1 Darcy’s Law 75

3.1.1 Experimental Verification 75

3.1.2 Darcy Velocity 78

3.1.3 Validity of Darcy’s Law 78

3.2 Permeability 79

3.2.1 Intrinsic Permeability 79

3.2.2 Hydraulic Conductivity 80

3.2.3 Transmissivity 80

3.2.4 Hydraulic Conductivity of Geologic Materials 81

3.3 Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity 82

3.3.1 Formulas 82

3.3.2 Laboratory Methods 83

3.3.3 Tracer Tests 85

3.3.4 Auger Hole Tests 87

3.3.5 Pumping Tests of Wells 88

3.4 Anisotropic Aquifers 89

3.5 Groundwater Flow Rates 91

3.6 General Flow Equations 93

3.7 Unsaturated Flow 95

3.7.1 Flow Through Unsaturated Soils 96

3.7.2 Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity 99

3.7.3 Vertical and Horizontal Flows 103

Problems 104

References 105

Chapter 4 Groundwater and Well Hydraulics 109

4.1 Steady Unidirectional Flow 109

4.1.1 Confined Aquifer 109

4.1.2 Unconfined Aquifer 110

4.1.3 Base Flow to a Stream 112

4.2 Steady Radial Flow to a Well 115

4.2.1 Confined Aquifer 115

4.2.2 Unconfined Aquifer 120

4.2.3 Unconfined Aquifer with Uniform Recharge 122

4.3 Well in a Uniform Flow 124

4.4 Unsteady Radial Flow in a Confined Aquifer 126

4.4.1 Nonequilibrium Well Pumping Equation 126

4.4.2 Theis Method of Solution 127

4.4.3 Cooper–Jacob Method of Solution 129

4.4.4 Chow Method of Solution 132

4.4.5 Recovery Test 132

4.5 Unsteady Radial Flow in an Unconfined Aquifer 135

4.6 Unsteady Radial Flow in a Leaky Aquifer 140

4.7 Well Flow Near Aquifer Boundaries 143

4.7.1 Well Flow Near a Stream 143

4.7.2 Well Flow Near an Impermeable Boundary 148

4.7.3 Well Flow Near Other Boundaries 151

4.7.4 Location of Aquifer Boundary 153

4.8 Multiple Well Systems 154

4.9 Partially Penetrating Wells 158

4.10 Well Flow for Special Conditions 160

4.11 Slug Tests 161

4.11.1 Definition 161

4.11.2 Design Guidelines 161

4.11.3 Performance of Slug Tests 162

4.11.4 Methods for Analyzing Slug-Test Data 164

4.12 Slug Tests for Confined Formations 166

4.12.1 Cooper, Bredehoeft, and Papadopulos Method 166

4.12.2 Hvorslev Method 170

4.13 Slug Tests for Unconfined Formations 172

4.13.1 Bouwer and Rice Method 173

4.13.2 Dagan Method 179

Problems 182

References 189

Chapter 5 Artificial Recharge, Stormwater Infiltration, and Saltwater Intrusion Prevention 193

