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Russian Grammar Workbook, Second Edition

September 2012, ©2012, Wiley-Blackwell
Russian Grammar Workbook, Second Edition (EHEP002855) cover image
The second edition of A Russian Grammar Workbook provides a rigorous and hands-on approach to Russian grammar for students who are intent on mastering the nuance and complexities of this language.

  • Revised and updated version of the popular and comprehensive workbook offering detailed coverage of all aspects of Russian grammar
  • New edition reflects changes in Russian lexis and grammar over the past few years
  • Features over 230 sets of structured exercises
  • Packed with activities ranging from substitution drills and multiple choice questions, to grammatical quizzes and translation exercises
  • May be used independently or in conjunction with Wade’s A Comprehensive Russian Grammar, 3rd edition; a transparent structure links directly to the Grammar for ease of reference between the two volumes
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Preface to the First Edition xv

Preface to the Second Edition xvi

The Noun 1

Gender

1 First and second declensions [30–2, 34] 1

2 Soft-sign nouns [33] 2

3 Common gender [35] 2

4 Indeclinable nouns of foreign origin [36] 2

5 Differentiation of gender through suffi xes. Professions [43–4] 3

6 Animals [45] 4

Declension

7 Animacy [47] 4

8 Nouns which have a plural form only [49] 5

9 First declension: masculine nouns [50–2] 5

10 Partitive genitive in -у/-ю [53] 6

11 Prepositional/locative singular in -ý/-F [54] 7

12 Special masculine plural forms [55] 7

13 First declension: neuter nouns in -o [58] 8

14 First declension: nouns in -e, -ье, -ё, -ьё [59] 9

15 Second declension: nouns in -а/-я [61] 9

16 Third declension: soft-sign feminine nouns [63] 11

17 Declension of neuter nouns in -мя [64] 12

18 Declension of nouns in -ия/-ие [65] 12

19 Дéти and лFди [68] 12

20 Declension of fi rst names/surnames [69–70] 13

21 Apposition in the names of publications, towns etc. [72] 13

22 Agreement of ряд, большинствó etc. [75] 14

Case Usage

23 The nominative [77] 14

24 The accusative [79] 15

25 The genitive [80–2] 15

26 The partitive genitive [83–4] 16

27 Genitive and negative [86] 17

28 Genitive and accusative after negated verbs [87] 17

29 Verbs that take the genitive [88] 18

30 The dative as indirect object of a verb [89] 21

31 Verbs that take the dative [90] 21

32 Impersonal constructions using the dative [92] 22

33 The instrumental of function [94] 23

34 The instrumental in passive constructions [96] 23

35 Verbs that take the instrumental [99] 24

36 The instrumental of dimension [101] 24

37 The instrumental as predicate [102] 25

38 Nouns in apposition [103] 26

Revision exercises: case usage 26

The Pronoun 31

39 Personal pronouns [110] 31

40 The pronoun я [113] 32

41 The pronouns ты and вы [115] 32

42 The third-person pronouns (он, онá, онó, онD) [116] 33

43 The refl exive pronoun себB [117] 33

44 The possessive pronouns мой, твой, наш, ваш [118] 34

45 The possessive pronouns егó, её, их [119] 34

46 The refl exive possessive pronoun свой, своB, своё, своD [120] 35

47 Кто, что, какóй, котóрый, чей as interrogative pronouns [121–2] 35

48 Котóрый, чей, кто and что as relative pronouns [123] 36

49 The demonstrative pronouns Jтот and тот [125–6] 38

50 Сам and сáмый [131] 38

51 Весь, цéлый, всBкий, кáждый, любóй [132] 39

52 Никтó [134] 39

53 Ничтó [135] 40

54 Никакóй and ничéй [136] 41

55 The ‘potential’ negative pronouns нéкого, нéчего [137] 41

56 Indefi nite pronouns with the particles -то, -нибудь [138] 42

