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Environmental Engineering: Fundamentals, Sustainability, Design, 2e

January 2014, ©2014
Environmental Engineering: Fundamentals, Sustainability, Design, 2e (EHEP002911) cover image

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Now in its second edition, Environmental Engineering: Fundamentals, Sustainability, Design by Mihelcic and Zimmerman has evolved from the traditional approach centered on describing, characterizing, quantifying, and monitoring current environmental problems to one that is focused on the design and development of innovative new solutions. The breadth and depth of coverage is appropriate for a one-semester undergraduate course, having been streamlined to a manageable 11 chapters in the new edition.
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Table of Contents

Chapter One Sustainable Design, Engineering, and Innovation 1

1.1 Background: Evolution from Environmental Protection to Sustainability 2

1.2 The Path Forward: Operationalizing Sustainability 8

1.2.1 Life Cycle Thinking 11

1.2.2 Systems Thinking 17

1.3 Engineering for Sustainability 21

1.3.1 Frameworks for Sustainable Design 22

1.3.2 The Importance of Design and Innovation in Advancing Sustainability 24

1.4 Measuring Sustainability 27

1.5 Policies Driving Green Engineering and Sustainability 30

1.5.1 Regulations 30

1.5.2 Voluntary Programs 31

1.6 Designing Tomorrow 32

Key Terms 32

Chapter One Problems 33

References 36

Chapter Two Environmental Measurements 37

2.1 Mass Concentration Units 38

2.1.1 Mass/Mass Units 38

2.1.2 Mass/Volume Units: mg/L and μg/m3 40

2.2 Volume/Volume and Mole/Mole Units 40

2.2.1 Using the Ideal Gas Law to Convert ppmv to μg/m3 42

2.3 Partial-Pressure Units 44

2.4 Mole/Volume Units 46

2.5 Other Types of Units 48

2.5.1 Normality 48

2.5.2 Concentration as a Common Constituent 51

2.5.3 Concentrations of Carbon Dioxide and Other GHGs 52

2.5.4 Reporting Particle Concentrations in Air and Water 58

2.5.5 Representation by Effect 60

Key Terms 61

Chapter Two Problems 62

References 67

Chapter Three Chemistry 68

3.1 Approaches in Environmental Chemistry 69

3.2 Activity and Concentration 69

3.3 Reaction Stoichiometry 72

3.4 Thermodynamic Laws 72

3.5 Volatilization 76

3.6 Air–Water Equilibrium 80

3.6.1 Henry’s Law Constant with Units for a Gas Dissolving in a Liquid 80

3.6.2 Dimensionless Henry’s Law Constant for a Species Transferring from the Liquid Phase into the Gas Phase 81

3.7 Acid–Base Chemistry 83

3.7.1 pH 83

3.7.2 Definition of Acids and Bases and their Equilibrium Constants 84

3.7.3 Carbonate System, Alkalinity, and Buffering Capacity 86

3.8 Oxidation–Reduction 89

3.9 Precipitation–Dissolution 91

3.10 Adsorption, Absorption, and Sorption 94

3.11 Kinetics 101

3.11.1 The Rate Law 101

3.11.2 Zero-Order and First-Order Reactions 103

3.11.3 Pseudo First-Order Reactions 104

3.11.4 Half-Life and Its Relationship to the Rate Constant 106

3.11.5 Effect of Temperature on Rate Constants 108

Key Terms 109

Chapter Three Problems 110

References 114

Chapter Four Physical Processes 115

4.1 Mass Balances 116

4.1.1 Control Volume 117

4.1.2 Terms of the Mass Balance Equation for a CMFR 117

4.1.3 Reactor Analysis: The CMFR 122

4.1.4 Batch Reactor 129

4.1.5 Plug-Flow Reactor 130

4.1.6 Retention Time and Other Expressions for V/Q 135

4.1.7 Materials Flow Analysis and Urban Metabolism 138

4.2 Energy Balances 140

4.2.1 Forms of Energy 140

4.2.2 Conducting an Energy Balance 142

4.2.3 Impact of Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Earth’s Energy Balance 145

4.2.4 Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Insulation, Infiltration, and Thermal Walls 151