5.1 Artificial Recharge 193

5.1.1 Recharge Systems 193

5.1.2 Recharge Mounds 195

5.2 Stormwater Infiltration Basin Mound Development 203

5.2.1 Potential Flow Model for a Trench 204

5.2.2 Potential Flow Model for Circular Basin 205

5.2.3 Mound Growth 208

5.2.4 Mound Recession 209

5.3 Saline Water Intrusion in Aquifers 210

5.3.1 Occurrence of Saline Water Intrusion 210

5.3.2 Ghyben–Herzberg Relation Between Freshwater and Saline Water 211

5.3.3 Shape of the Freshwater–Saltwater Interface 213

5.3.4 Structure of the Freshwater–Saltwater Interface 216

5.3.5 Effect of Wells on Seawater Intrusion 219

5.3.6 Upconing of Saline Water 221

5.3.7 Control of Saline Water Intrusion 225

Problems 227

References 228

Chapter 6 Groundwater Flow Modeling 231

6.1 Introduction 231

6.1.1 Why Develop Groundwater Models? 231

6.1.2 Types of Groundwater Models 232

6.1.3 Steps in the Development of a Groundwater Model 232

6.2 Three-Dimensional Groundwater Flow Model 233

6.2.1 Derivation of Finite Difference Equations 233

6.2.2 Simulation of Boundaries 239

6.2.3 Vertical Discretization 239

6.2.4 Hydraulic Conductance Equations 240

6.3 MODFLOW-2005 Description 243

6.3.1 Model Introduction 243

6.3.2 Space and Time Discretization 245

6.3.3 External Sources and Stresses 246

6.3.4 Hydraulic Conductance—Layer-Property Flow (LPF) Package 248

6.3.5 Solver Packages 251

6.3.6 Telescopic Mesh Refinement 252

6.4 Case Study: Using MODFLOW: Lake Five-O, Florida 256

6.4.1 Finite Difference Grid and Boundary Conditions 256

6.4.2 Model Calibration and Sensitivity Analysis 256

6.4.3 Model Results 260

6.5 Example Applications and Input of MODFLOW 261

Problems 270

References 271

Chapter 7 Hydrologic Processes 273

7.1 Introduction to Surface Water Hydrology 273

7.1.1 What is Surface Water Hydrology? 273

7.1.2 The Hydrologic Cycle 273

7.1.3 Hydrologic Systems 273

7.1.4 Atmospheric and Ocean Circulation 278

7.1.5 Hydrologic Budget 280

7.2 Precipitation (Rainfall) 281

7.2.1 Precipitation Formation and Types 281

7.2.2 Rainfall Variability 282

7.2.3 Disposal of Rainfall on a Watershed 283

7.2.4 Design Storms 286

7.2.5 Estimated Limiting Storms 301

7.3 Evaporation 304

7.3.1 Energy Balance Method 304

7.3.2 Aerodynamic Method 307

7.3.3 Combined Method 309

7.4 Infiltration 310

7.4.1 Unsaturated Flow 310

7.4.2 Green–Ampt Method 313

7.4.3 Other Infiltration Methods 319

Problems 321

References 324

Chapter 8 Surface Runoff 327

8.1 Drainage Basins and Storm Hydrographs 327

8.1.1 Drainage Basins and Runoff 327

8.2 Hydrologic Losses, Rainfall Excess, and Hydrograph Components 331

8.2.1 Hydrograph Components 333

8.2.2 F-Index Method 333

8.2.3 Rainfall-Runoff Analysis 335

8.3 Rainfall-Runoff Analysis Using Unit Hydrograph Approach 335

8.4 Synthetic Unit Hydrographs 338

8.4.1 Snyder’s Synthetic Unit Hydrograph 338

8.4.2 Clark Unit Hydrograph 339

8.5 S-Hydrographs 343

8.6 NRCS (SCS) Rainfall-Runoff Relation 345

8.7 Curve Number Estimation and Abstractions 347

8.7.1 Antecedent Moisture Conditions 347

8.7.2 Soil Group Classification 348

8.7.3 Curve Numbers 351

8.8 NRCS (SCS) Unit Hydrograph Procedure 354

8.8.1 Time of Concentration 355

8.8.2 Time to Peak 357

8.8.3 Peak Discharge 357

8.9 Kinematic Wave Overland Flow Runoff Model 358

8.10 Computer Models for Rainfall-Runoff Analysis 363

Problems 365

References 372

Chapter 9 Reservoir and Streamflow Routing 375

9.1 Routing 375

9.2 Hydrologic Reservoir Routing 376

9.3 Hydrologic River Routing 380

9.4 Hydraulic (Distributed) Routing 384

9.4.1 Unsteady Flow Equations: Continuity Equation 385

9.4.2 Momentum Equation 387

9.5 Kinematic Wave Model for Channels 390

9.5.1 Kinematic Wave Equations 390

9.5.2 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Kinematic Wave Model for Overland Flow and Channel Routing 392

9.5.3 KINEROS2 Channel Flow Routing Model 393

9.5.4 Kinematic Wave Celerity 394

9.6 Muskingum–Cunge Model 395

9.7 Implicit Dynamic Wave Model 396

9.8 Distributed Routing in U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC-RAS 398

Problems 401

References 406

Chapter 10 Probability, Risk, and Uncertainty Analysis for Hydrologic and Hydraulic Design 407

