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Globalization: The Essentials

February 2011, ©2011, Wiley-Blackwell
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Description

Essentials of Globalization is a highly useful compact edition of the author's full-scale textbook, Globalization: A Basic Text. The Essentials is written in a style accessible to undergraduates, and draws on both academic and popular sources in its explanations.
  • A highly useful compact version of Globalization: A Basic Text, which contains the all major areas in an accessible and affordable format for undergraduate students
  • Develops a unique perspective on globalization early in the book and uses it throughout to orient and organize discussion of a wide range of topics and parts of the world
  • Integrated use of a wide array of sources, including empirical research, theories, newspaper and magazine articles, monographs, and popular books
  • Designed to work as a basic text in globalization courses, or as a supplementary text in courses that include globalization as one of several topics
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Table of Contents

Preface xi

1 Globalization 1

Conceptualization, Origins, and History

Conceptualizing Globalization 3

From “Solids” to “Liquids” 3

“Flows” 7

“Heavy” and “Light” 8

“Heavy” Structures that Expedite “Flows” 10

“Heavy” Structures as Barriers to “Flows” 12

Subtler Structural Barriers 16

Origins and History of Globalization 17

Hardwired 17

Cycles 18

Epochs 18

Events 18

Broader, More Recent Changes 20

Chapter Summary 22

2 Theorizing Globalization 28

Imperialism 29

Colonialism 31

Development 32

Americanization 34

Anti-Americanism as a Global Process 36

Neo-Liberalism 37

Neo-Liberalism: Basic Ideas 40

The Neo-Liberal State 41

Critiquing Neo-Liberalism: Karl Polanyi 42

Contemporary Criticisms of Neo-Liberalism 44

Neo-Marxian Theories 45

Transnational Capitalism 45

Empire 47

Chapter Summary 49

3 Structuring the Global Economy 55

Before Bretton Woods 56

A Prior Epoch of Globalization 56

Economic Development during and after WW II 57

Bretton Woods and the Bretton Woods System 58

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 60

World Trade Organization (WTO) 61

International Monetary Fund (IMF) 61

World Bank 64

The End of Bretton Woods 66

Changes in, and Critiques of, Bretton-Woods-Era Organizations 67

Other Important Economic Organizations 72

The Multinational Corporation (MNC) 72

The Myth of Economic Globalization? 75

Chapter Summary 76

4 Global Economic Flows 81

Trade 82

Trade Surpluses and Defi cits 82

Global Trade: Economic Chains and Networks 82

Global Value Chains: China and the US 84

Scrap metal 84

Waste paper 85

T-shirts 86

iPhones 87

Increasing Competition for Commodities 88

The Economic Impact of the Flow of Oil 89

Oil Wealth 90

Race to the Bottom and Upgrading 91

Upgrading in the Less Developed World? 92

Outsourcing 93

Financial Globalization 95

The Great Recession 95

Consumption 98

Consumer Objects and Services 100

Consumers 100

Consumption Processes 101

Consumption Sites 101

Global Resistance 101

Chapter Summary 102

5 Global Political Structures and Processes 106

On Political Flows 107

The Nation-State 108

Threats to the Nation-State 109

Global flows 109

International human rights 110

“Shadows of war” 111

In Defense of the Nation-State 111

“Imagined Community” 112

Changes in Global Nation-State Relations 114

United Nations (UN) 117

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 118

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural

Organization (UNESCO) 118

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 118

Global Governance 119

Civil Society 121

International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs) 124

Chapter Summary 128

6 High-Tech Global Flows and Structures 133

Technology, Media, and the Internet

Technology 134

Medical Technologies 135

Space-Based Technologies 136

Leapfrogging 136

India’s “One Lakh Car” (or NANO) 138

Problematic Technological Flows 139

Media 139

Media Imperialism 139

“Media Were American” 140

New Global Media 141

Indymedia 142

Thinking about the Global Media 143

The Internet 145

Online Social Networking 146

Spam 147

Computer Viruses 147

The Internet in China 148

Chapter Summary 149

7 Global Culture and Cultural Flows 153

Cultural Differentialism 155

Civilizations 155

Cultural Hybridization 159

Muslim Girl Scouts 160

Appadurai’s “Landscapes” 161

Cultural Convergence 163

Cultural Imperialism 163

Indian sari weavers 164

Deterritorialization 165

World Culture 165

McDonaldization 167

McDonaldization, expansionism, and globalization 169

Beyond fast food 170

The Globalization of Nothing 171

Cricket: local, glocal, or grobal? 173

Chapter Summary 174

8 Global Flows of Migrants 178

Migrants 179

Migration 180

Flows of Migrants to and from the US 183

Illegal Mexican migrants to the US 183

Migrants through Mexico and to the US 185

Increased law enforcement 185

Flow of Migrants Elsewhere in the World 187

Illegal immigrants in Europe 187

Great Britain 187

Switzerland 188

Greece 189

Illegal immigrants in Asia 190

The Case Against the Backlash to Illegal Immigration 191

