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Fundamentals of Thermodynamics, 8th Edition

December 2012, ©2013
Fundamentals of Thermodynamics, 8th Edition (EHEP002520) cover image

Now in its eighth edition, Fundamentals of Thermodynamics continues to offer a comprehensive and rigorous treatment of classical thermodynamics, while retaining an engineering perspective.  With concise, applications-oriented discussion of topics and self-test problems, this text encourages students to monitor their own learning.  The eighth edition is updated with additional examples and end-of-chapter problems to increase student comprehension. In addition, Learning Objectives have been added to the beginning of each chapter. 

This classic text provides a solid foundation for subsequent studies in fields such as fluid mechanics, heat transfer and statistical thermodynamics, and prepares students to effectively apply thermodynamics in the practice of engineering.

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1 Introduction and Preliminaries 1

1.1 A Thermodynamic System and the Control Volume 2

1.2 Macroscopic versus Microscopic Points of View 5

1.3 Properties and State of a Substance 6

1.4 Processes and Cycles 6

1.5 Units for Mass Length Time and Force 8

1.6 Specific Volume and Density 10

1.7 Pressure 13

1.8 Energy 19

1.9 Equality of Temperature 22

1.10 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 22

1.11 Temperature Scales 23

1.12 Engineering Applications 24

Summary 28

Problems 29

2 Properties of a Pure Substance 39

2.1 The Pure Substance 40

2.2 The Phase Boundaries 40

2.3 The P–v–T Surface 44

2.4 Tables of Thermodynamic Properties 47

2.5 The Two-Phase States 49

2.6 The Liquid and Solid States 51

2.7 The Superheated Vapor States 52

2.8 The Ideal Gas States 55

2.9 The Compressibility Factor 59

2.10 Equations of State 63

2.11 Computerized Tables 64

2.12 Engineering Applications 65

Summary 68

Problems 69

3 First Law of Thermodynamics and Energy Equation 81

3.1 The Energy Equation 81

3.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics 84

3.3 The Definition of Work 85

3.4 Work Done at the Moving Boundary of a Simple Compressible System 90

3.5 Definition of Heat 98

3.6 Heat Transfer Modes 99

3.7 Internal Energy—a Thermodynamic Property 101

3.8 Problem Analysis and Solution Technique 103

3.9 The Thermodynamic Property Enthalpy 109

3.10 The Constant-Volume and Constant-Pressure Specific Heats 112

3.11 The Internal Energy Enthalpy and Specific Heat of Ideal Gases 114

3.12 General Systems That Involve Work 121

3.13 Conservation of Mass 123

3.14 Engineering Applications 125

Summary 132

Problems 135

4 Energy Analysis for a Control Volume 160

4.1 Conservation of Mass and the Control Volume 160

4.2 The Energy Equation for a Control Volume 163

4.3 The Steady-State Process 165

4.4 Examples of Steady-State Processes 167

4.5 Multiple Flow Devices 180

4.6 The Transient Process 182

4.7 Engineering Applications 189

Summary 194

Problems 196

5 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 216

5.1 Heat Engines and Refrigerators 216

5.2 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 222

5.3 The Reversible Process 225

5.4 Factors That Render Processes Irreversible 226

5.5 The Carnot Cycle 229

5.6 Two Propositions Regarding the Efficiency of a Carnot Cycle 231

5.7 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale 232

5.8 The Ideal-Gas Temperature Scale 233

5.9 Ideal versus Real Machines 237

5.10 Engineering Applications 240

Summary 243

Problems 245

6 Entropy 258

6.1 The Inequality of Clausius 258

6.2 Entropy—a Property of a System 262

6.3 The Entropy of a Pure Substance 264

6.4 Entropy Change in Reversible Processes 266

6.5 The Thermodynamic Property Relation 271

6.6 Entropy Change of a Solid or Liquid 272

6.7 Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas 273

6.8 The Reversible Polytropic Process for an Ideal Gas 277

6.9 Entropy Change of a Control Mass During an Irreversible Process 281

6.10 Entropy Generation and the Entropy Equation 282

6.11 Principle of the Increase of Entropy 285

6.12 Entropy as a Rate Equation 288

6.13 Some General Comments about Entropy and Chaos 292

Summary 294

Problems 296

7 Second-Law Analysis for a Control Volume 315

7.1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Volume 315

7.2 The Steady-State Process and the Transient Process 317

7.3 The Steady-State Single-Flow Process 326

7.4 Principle of the Increase of Entropy 330

7.5 Engineering Applications; Efficiency 333

7.6 Summary of General Control Volume Analysis 339

Summary 340

Problems 342

8 Exergy 362

8.1 Exergy Reversible Work and Irreversibility 362

8.2 Exergy and Second-Law Efficiency 374

8.3 Exergy Balance Equation 382

8.4 Engineering Applications 387

Summary 388

Problems 389

9 Power and Refrigeration Systems—with Phase Change 403

9.1 Introduction to Power Systems 404

9.2 The Rankine Cycle 406

9.3 Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the Rankine Cycle 409

9.4 The Reheat Cycle 414

9.5 The Regenerative Cycle and Feedwater Heaters 417

9.6 Deviation of Actual Cycles from Ideal Cycles 424

9.7 Combined Heat and Power: Other Configurations 430

9.8 Introduction to Refrigeration Systems 432

9.9 The Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle 433

9.10 Working Fluids for Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems 436

9.11 Deviation of the Actual Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle from the Ideal Cycle 437

9.12 Refrigeration Cycle Configurations 439