4.2.5 Urban Heat Island 157

4.3 Buildings: Right Sizing and Energy 160

4.4 Mass Transport Processes 164

4.4.1 Advection and Dispersion 164

4.4.2 Movement of a Particle in a Fluid: Stokes’ Law 173

Key Terms 175

Chapter Four Problems 176

References 181

Chapter Five Biology 182

5.1 Ecosystem Structure and Function 183

5.1.1 Major Organism Groups 185

5.2 Population Dynamics 188

5.2.1 Units of Expression for Population Size 188

5.2.2 Models of Population Growth 188

5.3 Energy Flow in Ecosystems 205

5.3.1 Energy Capture and Use: Photosynthesis and Respiration 205

5.3.2 Trophic Structure in Ecosystems 208

5.3.3 Thermodynamics and Energy Transfer 209

5.4 Oxygen Demand: Biochemical, Chemical, and Theoretical 213

5.4.1 Definition of BOD, CBOD, and NBOD 213

5.4.2 Sources of BOD 214

5.4.3 Theoretical Oxygen Demand 215

5.4.4 BOD Kinetics 216

5.4.5 CBOD Rate Coefficient 219

5.4.6 BOD: Measurement, Application, and Limitations 220

5.4.7 BOD Test: Limitations and Alternatives 223

5.5 Material Flow in Ecosystems 224

5.5.1 Oxygen and Carbon Cycles 225

5.5.2 Nitrogen Cycle 227

5.5.3 Phosphorus Cycle 230

5.5.4 Sulfur Cycle 230

5.6 Ecosystem Health and the Public Welfare 231

5.6.1 Toxic Substances and Ecosystem and Human Health 231

5.6.2 Biodiversity and Ecosystem Health 235

Key Terms 238

Chapter Five Problems 239

References 245

Chapter Six Environmental Risk 246

6.1 Risk and the Engineer 247

6.2 Risk Perception 251

6.3 Hazardous Waste and Toxic Chemicals 254

6.3.1 Hazardous Waste 256

6.3.2 Toxicity 257

6.3.3 Pollution Prevention 263

6.4 Engineering Ethics and Risk 264

6.5 Risk Assessment 267

6.5.1 Hazard Assessment 267

6.5.2 Dose–Response Assessment 270

6.5.3 Exposure Assessment 273

6.5.4 Risk Characterization 277

6.6 More Complicated Problems with at Least Two Exposure Routes 283

6.6.1 Setting Water-Quality Standards Based on Exposure from Drinking Water and Eating Fish 283

6.6.2 How to Determine Allowable Soil Cleanup Standards That Protect Groundwater 284

Key Terms 289

Chapter Six Problems 290

References 295

Chapter Seven Water: Quantity and Quality 296

7.1 Introduction to Water Resources and Water Quality 298

7.2 Surface Water, Groundwater, Watersheds 299

7.2.1 Surface Water and Groundwater 299

7.2.2 Watersheds 301

7.2.3 Estimating Surface Runoff from Land Use 303

7.2.4 Estimating Pollutant Loadings in Runoff from Land Use 305

7.3 Water Availability 307

7.4 Water Usage 309

7.4.1 Primary Use of Water in the World 310

7.4.2 U.S. Water Usage 311

7.4.3 Public Water Supplies 312

7.4.4 Water Reclamation and Reuse 314

7.4.5 Water Scarcity and Water Conflict 316

7.5 Municipal Water Demand 317

7.5.1 Creating Models to Estimate Demand 319

7.5.2 Estimating Water (and Wastewater) Flows 320

7.5.3 Time-Varying Flows and Seasonal Cycles 323

7.5.4 Fire Flow Demand and Unaccounted-for Water 326

7.5.5 Demand Forecasting 328

7.6 Water Distribution (and Wastewater Collection) Systems 331

7.6.1 System Layout 331

7.6.2 Design Flow Velocities and Pipe Sizing 333

7.6.3 Pumping Stations and Storage 335

7.7 River Water Quality 337

7.7.1 Dissolved Oxygen and BOD 337

7.7.2 Oxygen Saturation 337

7.7.3 The Oxygen Deficit 341

7.7.4 Oxygen Mass Balance 341

7.7.5 Dissolved-Oxygen Sag Curve and Critical Distance 342

7.8 Lake and Reservoir Water Quality 344

7.8.1 Thermal Stratification of Lakes and Reservoirs 344

7.8.2 Organic Matter, Thermal Stratification, and Oxygen Depletion 346

7.8.3 Nutrient Limitation and Trophic State 346

7.8.4 Engineered Lake Management 349

7.9 Wetlands 349

7.10 Groundwater Quality and Flow 355

7.10.1 Sources of Groundwater Pollution 355

7.10.2 Groundwater Flow and Pollutant Transport 358

7.10.3 Subsurface Remediation 359

Key Terms 364

Chapter Seven Problems 366

References 373

Chapter Eight Water Treatment 375

8.1 Introduction 377

8.2 Characteristics of Untreated Water 378

8.2.1 Physical Characteristics 379

8.2.2 Major and Minor Inorganic Constituents 381

8.2.3 Major Organic Constituents 384

8.2.4 Microbial Constituents 385

8.3 Water Quality Standards 387

8.4 Overview of Water Treatment Processes 389

