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Functional Biology of Plants

April 2012, ©2011, Wiley-Blackwell
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Description

Functional Biology of Plants provides students and researchers with a clearly written, well structured whole plant physiology text. Early in the text, it provides essential information on molecular and cellular processes so that the reader can understand how they are integrated into the development and function of the plant at whole-plant level. Thus, this beautifully illustrated book, presents a modern, applied integration of whole plant and molecular approaches to the study of plants.

It is divided into four parts: Part 1: Genes and Cells, looks at the origins of plants, cell structure, biochemical processes and genes and development. Part 2: The Functioning Plant, describes the structure and function of roots, stems, leaves, flowers and seed and fruit development. Part 3: Interactions and Adaptations, examines environmental and biotic stresses and how plants adapt and acclimatise to these conditions. Part 4: Future Directions, illustrates the great importance of plant research by looking at some well chosen, topical examples such as GM crops, biomass and bio-fuels, loss of plant biodiversity and the question of how to feed the planet.

Throughout the book there are text boxes to illustrate particular aspects of how humans make use of plants, and a comprehensive glossary proves invaluable to those coming to the subject from other areas of life science.

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Table of Contents

Preface, ix

Acknowledgements, x

1 Origins, 1

1.1 Plants – what are they?, 1

1.2 Back to the beginning, 1

1.3 Eukaryotes emerge, 2

1.4 Photosynthetic eukaryotes – the first 'plants', 3

1.5 The greening of Earth – plants invade the land, 4

1.6 Embracing the terrestrial lifestyle, 6

1.7 Arrival of the angiosperms, 8

1.8 Sex and the alternation of generations, 11

2 Introduction to Plant Cells, 14

2.1 Plant cells, 14

2.2 Cell walls, 15

2.3 The plasma membrane, 21

2.4 Cell compartmentation, 23

2.5 Chloroplasts, 24

2.6 Mitochondria, 27

2.7 The nucleus, 29

2.8 The vacuole, 31

2.9 Endomembrane systems, 31

2.10 Microbodies/peroxisomes, 32

2.11 Ribosomes, 34

2.12 The cytoskeleton, 34

2.13 The mitotic cell cycle, 36

2.14 Metabolism, 42

3 Genes, Gene Expression and Development, 56

3.1 Genes, 56

3.2 Gene expression, 59

3.3 Chloroplasts and mitochondria, 65

3.4 Control of gene expression – switching genes on and off, 69

3.5 Molecular aspects of development, 75

3.6 Plant hormones, 75

3.7 Light receptors, 86

3.8 Concluding comments, 92

4 From Embryo to Establishment, 94

4.1 Introduction, 94

4.2 Embryogenesis, 94

4.3 Endosperm, 99

4.4 Perisperm, 100

4.5 Late embryo growth, storage deposition and desiccation, 100

4.6 Seed coat, 109

4.7 'Recalcitrant' seeds, 109

4.8 Apomixis, 109

4.9 Seeds and fruit, 110

4.10 Fruit development and ripening, 112

4.11 Dormancy and quiescence, 114

4.12 Germination, 115

4.13 Establishment, 120

5 Roots, 124

5.1 External morphology of roots, 124

5.2 Root anatomy, 124

5.3 Root growth, 126

5.4 Soil chemistry and water relations, 130

5.5 Plant mineral nutrition, 132

5.6 Movement of nutrients to the root surface, 133

5.7 Absorption of water and nutrients, 133

5.8 Mycorrhizae, 139

5.9 Root nodules and nitrogen fixation, 139

5.10 Tropisms, 142

5.11 Gravitropism in roots, 143

6 Stems, 145

6.1 Structure of the stem, 145

6.2 The young stem, 145

6.3 The shoot apical meristem, 146

6.4 Shoot organizational forms, 148

6.5 The mature stem, 148

6.6 The tallest, largest and oldest plants, 151

6.7 Ageing and senescence, 152

6.8 Long-distance xylem transport, 154

6.9 Translocation in the phloem, 155

6.10 Biological clocks in plants, 157

6.11 Phototropism – how do stems curve towards the light?, 160

6.12 Gravitropism in stems, 160

6.13 Thigmotropism, 161

6.14 Nastic movements, 161

6.15 Bud dormancy, 163

7 Leaves, 166

7.1 External morphology of leaves, 166

7.2 The anatomy of the leaf, 166

7.3 Control of leaf growth and development, 167

7.4 Photosynthesis, 168

7.5 Photorespiration, 174

7.6 The photosynthesis/transpiration dilemma, 177

7.7 C4 photosynthesis, 178

7.8 Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), 181

7.9 Sources and sinks, 182

7.10 Stomata, 184

7.11 Leaf senescence and abscission, 186

8 Flowers, 189

8.1 Introduction, 189

8.2 What is a flower?, 189

8.3 Organization of flowers and flowering – inflorescences and life-styles, 191

8.4 Formation of flowers, 192

8.5 Gametogenesis, 198

8.6 Pollination and fertilization, 204

8.7 Evolution, 214

9 Environmental Stresses, 216

9.1 Responses to stress, 216

9.2 Temperature, 217

9.3 Waterlogging, 221

9.4 Drought, 223

9.5 Salinity, 226

9.6 Chemical stress, 228

9.7 Light and radiation, 232

10 Acclimation and Adaptation to Environmental Stresses, 235

10.1 Adaptation and acclimation responses, 235

10.2 Temperature, 236

10.3 Resistance and adaptation to waterlogging, 240

10.4 Resistance and adaptation to drought, 243

10.5 Resistance and adaptation to salinity, 247

10.6 Tolerance and adaptation to toxic metals, 252

10.7 Adaptations to light and radiation, 256

11 Biotic Stresses, 260

11.1 Plant/plant competition, 260

11.2 Plant/animal interactions, 265

11.3 Plant pathology, 271

12 Plants and the Future, 284

12.1 Climate change, 284

12.2 Loss of plant biodiversity, 288

12.3 Biomass and biofuels derived from plants, 291

12.4 Genetically modified crops, 297

12.5 Conclusion, 300

Glossary, 302

Index, 309

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Author Information

Dr Martin J. Hodson, School of Biological & Molecular Sciences, Oxford Brookes University. Martin Hodson is a Visiting Researcher in Environmental Biology in the School of Life Sciences at Oxford Brookes University.

Professor John A. Bryant, Emeritus Professor, School of Biosciences, University of Exeter. John Bryant is Professor Emeritus of Cell and Molecular Biology at the University of Exeter; Visiting Professor in Molecular Biology at West Virginia State University, USA; Chair of Christians in Science and is a past President of the Society for Experimental Biology.

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Reviews

"Martin Hodson and John Bryant have written the most captivating and elementary textbook on modern plant biology. It might be read from cover to cover by anyone seeking an introduction to the subject, but seems especially suited to high school, undergraduate and vocational courses."  (Expl Agric, 1 January 2013)

Named CHOICE Outstanding Title for 2012

“Students who are new to plant science will be quite well served, as will graduate students and others needing to develop fuller understandings and perspectives on their research.  Summing Up: Highly recommended.  Lower-division undergraduates through researchers/faculty.”  (Choice, 1 November 2012)

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Purchase Options
Paperback   
Functional Biology of Plants
ISBN : 978-0-470-69939-3
336 pages
April 2012
$110.95   BUY

E-book   
Functional Biology of Plants
ISBN : 978-1-119-94506-2
400 pages
April 2012
$110.95   BUY

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