Textbook

# Principles of Communications: Systems, Modulation, and Noise, Seventh Edition

March 2014, ©2015

## Description

Ziemer and Tranter provide a thorough treatment of the principles of communications at the physical layer suitable for college seniors, beginning graduate students, and practicing engineers. This is accomplished by providing overviews of the necessary background in signal, system, probability, and random process theory required for the analog and digital communications topics covered in the book. In addition to stressing fundamental concepts, the seventh edition features sections on important areas such as spread spectrum, cellular communications, and orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing. While the book is aimed at a two-semester course, more than enough material is provided for structuring courses according to students need and instructor preference.

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## Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 The Block Diagram of a Communication System 4

1.2 Channel Characteristics 5

1.3 Summary of Systems-Analysis Techniques 13

1.4 Probabilistic Approaches to System Optimization 14

1.5 Preview of This Book 16

Further Reading 16

CHAPTER 2 SIGNAL AND LINEAR SYSTEM ANALYSIS 17

2.1 Signal Models 17

2.2 Signal Classifications 24

2.3 Fourier Series 26

2.4 The Fourier Transform 34

2.5 Power Spectral Density and Correlation 50

2.6 Signals and Linear Systems 55

2.7 Sampling Theory 78

2.8 The Hilbert Transform 82

2.9 The Discrete Fourier Transform and Fast Fourier Transform 91

Further Reading 95

Summary 95

Drill Problems 98

Problems 100

Computer Exercises 111

CHAPTER 3 LINEAR MODULATION TECHNIQUES 112

3.1 Double-Sideband Modulation 113

3.2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) 116

3.3 Single-Sideband (SSB) Modulation 124

3.4 Vestigial-Sideband (VSB) Modulation 133

3.5 Frequency Translation and Mixing 136

3.6 Interference in Linear Modulation 139

3.7 Pulse Amplitude Modulation---PAM 142

3.8 Digital Pulse Modulation 144

Further Reading 150

Summary 150

Drill Problems 151

Problems 152

Computer Exercises 155

CHAPTER 4 ANGLE MODULATION AND MULTIPLEXING 156

4.1 Phase and Frequency Modulation Defined 156

4.2 Demodulation of Angle-Modulated Signals 175

4.3 Feedback Demodulators: The Phase-Locked Loop 181

4.4 Interference in Angle Modulation 196

4.5 Analog Pulse Modulation 201

4.6 Multiplexing 204

Further Reading 208

Summary 208

Drill Problems 209

Problems 210

Computer Exercises 213

CHAPTER 5 PRINCIPLES OF BASEBAND DIGITAL DATA TRANSMISSION 215

5.1 Baseband Digital Data Transmission Systems 215

5.2 Line Codes and Their Power Spectra 216

5.3 Effects of Filtering of Digital Data---ISI 225

5.4 Pulse Shaping: Nyquist’s Criterion for Zero ISI 227

5.5 Zero-Forcing Equalization 233

5.6 Eye Diagrams 237

5.7 Synchronization 239

5.8 Carrier Modulation of Baseband Digital Signals 243

Further Reading 244

Summary 244

Drill Problems 245

Problems 246

Computer Exercises 249

CHAPTER 6 OVERVIEW OF PROBABILITY AND RANDOM VARIABLES 250

6.1 What is Probability? 250

6.2 Random Variables and Related Functions 260

6.3 Statistical Averages 274

6.4 Some Useful pdfs 286

Further Reading 298

Summary 298

Drill Problems 300

Problems 301

Computer Exercises 307

CHAPTER 7 RANDOM SIGNALS AND NOISE 308

7.1 A Relative-Frequency Description of Random Processes 308

7.2 Some Terminology of Random Processes 310

7.3 Correlation and Power Spectral Density 316

7.4 Linear Systems and Random Processes 325

7.5.1 Quadrature-Component and Envelope-Phase Representation 333

Further Reading 340

Summary 340

Drill Problems 341

Problems 342

Computer Exercises 348

CHAPTER 8 NOISE IN MODULATION SYSTEMS 349

8.1 Signal-to-Noise Ratios 350

8.2 Noise and Phase Errors in Coherent Systems 366

8.3 Noise in Angle Modulation 370

8.4 Threshold Effect in FM Demodulation 376

8.5 Noise in Pulse-Code Modulation 384

Further Reading 389

Summary 389

Drill Problems 391

Problems 391

Computer Exercises 394

CHAPTER 9 PRINCIPLES OF DIGITAL DATA TRANSMISSION IN NOISE 396

9.1 Baseband Data Transmission in White Gaussian Noise 398

9.2 Binary Synchronous Data Transmission with Arbitrary Signal Shapes 404

9.3 Modulation Schemes not Requiring Coherent References 421

9.4 M-ary Pulse-Amplitude Modulation (PAM) 431

9.5 Comparison of Digital Modulation Systems 435

9.6 Noise Performance of Zero-ISI Digital Data Transmission Systems 438

9.7 Multipath Interference 443

9.8 Fading Channels 449

9.9 Equalization 455

Further Reading 466

Summary 466

Drill Problems 468

Problems 469

Computer Exercises 476

CHAPTER 10 ADVANCED DATA COMMUNICATIONS TOPICS 477

10.1 M-ary Data Communications Systems 477

10.2 Power Spectra for Digital Modulation 510

10.3 Synchronization 516

10.4 Spread-Spectrum Communication Systems 528

10.5 Multicarrier Modulation and Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing 540

