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How Things Work: The Physics of Everyday Life, 5th Edition

January 2013, ©2013
How Things Work: The Physics of Everyday Life, 5th Edition (EHEP002528) cover image
This book uses familiar objects to introduce basic physics concepts, demonstrating the excitement and relevance to professionals in a variety of technical fields. Because its structure is defined by real-life examples, this book explores concepts as they are needed and then revisits them later on when they reappear in other objects. It integrates case studies throughout the chapters to easily convey an understanding and appreciation for physics. For example, discussions of skating, falling balls, and bumper cars are included to explain the Laws of Motion. Air conditioners and automobiles are used to explore thermodynamics. Engineers, architects, and professionals in other technical fields will benefit from the material that connects science to our everyday world.
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Foreword v

Preface xiv

C H A P T E R 1 THE LAWS OF MOTION, PART 1 1

Experiment: Removing a Tablecloth from a Table 1

Chapter Itinerary 2

1.1 Skating 3

(inertia, coasting, vector quantities, position, velocity, force, acceleration, mass, net force, Newton’s fi rst and second laws, inertial frames of reference, units)

1.2 Falling Balls 14

(gravity, weight, constant acceleration, projectile motion, vector components) 1.3 Ramps 24

(support forces, Newton’s third law, energy, work, conservation of energy, kinetic and potential energies, gravitational potential energy, ramps, mechanical advantage)

Epilogue for Chapter 1 35 / Explanation: Removing a Tablecloth from a Table 35 / Chapter Summary 35 / Exercises 37 / Problems 38

C H A P T E R 2 THE LAWS OF MOTION, PART 2 40

Experiment: A Spinning Pie Dish 40

Chapter Itinerary 41

2.1 Seesaws 42

(rotational inertia; angular velocity; torque; angular acceleration; rotational mass; net torque; Newton’s fi rst, second, and third laws of rotation; centers of mass and gravity; levers; balance)

2.2 Wheels 57

(friction, traction, ordered and thermal energies, wheels, bearings, kinetic energy, power, rotational work)

2.3 Bumper Cars 69

(momentum, impulse, conservation of momentum, angular momentum, angular impulse, conservation of angular momentum, gradients, potential energy, acceleration, and forces)

Epilogue for Chapter 2 81 / Explanation: A Spinning Pie Dish 81 / Chapter Summary 81 / Exercises 83 / Problems 84

C H A P T E R 3 MECHANICAL OBJECTS, PART 1 86

Experiment: Swinging Water Overhead 86

Chapter Itinerary 87

3.1 Spring Scales 88

(equilibrium, stable equilibrium, restoring force, Hooke’s law, elastic potential energy, oscillation, calibration)

3.2 Ball Sports: Bouncing 94

(collisions, energy transfers, elastic and inelastic collisions, vibration)

3.3 Carousels and Roller Coasters 102

(uniform circular motion, feeling of acceleration, apparent weight, centripetal acceleration)

Epilogue for Chapter 3 111 / Explanation: Swinging Water Overhead 112 /

Chapter Summary 112 / Exercises 113 / Problems 115

C H A P T E R 4 MECHANICAL OBJECTS, PART 2 116

Experiment: High-Flying Balls 116

Chapter Itinerary 117

4.1 Bicycles 118

(stable, neutral, and unstable equilibriums; static and dynamic stability; precession) 4.2 Rockets and Space Travel 126

(reaction forces, law of universal gravitation, elliptical orbits, escape velocity, Kepler’s laws, speed of light, special and general relativity, equivalence principle)

Epilogue for Chapter 4 139 / Explanation: High-Flying Balls 139 / Chapter Summary 139 / Exercises 140 / Problems 142

C H A P T E R 5 FLUIDS 143

Experiment: A Cartesian Diver 143

Chapter Itinerary 144

5.1 Balloons 145

(pressure, density, temperature, thermal motion, absolute zero, Archimedes’ principle, buoyant force, ideal gas law)

5.2 Water Distribution 157

(hydrostatics, Pascal’s principle, hydraulics, hydrodynamics, steady state flow, streamlines, pressure potential energy, Bernoulli’s equation)

Epilogue for Chapter 5 167 / Explanation: A Cartesian Diver 167 / Chapter Summary 167 / Exercises 168 / Problems 169