57 Нéкоторый [141] 44

58 Other parts of speech which can also function as pronouns [143] 44

The Adjective 45

The Long Form of the Adjective

59 ‘Mixed’ declension [146] 45

60 Soft-ending adjectives [147] 45

61 Formation of adjectives from nouns: the suffi xes -н-, -ск-and -oв-/-eв- [148] 46

62 Attributive use of the long adjective [155] 46

63 Use of the long adjective with predicative meaning [156] 48

Revision exercises: declension of adjectives 48

The Short Form of the Adjective

64 Endings of the short form of the adjective [159] 50

65 The mobile vowels -е-, -o- and -ё- in the masculine short form [161] 50

66 Some special short forms [162] 50

67 Short forms: pairs of opposites [168] 51

68 Adjectives of dimension [169] 51

69 Delimitation of meaning by the oblique case of a noun or pronoun [170] 52

70 Delimitation of meaning by a prepositional phrase [171] 53

Revision exercises: short-form and long-form adjectives 53

The Comparative Degree of the Adjective

71 The attributive comparative with бóлее [177] 55

72 One-word attributive comparatives [178] 56

73 Predicative comparative forms in -ее [179] 56

74 Comparative short forms in -e in predicative meaning [180–1] 57

75 Constructions with the comparative [182] 58

76 Other functions of the short-form comparative [184] 59

The Superlative Degree of the Adjective

77 The superlative degree with сáмый [185] 60

78 ВHсший and нDзший [186] 60

The Numeral 61

Cardinal, Collective and Indefinite Numerals

79 The cardinal numeral [190] 61

80 Declension of cardinal numerals [191] 62

81 The numeral одDн, однá, однó, однD [193] 62

82 Полторá/полторH, два/две, три, четHре, óба/óбе [194] 63

83 Numerals five and above [195] 64

84 Agreement of oblique cases of numerals полторá/полторH to 999 with oblique plural forms of nouns [196] 65

85 Declension of compound numerals [198] 66

86 Collective numerals [200] 67

87 Indefi nite numerals [201] 68

88 Agreement of the predicate with a subject that contains a numeral [202] 69

Ordinal Numerals

89 Formation of ordinal numerals. Usage [203–4] 70

Special Functions of Numerals

90 Telling the time [206] 71

91 Giving the date [207] 73

92 Numerals in compound nouns and adjectives [211] 74

The Verb 75

Conjugation

93 First-conjugation verbs with stems ending in a vowel [215] 75

94 First-conjugation verbs with consonant stems I [216] 77

95 First-conjugation verbs with consonant stems II: verbs

in -ать with consonant mutation throughout conjugation [217] 78

96 First-conjugation verbs with consonant stems III: verbs in -ти, -сть/-зть, -чь [218] 79

97 Present-future endings in the second conjugation [220–1] 81

98 Consonant change in the conjugation of second-conjugation verbs [222] 82

Revision exercises: conjugation of verbs 82

99 The verb ‘to be’ [226] 84

100 Formation of and stress in the imperative [227–8] 85

Revision exercise: imperative mood 86

101 Formation of the past tense [230–1] 86

102 The mobile vowel -o- in conjugation [234] 89

Aspect

103 Introductory [235]. Formation of the perfective by prefi xation [239]. Submeanings of perfectives [242] 89

104 The formation of imperfectives from prefixed first-conjugation verbs [244] 91

105 Secondary imperfectives based on second-conjugation verbs [246] 91

106 Consonant mutation in secondary imperfectives based on second-conjugation verbs [247] 91

107 Secondary imperfectives based on monosyllabic verbs [248] 92

108 The differentiation of aspects by conjugation. Aspectival pairs with different roots. Verbs which are refl exive in the imperfective aspect only [250–2] 92