10.6 Cellular Radio Communication Systems 545

Further Reading 556

Summary 556

Drill Problems 557

Problems 558

Computer Exercises 563

CHAPTER 11 OPTIMUM RECEIVERS AND SIGNAL-SPACE CONCEPTS 564

11.1 Bayes Optimization 564

11.2 Vector Space Representation of Signals 574

11.3 Map Receiver for Digital Data Transmission 583

11.4 Estimation Theory 596

11.5 Applications of Estimation Theory to Communications 602

Further Reading 606

Summary 607

Drill Problems 607

Problems 608

Computer Exercises 614

CHAPTER 12 INFORMATION THEORY AND CODING 615

12.1 Basic Concepts 616

12.2 Source Coding 626

12.3 Communication in Noisy Environments: Basic Ideas 634

12.4 Communication in Noisy Channels: Block Codes 636

12.5 Communication in Noisy Channels: Convolutional Codes 657

12.6 Bandwidth and Power Efficient Modulation (TCM) 668

12.7 Feedback Channels 672

12.8 Modulation and Bandwidth Efficiency 676

12.9 Quick Overviews 679

Further Reading 686

Summary 686

Drill Problems 688

Problems 688

Computer Exercises 692

APPENDIX A PHYSICAL NOISE SOURCES 693

A.1 Physical Noise Sources 693

A.2 Characterization of Noise in Systems 698

A.3 Free-Space Propagation Example 705

Further Reading 708

Problems 708

APPENDIX B JOINTLY GAUSSIAN RANDOM VARIABLES 710

B.1 The pdf 710

B.2 The Characteristic Function 711

B.3 Linear Transformations 711

APPENDIX C PROOF OF THE NARROWBAND NOISE MODEL 712

APPENDIX D ZERO-CROSSING AND ORIGIN ENCIRCLEMENT STATISTICS 714

D.1 The Zero-Crossing Problem 714

D.2 Average Rate of Zero Crossings 716

Problems 719

APPENDIX E CHI-SQUARE STATISTICS 720

APPENDIX F MATHEMATICAL AND NUMERICAL TABLES 722

F.1 The Gaussian Q-Function 722

F.2 Trigonometric Identities 724

F.3 Series Expansions 724

F.4 Integrals 725

F.5 Fourier-Transform Pairs 727

F.6 Fourier-Transform Theorems 727

APPENDIX G ANSWERS TO DRILL PROBLEMS

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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INDEX 728

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## New To This Edition

• The updated seventh edition of Principles of Communications presents readers with a more supportive framework for learning through additional in-chapter examples.
• Chapter 3, basic modulation techniques, has been split into linear modulation techniques, angle modulation and multiplexing.
• Readers are exposed to digital data transmission techniques earlier in the book, so they can appreciate the characteristics of digital communication systems prior to learning about probability and stochastic processes.
• They will also find expanded forward error correction code examples, and additional MATLAB problems.
• Updated references and chapter on Information Theory and Coding.
• Additional material on wireless topics, such as WiFi and MIMO channels.
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## The Wiley Advantage

• Examples illustrating key points are included in each chapter, providing students with illustrations of how to apply theory developed in the text and Assisting instructors in development of material to be used in future chapters.
• Computational computer examples are included in each chapter, illustrating the use of the computer for calculation of various performance curves, and allowing students to reproduce, or add to, performance curves included in text. This encourages students to illustrate concepts rather than simply to accept them as shown.
• Chapter summaries are arranged as bulleted lists, providing a concise checklist for students’ exam review and for instructors’ lecture preparation.
• A wide variety of are problems included at the end of each chapter, categorized according to section, Allowing student to practice on concepts given in text. This also allows instructors to make assignments to check on the students' understanding of concepts presented in class.
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Instructors Resources
Wiley Instructor Companion Site
Instructor Solutions Manual
Contains detailed solutions to all questions, exercises, and problems in the textbook.
Image Gallery
Use this digital repository of images displayed throughout the textbook to enliven your PowerPoint slides and interact with the reading assignments in the classroom.
Art PowerPoints
Our PowerPoint™ presentations contain a combination of key concepts allowing you to illustrate important topics with images, figures, and problems from the textbook.
MATLAB code for in-chapter computer examples
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Students Resources
Wiley Student Companion Site
MATLAB code for in-chapter computer examples
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Purchase Options
Wiley E-Text
Principles of Communications, 7th Edition
ISBN : 978-1-118-80452-0
760 pages
January 2014, ©2014
\$64.00

Paperback
Principles of Communications, 7th Edition
ISBN : 978-1-118-07891-4
760 pages
March 2014, ©2015
\$212.95