Remittances 194

Diaspora 197

Chapter Summary 199

9 Global Environmental Flows 204

Differences Among Nation-States 207

Collapse 207

The Leading Environmental Problems 208

Destruction of Natural Habitats 208

Decline of Fish 208

Decline in Fresh Water 209

The paradox of bottled water 211

Toxic Chemicals 212

Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming 212

Rising seas 213

Global warming and health 214

Population Growth 215

The Global Flow of Dangerous Debris 215

Global Responses 216

Sustainable Development 216

Dealing with Climate Change 218

Carbon Tax 219

Carbon Neutral 220

Alternate Fuels and Power Sources 220

Hybrid technology 220

Ethanol 221

Solar power 222

A Technological Fix? 222

Economic Issues 224

Opposing Environmentalism 224

Chapter Summary 225

10 Negative Global Flows and Processes 230

Dangerous Imports, Diseases, Crime, Terrorism, War

Dangerous Imports 232

Borderless Diseases 233

HIV/AIDS 234

Avian Flu 235

SARS 236

Ebola Virus 236

Tropical Diseases in Europe 237

Crime 237

Terrorism 242

War 247

Global Military Structures 249

Technology 249

Information War 250

Cyber-War 252

The Impact of Negative Global Flows on Individuals 253

Chapter Summary 254

11 Inequality 260

Global Inequality 261

“The Bottom Billion” 261

Migration 262

E-Waste and Inequality 263

Global Digital Divide 263

Race and Ethnicity and Gender 264

Race and Ethnicity 264

Gender 270

Gender and the economy 271

Global care chains 275

Trafficking in the sex industry 276

Mail-order brides 277

Responding to and resisting global minority status: the case of women 277

Rural–Urban and Inequality 278

Rural 278

Urban 281

Cities: the main locus of global problems 283

Chapter Summary 284

12 Dealing with, Resisting, and the Future of, Globalization 291

Dealing with Globalization 292

Dealing with the Global Economy 292

Protectionism 293

Fair trade 295

Helping the “bottom billion” 298

Dealing with Political Globalization 299

Accountability 299

Transparency 299

Transparency International (TI) 300

Resisting Globalization 301

Local Resistance 304

A Social Movement? 305

More Formal Social Movements 306

World Social Forum and Cyberactivism 306

Is the Resistance to Globalization Significant? 308

The Futures of Globalization 309

A “Mad Max” Scenario 311

Chapter Summary 312

Glossary 317

Index 322

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Author Information

George Ritzer is Distinguished University Professor at the University of Maryland, with awards that include the American Sociological Association's Distinguished Contribution to Teaching Award. He is the author of numerous books including The McDonaldization of Society (1993, 2011), The Globalization of Nothing (2003, 2007) Globalization: A Basic Text (2010) and the editor of The Encyclopedia of Social Theory (2005), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology (2007), The Blackwell Companion to Globalization (2007) and the forthcoming The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Globalization. His work has been translated into over 20 languages.

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New To This Edition

A highly useful compact version of Globalization: A Basic Text , which still contains the major areas whilst being especially affordable for the student market
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The Wiley Advantage

  • A highly useful compact version of Globalization: A Basic Text , which still contains the major areas whilst being especially affordable for the student market
  • Develops a unique perspective on globalization early in the book and uses it throughout to orient and organize discussion of a wide range of topics and parts of the world
  • Integrated use of a wide array of materials, including empirical research, theories, newspaper and magazine articles, monographs, popular books
  • Designed to work as a basic text in a course on globalization, or as a supplementary text in that or other courses which wish to include globalization as one of several topics
See More

Reviews

"Even in such a crowded market, this volume does therefore serve as a useful addition to the burgeoning number of textbooks." (Times Higher Education Supplement, 24 February 2011)

"Among social sciences, sociology offers the widest angle on globalization and among sociology texts this book covers most bases. Wide in coverage, ranging from economics to cultural trends, broad in approach, conceptually clear and fluent, this ranks as the most comprehensive overview text of globalization so far."
Jan Nederveen Pieterse, University of California, Santa Barbara

"Opening vistas illuminating the vicissitudes of globalization, Ritzer shines bright light on these processes. His text offers an erudite, nuanced, and accessible analysis, with vital insights."
James H. Mittelman, American University

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Globalization: The Essentials
ISBN : 978-1-4443-9357-6
352 pages
January 2011
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Globalization: The Essentials
ISBN : 978-0-470-65561-0
368 pages
February 2011, ©2011
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