109 Compounds of -ложить [253] 94

110 Meanings of verbal prefixes [254] 94

111 The imperfective and perfective aspects [255] 95

112 Aspect in the present tense [256] 97

113 Aspect in the past tense [257] 98

114 Use of the imperfective past to denote an action and its reverse [259] 99

115 Use of the imperfective past to denote a forthcoming event [261] 100

116 Negated verbs in the past [262] 100

117 Aspect in the future [263] 101

118 The ‘logical’ future [264] 102

119 The future in reported speech [265] 102

120 Use of the future to express repeated actions [266] 103

121 Use of the imperative in the context of a single action [270] 103

122 Use of the imperative to exhort and invite [271] 104

123 Negative commands/warnings [273] 104

124 Aspect in the infi nitive. Introductory [276] 105

125 Use of the infi nitive to denote habitual actions [277] 105

126 Use of the imperfective infinitive after verbs of beginning, continuing and concluding [278] 106

127 Inadvisable and advisable actions [279] 106

128 A request to perform/not to perform an action [280] 107

Revision exercises: aspect 108

Reflexive Verbs

129 Reflexive verbs. The ‘true’ reflexive [284–5] 110

130 Intransitive refl exives [287] 111

131 Refl exive verbs with passive meaning [288] 112

132 Reciprocal meanings [289] 112

The Passive Voice

133 The passive voice [300–3] 113

The Conditional and Subjunctive Moods

134 The conditional mood [304–5] 114

135 Use of the subjunctive to express wish or desire [308] 115

136 The subjunctive of purposeful endeavour [309] 116

137 Purpose clauses [310] 117

138 The expression of hypothesis [311] 117

139 Concessive constructions [312] 118

Constructions Expressing Obligation, Necessity, Possibility or Potential

140 The expression of obligation and necessity [313] 119

141 The expression of possibility or potential [314] 120

Verbs of Motion

142 Unidirectional and multidirectional verbs of motion.

Conjugation [315–16] 121

143 Imperatives and past tense of verbs of motion [317–18] 121

144 ‘To go’: идтD/ходDть and éхать/éздить [319] 122

145 Functions of unidirectional verbs of motion [320] 122

146 Unidirectional verbs in frequentative contexts [321] 123

147 Functions of multidirectional verbs of motion [322] 123

148 Use of the past tense of a multidirectional verb to denote a single return journey. Perfectives of unidirectional verbs [323/326] 124