10.1 Probability Concepts 407

10.2 Commonly Used Probability Distributions 410

10.2.1 Normal Distribution 410

10.2.2 Log-Normal Distribution 410

10.2.3 Gumbel (Extreme Value Type I) Distribution 413

10.3 Hydrologic Design for Water Excess Management 414

10.3.1 Hydrologic Design Scale 414

10.3.2 Hydrologic Design Level (Return Period) 416

10.3.3 Hydrologic Risk 416

10.3.4 Hydrologic Data Series 417

10.4 Hydrologic Frequency Analysis 419

10.4.1 Frequency Factor Equation 419

10.4.2 Application of Log-Pearson III Distribution 420

10.4.3 Extreme Value Distribution 425

10.5 U.S. Water Resources Council Guidelines for Flood Flow Frequency Analysis 425

10.5.1 Procedure 426

10.5.2 Testing for Outliers 427

10.6 Analysis of Uncertainties 430

10.7 Risk Analysis: Composite Hydrologic and Hydraulic Risk 433

10.7.1 Reliability Computation by Direct Integration 434

10.7.2 Reliability Computation Using Safety Margin/Safety Factor 435

10.8 Computer Models for Flood-Flow Frequency Analysis 437

Problems 438

References 441

Chapter 11 Hydrologic Design and Floodplain Analysis 443

11.1 Hydrologic Design for Stormwater Management: Storm Sewers Design 443

11.1.1 Rational Method Design 443

11.1.2 Risk-Based Design of Storm Sewers 451

11.2 Hydrologic Design of Stormwater Detention 453

11.2.1 Why Detention? Effects of Urbanization 453

11.2.2 Sizing Detention 454

11.2.3 Detention Basin Routing 455

11.2.4 Preliminary Sizing of Detention: Modified Rational Method 456

11.2.5 Infiltration Basin Design 460

11.3 Floodplain Analysis 461

11.3.1 Floodplain Analysis Components 461

11.3.2 Floodplain Hydraulics 464

11.3.3 Water Surface Profile Computation 468

11.4 Flood-Control Alternatives 472

11.4.1 Structural Alternatives 473

11.4.2 Nonstructural Alternatives 477

11.4.3 Flood Damage and Net Benefit Estimation 478

11.5 Urban Flood Management: A Matter of Water Resources Sustainability 480

11.5.1 Urban Flood Management and Sustainability 480

11.5.2 Climate Change, Urbanization, and Integrated Management 481

11.5.3 Developing Countries and Flood Management 482

11.5.4 Developed Countries and Flood Disasters 482

11.6 Water Supply for Crop Water Requirements: Evapotranspiration Calculations 483

11.6.1 Combination Equation 483

11.6.2 FAO-56 Penman–Monteith Equation 484

11.6.3 Meteorological Data and Factors 485

11.6.4 Radiation Calculations 489

11.6.5 ASCE-EWRI Standardized Penman-Monteith Equation 493

11.7 Hydrologic Design for Water Supply 494

11.7.1 Surface Water Reservoir Systems 494

11.7.2 Storage—Firm Yield Analysis forWater Supply 495

11.7.3 Reservoir Simulation 503

Problems 505

References 508

Chapter 12 Hydrologic Measurement 511

12.1 Atmosphere-Land Interface 511

12.1.1 Wind, Humidity, and Solar Radiation 512

12.1.2 Precipitation 515

12.1.3 Evaporation 519

12.1.4 Weather/Climate Stations 521

12.1.5 Infiltration 522

12.2 Discharge Measurement 523

12.2.1 Weir 523

12.2.2 Flumes 527

12.3 Streamflow Measurement 528

12.3.1 Measuring Stage 528

12.3.2 Velocity-Area-Integration Method 531

12.3.3 Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler 533

12.4 Groundwater Measurement 534

12.5 Automated Data Acquisition and Transmission Systems 536

12.6 Hydrologic Monitoring Systems 538

12.6.1 Urban Stormwater Systems 538

12.6.2 Flood Early-Warning Systems 541

Problems 541

References 542

Chapter 13 Hydrology of Specific Climates 543

13.1 Hydrology of Arid and Semiarid Climates 543

13.1.1 Physical Features 543

13.1.2 Hydrologic Processes 545

13.1.3 Rainfall Hyetographs for Arabian Gulf States 548

13.1.4 Design Rainfall Patterns for Arizona 549

13.1.5 Hydrology of Alluvial Fan Flooding 549

13.2 Hydrology of Cold Climates 555

13.2.1 Snowpack, Snow Water Equivalent, and Snowmelt Runoff 556

13.2.2 Snowmelt—Energy Budget Solutions 558

13.2.3 Snowmelt—Temperature Index Solutions 561

13.2.4 Models for Snowmelt Runoff 562

13.3 Hydrology of Humid Tropical Climates 562

13.3.1 ENSO: El Ni~no-Southern Oscillation 563

13.3.2 Rainfall for Drainage Design 565

13.3.3 Rainfall Interception—Vegetation Canopy 567

13.4 Introduction to Watershed Hydrology Models 569

13.4.1 What are Watershed Models? 570

13.4.2 Classification of Watershed Models 571

13.4.3 Distributed Model Spatial Configurations 572

13.4.4 Discussion of Selected Models 573

References 574

Appendix A Control Volume Approach for Hydrosystems 577

Continuity 580

Energy 581

Momentum 583

Appendix B NWS Precipitation Frequency Documents 585

