Textbook
Fundamentals of Thermodynamics, 8th EditionDecember 2012, ©2013

Now in its eighth edition, Fundamentals of Thermodynamics continues to offer a comprehensive and rigorous treatment of classical thermodynamics, while retaining an engineering perspective. With concise, applicationsoriented discussion of topics and selftest problems, this text encourages students to monitor their own learning. The eighth edition is updated with additional examples and endofchapter problems to increase student comprehension. In addition, Learning Objectives have been added to the beginning of each chapter.
This classic text provides a solid foundation for subsequent studies in fields such as fluid mechanics, heat transfer and statistical thermodynamics, and prepares students to effectively apply thermodynamics in the practice of engineering.
1 Introduction and Preliminaries 1
1.1 A Thermodynamic System and the Control Volume, 2
1.2 Macroscopic versus Microscopic Points of View, 5
1.3 Properties and State of a Substance, 6
1.4 Processes and Cycles, 6
1.5 Units for Mass, Length, Time, and Force, 8
1.6 Specific Volume and Density, 10
1.7 Pressure, 13
1.8 Energy, 19
1.9 Equality of Temperature, 22
1.10 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, 22
1.11 Temperature Scales, 23
1.12 Engineering Applications, 24
Summary, 28
Problems, 29
2 Properties of a Pure Substance 39
2.1 The Pure Substance, 40
2.2 The Phase Boundaries, 40
2.3 The P–v–T Surface, 44
2.4 Tables of Thermodynamic Properties, 47
2.5 The TwoPhase States, 49
2.6 The Liquid and Solid States, 51
2.7 The Superheated Vapor States, 52
2.8 The Ideal Gas States, 55
2.9 The Compressibility Factor, 59
2.10 Equations of State, 63
2.11 Computerized Tables, 64
2.12 Engineering Applications, 65
Summary, 68
Problems, 69
3 First Law of Thermodynamics and Energy Equation 81
3.1 The Energy Equation, 81
3.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics, 84
3.3 The Definition of Work, 85
3.4 Work Done at the Moving Boundary of a Simple Compressible System, 90
3.5 Definition of Heat, 98
3.6 Heat Transfer Modes, 99
3.7 Internal Energy—a Thermodynamic Property, 101
3.8 Problem Analysis and Solution Technique, 103
3.9 The Thermodynamic Property Enthalpy, 109
3.10 The ConstantVolume and ConstantPressure Specific Heats, 112
3.11 The Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heat of Ideal Gases, 114
3.12 General Systems That Involve Work, 121
3.13 Conservation of Mass, 123
3.14 Engineering Applications, 125
Summary, 132
Problems, 135
4 Energy Analysis for a Control Volume 160
4.1 Conservation of Mass and the Control Volume, 160
4.2 The Energy Equation for a Control Volume, 163
4.3 The SteadyState Process, 165
4.4 Examples of SteadyState Processes, 167
4.5 Multiple Flow Devices, 180
4.6 The Transient Process, 182
4.7 Engineering Applications, 189
Summary, 194
Problems, 196
5 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 216
5.1 Heat Engines and Refrigerators, 216
5.2 The Second Law of Thermodynamics, 222
5.3 The Reversible Process, 225
5.4 Factors That Render Processes Irreversible, 226
5.5 The Carnot Cycle, 229
5.6 Two Propositions Regarding the Efficiency of a Carnot Cycle, 231
5.7 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale, 232
5.8 The IdealGas Temperature Scale, 233
5.9 Ideal versus Real Machines, 237
5.10 Engineering Applications, 240
Summary, 243
Problems, 245
6 Entropy 258
6.1 The Inequality of Clausius, 258
6.2 Entropy—a Property of a System, 262
6.3 The Entropy of a Pure Substance, 264
6.4 Entropy Change in Reversible Processes, 266
6.5 The Thermodynamic Property Relation, 271
6.6 Entropy Change of a Solid or Liquid, 272
6.7 Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas, 273
6.8 The Reversible Polytropic Process for an Ideal Gas, 277
6.9 Entropy Change of a Control Mass During an Irreversible Process, 281
6.10 Entropy Generation and the Entropy Equation, 282
6.11 Principle of the Increase of Entropy, 285
6.12 Entropy as a Rate Equation, 288
6.13 Some General Comments about Entropy and Chaos, 292
Summary, 294
Problems, 296
7 SecondLaw Analysis for a Control Volume 315
7.1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Volume, 315
7.2 The SteadyState Process and the Transient Process, 317
7.3 The SteadyState SingleFlow Process, 326
7.4 Principle of the Increase of Entropy, 330
7.5 Engineering Applications; Efficiency, 333
7.6 Summary of General Control Volume Analysis, 339
Summary, 340
Problems, 342
8 Exergy 362
8.1 Exergy, Reversible Work, and Irreversibility, 362
8.2 Exergy and SecondLaw Efficiency, 374
8.3 Exergy Balance Equation, 382
8.4 Engineering Applications, 387
Summary, 388
Problems, 389
9 Power and Refrigeration Systems—with Phase Change 403
9.1 Introduction to Power Systems, 404
9.2 The Rankine Cycle, 406
9.3 Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the Rankine Cycle, 409
9.4 The Reheat Cycle, 414
9.5 The Regenerative Cycle and Feedwater Heaters, 417
9.6 Deviation of Actual Cycles from Ideal Cycles, 424
9.7 Combined Heat and Power: Other Configurations, 430
9.8 Introduction to Refrigeration Systems, 432