149 The verbs нестD, носDть; вестD, водDть; везтD, возDть.

Translation of ‘to drive’ [324–5] 125

150 Perfectives of multidirectional verbs [329] 126

151 Compound verbs of motion [331] 126

152 Prefi xed verbs of motion [332/334] 128

153 Spelling rules in the formation of compound verbs of motion [333] 129

154 Use of the imperfective past of a compound verb of motion to denote an action and its reverse [335] 129

155 Figurative and idiomatic uses of compound verbs of motion [336] 130

156 Perfectives in c- based on multidirectional verbs [337] 130

Participles

157 Present active participle. Formation and stress [340–1] 131

158 The past active participle. Formation and stress [342–3] 132

159 The imperfective passive participle. Formation and stress [344–7] 133

160 Formation of the perfective passive participle from infinitives in -ать/-ять [349] 134

161 Formation of the long-form (attributive) participle from verbs in -ать/-ять [351] 135

162 Formation of the short-form participle from second-conjugation verbs in -ить/-еть [352] 135

163 Consonant mutation in participles from second-conjugation infi nitives in -ить/-еть [353] 136

164 Formation of the long-form (attributive) participle from second-conjugation verbs in -ить/-еть [354] 137

165 Formation of perfective passive participles (short form) from verbs in -ти, -чь, -зть, -сть [355] 138

166 Long-form participles from verbs in -ти, -чь, -зть, -сть [356] 139

167 Perfective passive participles in -т [357] 140

168 The long form of participles in -т [358] 140

169 Functions of short-form participles [359] 140

170 Functions of long-form participles [360] 141

171 Agreement of long-form participle and noun [361] 143

172 Text on participles [339–66] 145

Gerunds

173 Formation of/stress in the imperfective gerund. Lack of an imperfective gerund [368–71] 146

174 Formation of the perfective gerund [372–6] 147

175 Functions of the gerunds [377] 148

176 Special features of constructions with gerunds [378] 149

The Adverb 150

177 Adverbs derived from adjectives/nouns [382–3] 150

178 Adverbs derived from pronouns [386] 151

179 Primary spatial adverbs [387] 152

180 Primary adverbs of time [388] 152

181 Ещё, ещё не, ещё раз [389–90] 153

182 The temporal adverbs дóлго, давнó and недáвно [391] 153

183 Тóже, тáкже [394] 154

184 Indefinite adverbs (adverbs in -то and -нибудь) [395] 154

185 The negative adverbs нигдé, никудá, ниоткýда, никогдá, никáк, нискóлько [396] 155

186 The negative adverbs нéгде, нéкуда, нéкогда, нéоткуда, нéзачем [397] 156

187 Comparative adverbs [398] 156

188 The superlative adverb [400] 157

The Preposition 158

189 The prepositions о/об/обо [402] 158

190 The mobile vowel -о [404] 158

Spatial Prepositions

191 В and на + prepositional/accusative, из/с + genitive [408] 159

192 The use of в and на with geographical terminology and the names of organizations, buildings and parts of buildings [409] 160

193 Nouns which may be used with в and на, but with different meanings [410] 162

194 Accusative of destination and genitive of withdrawal [411] 164

195 Uses of на when the dependent noun denotes an activity, event [412] 165

196 В and на: extension of the spatial meanings [413] 165

Prepositions that Denote the Position of an Object in Relation to Another Object

197 Зa + instrumental/accusative, из-за + genitive [414] 165

198 Перед + instrumental, впередD + genitive [416] 166

199 Под + instrumental/accusative, из-под + genitive [417] 166

200 Над + instrumental, повéрх + genitive [418] 167

Prepositions that Denote Spatial Closeness to an Object, Movement Towards or Away from an Object

201 У + genitive, к + dative, от + genitive [420] 168

Prepositions that Denote Along, Across, Through a Spatial Area

202 По + dative; через, сквòзь + accusative; поперёк, вдòль + genitive [424] 169

Temporal Prepositions

203 Telling the time [426] 170

204 Days [427] 171

205 Parts of a day [428] 172

206 Weeks, months, years and centuries [429] 172

207 Во врéмя, в течéние [430] 173

The Use of Prepositions to Denote Action in Relation to Various Time Limits

208 The use of с + genitive, до + genitive to denote terminal points in time [434] 174

209 Use of к + dative and под + accusative to denote temporal approach [435] 174

210 Use of в/за + accusative to denote the time taken to complete an action. Use of в + accusative to denote the period during which an action occurs a stated number of times [436–7] 175

211 Use of prepositions to denote sequence in time (before, after etc.) [439] 176

Other Meanings

212 Prepositions with causal meaning [443] 177

213 Prepositions that denote the object of feelings and attitudes [444] 178

214 Prepositions that denote extent [445] 178

215 Prepositions that denote purpose [446] 179

216 По + dative/accusative in distributive meaning [448] 179

Other Important Meanings Expressed by Prepositions

217 Prepositions that take the accusative [449] 179

218 Prepositions that take the genitive [450] 181

219 Prepositions that take the dative, instrumental or prepositional [451–3] 183

The Conjunction 185

Co-ordinating Conjunctions

220 Connective and adversative conjunctions [455–6] 185

221 Disjunctive conjunctions [457] 186

Subordinating Conjunctions

222 Explanatory conjunctions [458] 187

223 Conjunctions of purpose [460] 187

224 Temporal conjunctions. Introductory and those which render ‘before’, ‘after’, ‘until’, ‘since’ [465–6] 188

225 Other conjunctions of time [467] 189

The Particle 191

226 ‘Almost’, ‘only’ [471] 191

227 Modal functions of particles [472] 192

Word Order 194

228 ‘New’ and ‘given’ information [476] 194

229 Relative position of subject and verb [477] 195

230 Subject, verb, object [478] 196

231 The position of the adverb [480] 198

232 Sentences that contain more than one adverb or adverbial phrase [481] 199

Grammar Quiz 200

Key 202

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Terence Wade (1930–2005) was Professor Emeritus and Research Fellow in Russian Studies at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow. He wrote 12 books, including Prepositions in Modern Russian (1985), Russian Etymological Dictionary (1996), The Russian Language Today (with Larissa Ryazanova-Clarke, 1999), and A Comprehensive Russian Grammar, third edition (revised by David Gillespie, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010).

David Gillespie is Professor of Russian at the University of Bath, UK, where he has taught Russian language and culture since 1985. He is the author of 8 books and more than 50 papers on modern Russian literature and film.

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