Ethics and Technology: Controversies, Questions, and Strategies for Ethical Computing, 4th Edition
December 2012, ©2013
The Fourth Edition of Ethics and Technology introduces students to issues and controversies that comprise the relatively new field of cyberethics. This textbook examines a wide range of cyberethics issues—from specific issues of moral responsibility to broader social and ethical concerns that affect each of us in our day-to-day lives. Recent developments in machine ethics should also cause students to consider questions about conventional conceptions of autonomy and trust. Such topics and many other engaging ethical controversies—both hypothetical and actual cases—are discussed in this widely used and respected text.
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO CYBERETHICS: CONCEPTS, PERSPECTIVES, AND METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS 1
1.1 Defining Key Terms: Cyberethics and Cybertechnology 3
1.2 The Cyberethics Evolution: Four Developmental Phases in Cybertechnology 6
1.3 Are Cyberethics Issues Unique Ethical Issues? 9
1.4 Cyberethics as a Branch of Applied Ethics: Three Distinct Perspectives 14
1.5 A Comprehensive Cyberethics Methodology 24
1.6 A Comprehensive Strategy for Approaching Cyberethics Issues 27
1.7 Chapter Summary 28
CHAPTER 2 ETHICAL CONCEPTS AND ETHICAL THEORIES: ESTABLISHING AND JUSTIFYING A MORAL SYSTEM 33
2.1 Ethics and Morality 33
2.2 Discussion Stoppers as Roadblocks to Moral Discourse 42
2.3 Why Do We Need Ethical Theories? 52
2.4 Consequence-Based Ethical Theories 53
2.5 Duty-Based Ethical Theories 56
2.6 Contract-Based Ethical Theories 61
2.7 Character-Based Ethical Theories 64
2.8 Integrating Aspects of Classical Ethical Theories into a Single Comprehensive Theory 66
2.9 Chapter Summary 70
CHAPTER 3 CRITICAL REASONING SKILLS FOR EVALUATING DISPUTES IN CYBERETHICS 74
3.1 Getting Started 74
3.2 Constructing an Argument 78
3.3 Valid Arguments 80
3.4 Sound Arguments 83
3.5 Invalid Arguments 85
3.6 Inductive Arguments 86
3.7 Fallacious Arguments 87
3.8 A Seven-Step Strategy for Evaluating Arguments 89
3.9 Identifying Some Common Fallacies 91
3.10 Chapter Summary 98
CHAPTER 4 PROFESSIONAL ETHICS, CODES OF CONDUCT, AND MORAL RESPONSIBILITY 101
4.1 Professional Ethics 102
4.2 Do Computer/IT Professionals Have Any Special Moral Responsibilities? 105
4.3 Professional Codes of Ethics and Codes of Conduct 106
4.4 Conflicts of Professional Responsibility: Employee Loyalty and Whistle-Blowing 112
4.5 Moral Responsibility, Legal Liability, and Accountability 117
4.6 Risk Assessment in the Software Development Process 121
4.7 Do Some Computer Corporations Have Special Moral Obligations? 122
4.8 Chapter Summary 125
CHAPTER 5 PRIVACY AND CYBERSPACE 131
5.1 Are Privacy Concerns Associated with Cybertechnology Unique or Special? 132
5.2 What is Personal Privacy? 134
5.3 Why is Privacy Important? 139
5.4 Gathering Personal Data: Monitoring, Recording, and Tracking Techniques 141
5.5 Exchanging Personal Data: Merging and Matching Electronic Records 146
5.5.1 Merging Computerized Records 146
5.6 Mining Personal Data 150
5.7 Protecting Personal Privacy in Public Space 156
5.8 Privacy-Enhancing Technologies 162
5.9 Privacy Legislation and Industry Self-Regulation 164
5.10 Chapter Summary 168
CHAPTER 6 SECURITY IN CYBERSPACE 174
6.1 Security in the Context of Cybertechnology 174
6.1.1 Cybersecurity as Related to Cybercrime 175
6.2 Three Categories of Cybersecurity 176
6.3 “Cloud Computing” and Security 180
6.4 Hacking and “The Hacker Ethic” 183
6.5 Cyberterrorism 187
6.6 Information Warfare (IW) 191
6.7 Cybersecurity and Risk Analysis 194
6.8 Chapter Summary 196
CHAPTER 7 CYBERCRIME AND CYBER-RELATED CRIMES 201
7.1 Cybercrimes and Cybercriminals 201
7.2 Hacking, Cracking, and Counterhacking 203
7.3 Defining Cybercrime 205
7.4 Three Categories of Cybercrime: Piracy, Trespass, and Vandalism in Cyberspace 208
7.5 Cyber-Related Crimes 209
7.6 Technologies and Tools for Combating Cybercrime 213
7.7 Programs and Techniques Designed to Combat Cybercrime in the United States 216
7.8 National and International Laws to Combat Cybercrime 218
7.9 Cybercrime and the Free Press: The WikiLeaks Controversy 221