C H A P T E R 6 FLUIDS AND MOTION 171

Experiment: A Vortex Cannon 171

Chapter Itinerary 172

6.1 Garden Watering 173

(viscous forces, Poiseuille’s law, laminar and turbulent flows, speed and pressure in a fluid, Reynolds number, chaos, momentum in a fluid)

6.2 Ball Sports: Air 184

(aerodynamics, aerodynamic lift and drag, viscous drag, pressure drag, boundary layers, stalls, Magnus and wake deflection forces)

6.3 Airplanes 193

(airfoils, streamlining, lifting wings, angle of attack, induced drag, stalled wings, thrust)

Epilogue for Chapter 6 204 / Explanation: A Vortex Cannon 204 / Chapter Summary 204 / Exercises 205 / Problems 207

C H A P T E R 7 HEAT AND PHASE TRANSITIONS 208

Experiment: A Ruler Thermometer 208

Chapter Itinerary 209

7.1 Woodstoves 210

(thermal energy, heat, temperature, thermal equilibrium, chemical bonds and reactions, conduction, thermal conductivity, convection, radiation, heat capacity)

7.2 Water, Steam, and Ice 221

(phases of matter, phase transitions, melting, freezing, condensation, evaporation, relative humidity, latent heats of melting and evaporation, sublimation, deposition, boiling, nucleation, superheating)

7.3 Clothing, Insulation, and Climate 230

(thermal conductivity, electromagnetic spectrum, light, blackbody spectrum, emissivity, Stefan-Boltzmann law, thermal expansion, greenhouse effect)

Epilogue for Chapter 7 244 / Explanation: A Ruler Thermometer 245 / Chapter Summary 245 / Exercises 246 / Problems 247

C H A P T E R 8 THERMODYNAMICS 248

Experiment: Making Fog in a Bottle 248

Chapter Itinerary 249

8.1 Air Conditioners 250

(laws of thermodynamics, temperature, heat, entropy, heat pumps and thermodynamic efficiency)

8.2 Automobiles 262

(heat engines and thermodynamic efficiency)

Epilogue for Chapter 8 271 / Explanation: Making Fog in a Bottle 272 / Chapter Summary 272 / Exercises 273 / Problems 274

C H A P T E R 9 RESONANCE AND MECHANICAL WAVES 275

Experiment: A Singing Wineglass 275

Chapter Itinerary 276

9.1 Clocks 277

(time and space, natural resonance, harmonic oscillators, simple harmonic motion, frequency, period, amplitude)

9.2 Musical Instruments 287

(sound; music; vibrations in strings, air, and surfaces; fundamental and higher-order modes; harmonic and nonharmonic overtones; sympathetic vibration; standing and traveling waves; transverse and longitudinal waves; velocity and wavelength in mechanical waves; superposition; Doppler effect)

9.3 The Sea 301

(tidal forces; surface waves; dispersion, refraction, reflection, and interference in mechanical waves)

Epilogue for Chapter 9 311 / Explanation: A Singing Wineglass 311 / Chapter Summary 311 / Exercises 312 / Problems 314

C H A P T E R 1 0 ELECTRICITY 315

Experiment: Moving Water without Touching It 315

Chapter Itinerary 316

10.1 Static Electricity 317

(electric charge, electrostatic forces, Coulomb’s law, electrostatic potential energy, voltage, charging by contact, electric polarization, electrical conductors and insulators)

10.2 Xerographic Copiers 327

(electric fields and voltage gradients, electric fields inside and outside conductors, discharges, charging by induction, capacitors)

10.3 Flashlights 340

(electric current; electric circuits; direction of current flow; electrical resistance; voltage drops; voltage rises; relationship among current, voltage, and power; Ohm’s law; resistors; series and parallel circuits)

Epilogue for Chapter 10 354 / Explanation: Moving Water without Touching It 354 / Chapter Summary 354 / Exercises 355 / Problems 357

C H A P T E R 1 1 MAGNETISM AND ELECTRODYNAMICS 359

Experiment: A Nail and Wire Electromagnet 359

Chapter Itinerary 360

11.1 Household Magnets 361

(magnetic pole, magnetostatic forces, Coulomb’s law for magnetism, ferromagnetism, magnetic polarization, magnetic domains, magnetic materials, magnetic fields, magnetic flux lines, relationship between currents and magnetic fields)