9.9 The VaporCompression Refrigeration Cycle, 433
9.10 Working Fluids for VaporCompression Refrigeration Systems, 436
9.11 Deviation of the Actual VaporCompression Refrigeration Cycle from the Ideal Cycle, 437
9.12 Refrigeration Cycle Configurations, 439
9.13 The Absorption Refrigeration Cycle, 442
Summary, 443
Problems, 444
10 Power and Refrigeration Systems—Gaseous Working Fluids 462
10.1 AirStandard Power Cycles, 462
10.2 The Brayton Cycle, 463
10.3 The Simple GasTurbine Cycle with a Regenerator, 470
10.4 GasTurbine Power Cycle Configurations, 473
10.5 The AirStandard Cycle for Jet Propulsion, 477
10.6 The AirStandard Refrigeration Cycle, 480
10.7 Reciprocating Engine Power Cycles, 483
10.8 The Otto Cycle, 484
10.9 The Diesel Cycle, 489
10.10 The Stirling Cycle, 492
10.11 The Atkinson and Miller Cycles, 492
10.12 CombinedCycle Power and Refrigeration Systems, 495
Summary, 497
Problems, 499
11 Gas Mixtures 513
11.1 General Considerations and Mixtures of
Ideal Gases, 513
11.2 A Simplified Model of a Mixture Involving Gases and a Vapor, 521
11.3 The Energy Equation Applied to Gas–Vapor Mixtures, 526
11.4 The Adiabatic Saturation Process, 530
11.5 Engineering Applications—WetBulb and DryBulb Temperatures and the Psychrometric Chart, 532
Summary, 539
Problems, 540
12 Thermodynamic Relations 557
12.1 The Clapeyron Equation, 557
12.2 Mathematical Relations for a Homogeneous Phase, 561
12.3 The Maxwell Relations, 563
12.4 Thermodynamic Relations Involving Enthalpy, Internal Energy, and Entropy, 565
12.5 Volume Expansivity and Isothermal and Adiabatic Compressibility, 571
12.6 RealGas Behavior and Equations of State, 573
12.7 The Generalized Chart for Changes of Enthalpy at Constant Temperature, 578
12.8 The Generalized Chart for Changes of Entropy at Constant Temperature, 581
12.9 The Property Relation for Mixtures, 585
12.10 Pseudopure Substance Models for Real Gas Mixtures, 588
12.11 Engineering Applications—Thermodynamic Tables, 593
Summary, 596
Problems, 598
13 Chemical Reactions 609
13.1 Fuels, 609
13.2 The Combustion Process, 613
13.3 Enthalpy of Formation, 621
13.4 Energy Analysis of Reacting Systems, 623
13.5 Enthalpy and Internal Energy of Combustion; Heat of Reaction, 630
13.6 Adiabatic Flame Temperature, 635
13.7 The Third Law of Thermodynamics and Absolute Entropy, 637
13.8 SecondLaw Analysis of Reacting Systems, 638
13.9 Fuel Cells, 643
13.10 Engineering Applications, 647
Summary, 652
Problems, 653
14 Introduction to Phase and Chemical Equilibrium 670
14.1 Requirements for Equilibrium, 670
14.2 Equilibrium Between Two Phases of a Pure Substance, 672
14.3 Metastable Equilibrium, 676
14.4 Chemical Equilibrium, 677
14.5 Simultaneous Reactions, 687
14.6 Coal Gasification, 691
14.7 Ionization, 692
14.8 Engineering Applications, 694
Summary, 697
Problems, 698
15 Compressible Flow 708
15.1 Stagnation Properties, 708
15.2 The Momentum Equation for a Control Volume, 710
15.3 Forces Acting on a Control Surface, 713
15.4 Adiabatic, OneDimensional, SteadyState Flow of an Incompressible Fluid through a Nozzle, 715
15.5 Velocity of Sound in an Ideal Gas, 717
15.6 Reversible, Adiabatic, OneDimensional Flow of an Ideal Gas through a Nozzle, 720
15.7 Mass Flow Rate of an Ideal Gas through an Isentropic Nozzle, 723
15.8 Normal Shock in an Ideal Gas Flowing through a Nozzle, 728
15.9 Nozzle and Diffuser Coefficients, 733
15.10 Nozzles and Orifices as FlowMeasuring Devices, 736
Summary, 740
Problems, 745
Contents of Appendix 753
Appendix A SI Units: SingleState Properties 755
Appendix B SI Units: Thermodynamic Tables 775
Appendix C Ideal Gas Specific Heat 825
Appendix D Equations of State 827
Appendix E Figures 832
Appendix F English Unit Tables 837
Answers to Selected Problems 878
Index 889
 Chapters 15 have been reorganized to streamline the introductory material and to further emphasize key concepts and topics
 Learning Objectives have been added to the beginning of each chapter, helping the student to focus on the key topics and skills covered in the chapter
 Approximately 25% of the endofchapter problems are new and/or revised
 Uptodate examples and applications have been integrated throughout the text
 New online resources for students include:
 Student notes – brief notes for review
 Extended set of study examples – examples in addition to those in the text
 Howto notes – cover frequently asked q’s
 Intext concept questions: Following major sections, these questions help reinforce the understanding of key concepts throughout the text.
 Engineering Applications: At the end of each chapter, a brief section describes how the concepts are used in the realworld practice of engineering.
 Endofchapter summaries revisit key concepts, key words and formulas, as well as a review of the skills that the student should have mastered in the chapter.
 More than 2,800 endofchapter homework problems are included, with a wide variety of complexity. Study Guide questions reinforce key concepts.
 CATT3 software is available to students and instructors from the companion websites.
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