7.10 Chapter Summary 225
CHAPTER 8 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY DISPUTES IN CYBERSPACE 230
8.1 What is Intellectual Property? 230
8.2 Copyright Law and Digital Media 235
8.3 Patents, Trademarks, and Trade Secrets 242
8.4 Jurisdictional Issues Involving Intellectual Property Laws 244
8.5 Philosophical Foundations for Intellectual Property Rights 245
8.6 The Free Software and the Open Source Movements 250
8.7 The “Common-Good” Approach: An Alternative Framework for Analyzing the
8.8 PIPA, SOPA, and RWA Legislation: Current Battlegrounds in the Intellectual
8.9 Chapter Summary 264
CHAPTER 9 REGULATING COMMERCE AND SPEECH IN CYBERSPACE 269
9.1 Background Issues and Some Preliminary Distinctions 270
9.2 Four Modes of Regulation: The Lessig Model 273
9.3 Digital Rights Management and the Privatization of Information Policy 274
9.4 The Use and Misuse of (HTML) Metatags and Web Hyperlinks 278
9.5 E-Mail Spam 281
9.6 Free Speech vs. Censorship and Content Control in Cyberspace 284
9.7 Pornography in Cyberspace 286
9.8 Hate Speech and Speech that can Cause Physical Harm to Others 292
9.9 “Network Neutrality” and the Future of Internet Regulation 294
9.10 Chapter Summary 297
CHAPTER 10 THE DIGITAL DIVIDE, DEMOCRACY, AND WORK 303
10.1 The Digital Divide 304
10.2 Cybertechnology and the Disabled 309
10.3 Cybertechnology and Race 312
10.4 Cybertechnology and Gender 314
10.5 Cybertechnology, Democracy, and Democratic Ideals 317
10.6 The Transformation and the Quality of Work 324
10.7 Chapter Summary 331
CHAPTER 11 ONLINE COMMUNITIES, CYBER IDENTITIES, AND SOCIAL NETWORKS 337
11.1 Online Communities and Social Networking Services 337
11.2 Virtual Environments and Virtual Reality 343
11.3 Cyber Identities and Cyber Selves: Personal Identity and Our Sense of Self in the Cyber Era 351
11.4 AI and its Implications for What it Means to be Human 355
11.5 Chapter Summary 363
CHAPTER 12 ETHICAL ASPECTS OF EMERGING AND CONVERGING TECHNOLOGIES 368
12.1 Converging Technologies and Technological Convergence 368
12.2 Ambient Intelligence (AmI) and Ubiquitous Computing 369
12.3 Bioinformatics and Computational Genomics 376
12.4 Nanotechnology and Nanocomputing 381
12.5 Autonomous Machines and Machine Ethics 389
12.6 A “Dynamic” Ethical Framework for Guiding Research in New and Emerging Technologies 402
12.7 Chapter Summary 404
- New or updated scenarios in each chapter.
- New sample arguments in many chapters, which enable students to apply the tools for argument analysis covered in Chapter 3.
- Newly designed set of study/exercise questions in each chapter present unanalyzed scenarios, which can be used for in-class group projects or outside class assignments.
- Additional review, discussion, and essay/presentation questions at the end of many chapters.
- New Issues examined and analyzed include:
- Ethical and social aspects of Cloud Computing
- Wikileaks: free speech versus responsible journalism.
- "Net neutrality" and Internet regulation
- "Machine ethics" and the development of "moral machines"
- Issues of autonomy and trust related to machines
- Reaches several audiences by addressing the needs of computer science, philosophy, social/behavioral sciences, and library/information science students.
- Scenarios used for student consideration include both actual cases and hypothetical examples.
- Provocative scenarios and selected controversial cases convey the severity of the ethical issues under consideration.
- Sample arguments are included in many chapters and are intended to illustrate some of the rationales that have been put forth by various interest groups to defend policies and laws affecting privacy, security, property, and so forth, in cyberspace.
- Exercise questions are included at the end of each chapter designed to quiz the student's comprehension of key concepts, themes, issues, and scenarios covered in that chapter.
- Higher-level discussion questions encourage students to reflect more deeply on some the controversial issues examined in the chapter.
- Essay and presentation questions are also found at the end of each chapter.
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