11.2 Electric Power Distribution 373

(direct and alternating currents, superconductivity, transformers, induction, magnetic field energy, relationship between changing magnetic fields and electric fields, Lenz’s law, inductors, induced emf, electrical safety, generators, motors)

Epilogue for Chapter 11 388 / Explanation: A Nail and Wire Electromagnet 389 / Chapter Summary 389 / Exercises 390 / Problems 391

C H A P T E R 1 2 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 392

Experiment: A Disc in the Microwave Oven 392

Chapter Itinerary 393

12.1 Radio 394

(relationship between changing electric fields and magnetic fields, electric field energy, tank circuits, antennas, electromagnetic waves, speed of light, wave polarization, amplitude modulation, frequency modulation, bandwidth)

12.2 Microwave Ovens 405

(speed, frequency, and wavelength in electromagnetic waves; polar and nonpolar molecules; Lorentz force; cyclotron motion)

Epilogue for Chapter 12 413 / Explanation: A Disc in the Microwave Oven 413 / Chapter Summary 413 / Exercises 414 / Problems 415

C H A P T E R 1 3 LIGHT 416

Experiment: Splitting the Colors of Sunlight 416

Chapter Itinerary 417

13.1 Sunlight 418

(light, Rayleigh scattering, index of refraction, impedance, refraction, reflection, dispersion, and interference in electromagnetic waves, polarized reflection)

13.2 Discharge Lamps 427

(color vision, primary colors of light and pigment, illumination, gas discharges, quantum physics, wave-particle duality, atomic orbitals, Pauli exclusion principle, atomic structure, periodic chart, radiative transitions, Planck’s constant, atomic fluorescence, radiation trapping)

13.3 LEDs and Lasers 443

(levels in solids; band structure; Fermi level; metals, insulators, and semiconductors; photoconductors; p-n junction; diodes; light-emitting diodes; incoherent and coherent light; spontaneous and stimulated emission; population inversion; laser amplification and oscillation; laser safety)

Epilogue for Chapter 13 457 / Explanation: Splitting the Colors of Sunlight 458 / Chapter Summary 458 / Exercises 459 / Problems 461

C H A P T E R 1 4 OPTICS AND ELECTRONICS 462

Experiment: Magnifying Glass Camera 462

Chapter Itinerary 463

14.1 Cameras 464

(refracting optics, converging lenses, real images, focus, focal lengths, f-numbers, the lens equation, diverging lenses, virtual images, light sensors, vision and vision correction)

14.2 Optical Recording and Communication 475

(analog vs. digital representations, decimal and binary representations, diffraction, diffraction limit, plane and circular polarization, total internal reflection)

14.3 Audio Players 487

(transistors, MOSFETs, bits and bytes, logic elements, amplifiers, feedback)

Epilogue for Chapter 14 497 / Explanation: Magnifying Glass Camera 497 / Chapter Summary 498 / Exercises 499 / Problems 501

C H A P T E R 1 5 MODERN PHYSICS 502

Experiment: Radiation-Damaged Paper 502

Chapter Itinerary 503

15.1 Nuclear Weapons 504

(nuclear structure, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, quantum tunneling, radioactivity, half-life, fi ssion, chain reaction, isotopes, alpha decay, fusion, transmutation of elements, radioactive fallout)

15.2 Nuclear Reactors 518

(controlling nuclear fission, delayed neutrons, thermal fission reactors, moderators, boiling water and pressurized water reactors, fast fi ssion reactors, nuclear reactor safety and accidents, inertial confinement and magnetic confinement fusion)

15.3 Medical Imaging and Radiation 529

(X-rays, X-ray fluorescence, Bremsstrahlung, photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, antimatter, gamma rays, beta decay, fundamental forces, particle accelerators, magnetic resonance)

Epilogue for Chapter 15 540 / Explanation: Radiation-Damaged Paper 540 / Chapter Summary 541 / Exercises 542 / Problems 543

APPENDICES 545

A Vectors 545

B Units, Conversion of Units 547

Glossary 549

Index 565

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How Things Work: The Physics of Everyday Life, 5th Edition
ISBN : 978-1-118-54983-4
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