9.13 The Absorption Refrigeration Cycle 442

Summary 443

Problems 444

10 Power and Refrigeration Systems—Gaseous Working Fluids 462

10.1 Air-Standard Power Cycles 462

10.2 The Brayton Cycle 463

10.3 The Simple Gas-Turbine Cycle with a Regenerator 470

10.4 Gas-Turbine Power Cycle Configurations 473

10.5 The Air-Standard Cycle for Jet Propulsion 477

10.6 The Air-Standard Refrigeration Cycle 480

10.7 Reciprocating Engine Power Cycles 483

10.8 The Otto Cycle 484

10.9 The Diesel Cycle 489

10.10 The Stirling Cycle 492

10.11 The Atkinson and Miller Cycles 492

10.12 Combined-Cycle Power and Refrigeration Systems 495

Summary 497

Problems 499

11 Gas Mixtures 513

11.1 General Considerations and Mixtures of Ideal Gases 513

11.2 A Simplified Model of a Mixture Involving Gases and a Vapor 521

11.3 The Energy Equation Applied to Gas–Vapor Mixtures 526

11.4 The Adiabatic Saturation Process 530

11.5 Engineering Applications—Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures and the Psychrometric Chart 532

Summary 539

Problems 540

12 Thermodynamic Relations 557

12.1 The Clapeyron Equation 557

12.2 Mathematical Relations for a Homogeneous Phase 561

12.3 The Maxwell Relations 563

12.4 Thermodynamic Relations Involving Enthalpy Internal Energy and Entropy 565

12.5 Volume Expansivity and Isothermal and Adiabatic Compressibility 571

12.6 Real-Gas Behavior and Equations of State 573

12.7 The Generalized Chart for Changes of Enthalpy at Constant Temperature 578

12.8 The Generalized Chart for Changes of Entropy at Constant Temperature 581

12.9 The Property Relation for Mixtures 585

12.10 Pseudopure Substance Models for Real Gas Mixtures 588

12.11 Engineering Applications—Thermodynamic Tables 593

Summary 596

Problems 598

13 Chemical Reactions 609

13.1 Fuels 609

13.2 The Combustion Process 613

13.3 Enthalpy of Formation 621

13.4 Energy Analysis of Reacting Systems 623

13.5 Enthalpy and Internal Energy of Combustion; Heat of Reaction 630

13.6 Adiabatic Flame Temperature 635

13.7 The Third Law of Thermodynamics and Absolute Entropy 637

13.8 Second-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems 638

13.9 Fuel Cells 643

13.10 Engineering Applications 647

Summary 652

Problems 653

14 Introduction to Phase and Chemical Equilibrium 670

14.1 Requirements for Equilibrium 670

14.2 Equilibrium Between Two Phases of a Pure Substance 672

14.3 Metastable Equilibrium 676

14.4 Chemical Equilibrium 677

14.5 Simultaneous Reactions 687

14.6 Coal Gasification 691

14.7 Ionization 692

14.8 Engineering Applications 694

Summary 697

Problems 698

15 Compressible Flow 708

15.1 Stagnation Properties 708

15.2 The Momentum Equation for a Control Volume 710

15.3 Forces Acting on a Control Surface 713

15.4 Adiabatic One-Dimensional Steady-State Flow of an Incompressible Fluid through a Nozzle 715

15.5 Velocity of Sound in an Ideal Gas 717

15.6 Reversible Adiabatic One-Dimensional Flow of an Ideal Gas through a Nozzle 720

15.7 Mass Flow Rate of an Ideal Gas through an Isentropic Nozzle 723

15.8 Normal Shock in an Ideal Gas Flowing through a Nozzle 728

15.9 Nozzle and Diffuser Coefficients 733

15.10 Nozzles and Orifices as Flow-Measuring Devices 736

Summary 740

Problems 745

Contents of Appendix 753

Appendix A SI Units: Single-State Properties 755

Appendix B SI Units: Thermodynamic Tables 775

Appendix C Ideal Gas Specific Heat 825

Appendix D Equations of State 827

Appendix E Figures 832

Appendix F English Unit Tables 837

Answers to Selected Problems 878

Index 889

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  • Chapters 1-5 have been re-organized to streamline the introductory material and to further emphasize key concepts and topics
  • Learning Objectives have been added to the beginning of each chapter, helping the student to focus on the key topics and skills covered in the chapter
  • Approximately 25% of the end-of-chapter problems are new and/or revised
  • Up-to-date examples and applications have been integrated throughout the text
  • New online resources for students include: 
    • Student notes – brief notes for review
    • Extended set of study examples – examples in addition to those in the text
    • How-to notes – cover frequently asked q’s
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  • In-text concept questions:  Following major sections, these questions help reinforce the understanding of key concepts throughout the text.
  • Engineering Applications:  At the end of each chapter, a brief section describes how the concepts are used in the real-world practice of engineering.
  • End-of-chapter summaries revisit key concepts, key words and formulas, as well as a review of the skills that the student should have mastered in the chapter.
  • More than 2,800 end-of-chapter homework problems   are included, with a wide variety of complexity. Study Guide questions reinforce key concepts.
  • CATT3 software is available to students and instructors from the companion websites.
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Instructors Resources
Wiley Instructor Companion Site
Solutions Manual
CATT software
Image gallery
Extra study problems
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Fundamentals of Thermodynamics, 8th Edition
ISBN : 978-1-118-54953-7
912 pages
January 2013, ©2013
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Fundamentals of Thermodynamics, 8th Edition
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December 2012, ©2013
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