Appendix C U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC-HMS 589

Watershed and Meteorological Description 589

Example Application 591

References 597

Appendix D U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC-RAS 599

HEC-RAS Model Features 599

Cross-Sections 599

Cross-Section Description for Conveyance Calculation 600

Cross-Section Interpolation 600

Cross-Sections at Junctions 601

Bridge Description 601

Encroachment Methods Floodplain Analysis 602

Reference 606

Index

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Balanced coverage of groundwater hydrology and surface water hydrology.

Numerous photos and illustrations throughout the book communicate concepts and information, and engage students with the author's trademark visual approach to the subject.

Current and emerging topics-

  • Climate change effects on hydrology,
  • Anthropogenic effects on hydrology,
  • Sustainability

 

Development of hydrologic principles-A rigorous, unified, numerical, and analytical approach throughout. The use of the control volume approach with Reynold's transport is used in the development of the conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and the conservation of momentum relationships used in hydrology.

Hydrologic Modeling:

Groundwater modeling is approached through the development of basic concepts and principles including the occurrence and movement of groundwater, and groundwater and well hydraulics. The basic equations used in the MODFLOW model are developed so the student has a basic understanding of how the model works, followed by example applications.

Surface water modeling takes a similar approach to develop the concepts and principles. As an example the fundamental principles for infiltration approaches, the unit hydrograph approach, the hydrologic routing approaches, and the kinematic wave model used in the HEC-HMS model are described in detail. Floodplain analysis principles are developed so that the student has a fundamental understanding of the hydrologic and hydraulic analysis that is performed. Coverage involves the principles of the hydraulic analysis used in the HEC-RAS model for steady-state water surface profile analysis.

Floodplain analysis principles are developed so that the student has a fundamental understanding of the hydrologic and hydraulic analysis that is performed. Coverage includes the principles of the hydraulic analysis used in the HEC-RAS model for both steady-state water surface profile analysis and unsteady flow analysis. Probabilistic approaches not only include floodflow frequency analysis but also rainfall frequency analysis.

Hydrologic Design:

Surface water hydrology related design topics include hydrologic design for water supply and design approaches for stormwater management including: stormwater sewer systems, detention basins, and infiltration basins. Hydrologic design for water supply is also includes evapotranspiration calculations using the Penman-Monteith equation and storage-firm yield analysis and sequent peak analysis. Design coverage also includes approaches for risk/reliability-based design to include the various hydrologic and hydraulic design uncertainties.

Groundwater hydrology related design topics include: aquifer recharge such as soil aquifer-systems, design prevention for salt-water intrusion, and stormwater infiltration basins.

Hydrologic Measurement:

Hydrologic measurement is covered including topics in atmosphere-land interface measurements, discharge measurement, streamflow measurement, subsurface water measurement, and hydrologic monitoring systems.

Hydrology of Specific Climates:

Hydrology of specific climates includes cold climates, semi-arid and arid climates, and humid tropical climates. The discussion of cold climates includes the snowmelt computations under varying conditions. Discussion of semi-arid and arid climates includes not only the hydrology of this climate but also alluvial fan flood modeling for floodplain determination. The discussion of humid climates includes discussion of topics such the hydrologic effects of ENSO, but also topics such as rainfall interception modeling.

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Ground and Surface Water Hydrology
ISBN : 978-1-118-21463-3
640 pages
May 2012, ©2012
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Ground and Surface Water Hydrology
ISBN : 978-0-470-16987-2
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July 2011, ©2012
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