8.5 Coagulation and Flocculation 392

8.5.1 Particle Stability and Removal 392

8.5.2 Chemical Coagulants 393

8.5.3 Other Considerations 396

8.6 Hardness Removal 400

8.7 Sedimentation 404

8.7.1 Discrete Particle Settling 404

8.7.2 Particle Removal During Sedimentation 406

8.7.3 Other Types of Settling 409

8.8 Filtration 410

8.8.1 Types of Granular Filtration 410

8.8.2 Media Characteristics 412

8.9 Disinfection 414

8.9.1 Current Disinfection Methods 414

8.9.2 Disinfection Kinetics 414

8.10 Membrane Processes 422

8.10.1 Classification of Membrane Processes 423

8.10.2 Membrane Materials 424

8.10.3 Membrane Process Types and Configurations 425

8.10.4 Membrane Selection and Operation 426

8.10.5 Membrane Performance 428

8.11 Adsorption 431

8.11.1 Types of Adsorption Processes 431

8.11.2 Adsorbent Types 431

Key Terms 434

Chapter Eight Problems 435

References 439

Chapter Nine Wastewater and Stormwater: Collection, Treatment, Resource Recovery 440

9.1 Introduction 442

9.2 Characteristics of Domestic Wastewater 444

9.3 Overview of Treatment Processes 445

9.4 Preliminary Treatment 448

9.4.1 Screening 448

9.4.2 Grit Chambers 448

9.4.3 Flotation 450

9.4.4 Equalization 450

9.5 Primary Treatment 454

9.6 Secondary Treatment 456

9.6.1 Suspended-Growth Reactors: Activated Sludge 456

9.7 Modifications to the Activated-Sludge Process 468

9.7.1 Membrane Bioreactors 469

9.8 Attached-Growth Reactors 472

9.9 Removal and Recovery of Nutrients: Nitrogen and Phosphorus 474

9.9.1 Nitrogen 475

9.9.2 Phosphorus 478

9.10 Disinfection and Aeration 480

9.11 End of Life Sludge Management and Energy Recovery 482

9.11.1 Sludge Stabilization 483

9.11.2 Digesters 485

9.11.3 Dewatering 486

9.11.4 Disposal 487

9.12 Natural Treatment Systems 489

9.12.1 Stabilization Ponds 489

9.12.2 Wetlands 494

9.13 Energy Usage during Wastewater Treatment 497

9.14 Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse 498

9.15 Wet-Weather Flow Implications for Wastewater 500

9.16 Managing Wet-Weather Flows 503

9.17 Green Stormwater Management 505

9.17.1 Green Roofs 506

9.17.2 Permeable (or Porous) Pavements 507

9.17.3 Bioretention Cells 509

9.17.4 Bioswales and Other Land Use Techniques 514

Key Terms 515

Chapter Nine Problems 516

References 521

Chapter Ten Solid-Waste Management 523

10.1 Introduction 525

10.2 Solid-Waste Characterization 527

10.2.1 Sources of Solid Waste 527

10.2.2 Quantities of Municipal Solid Waste 528

10.2.3 Materials in Municipal Solid Waste 529

10.2.4 Collection of Solid-Waste Characterization Data 530

10.2.5 Physical/Chemical Characterization of Waste 532

10.2.6 Hazardous-Waste Characterization 536

10.3 Components of Solid-Waste Systems 539

10.3.1 Storage, Collection, and Transport 539

10.3.2 Recycling and Materials Recovery 542

10.3.3 Composting 544

10.3.4 Waste-to-Energy 548

10.3.5 Landfill 551

10.3.6 Solid-Waste Energy Technologies 566

10.4 Management Concepts 566

10.4.1 Consultation 567

10.4.2 Policy Options 568

10.4.3 Cost Estimation 568

Key Terms 570

Chapter Ten Problems 571

References 574

Chapter Eleven Air Quality Engineering 575

11.1 Introduction 577

11.2 Scale and Cycles of Air Pollution 579

11.2.1 Scale of Air Pollution Issues 579

11.2.2 The Air Pollution System 581

11.3 Atmospheric Structure 585

11.3.1 Atmospheric Temperature Structure 586

11.3.2 Atmospheric Pressure and Density Structure 586

11.3.3 Composition of the Atmosphere 587

11.4 Characteristics of Polluted Air 589

11.4.1 Criteria Air Pollutants 589

11.4.2 Human Health Impacts and Defenses to Particulate Matter 593

11.4.3 Major Sources of Air Pollutants 596

11.4.4 Recent Trends in Concentrations of Air Pollutants 598

11.4.5 Air Quality Index 598

11.4.6 Hazardous Air Pollutants 602

11.4.7 Ground-Level and Stratospheric Ozone 603

11.4.8 Odorous Air 607

11.4.9 Indoor Air Pollutants 608

11.5 Ambient Emissions and Emissions Control 610

11.5.1 Types of Emissions and Sources 610

11.5.2 Emissions Trends 611

11.5.3 Emissions Control 612

11.6 Assessment of Emissions 632

11.7 Meteorology and Transport 635

11.7.1 Flow Fundamentals 635

11.7.2 Winds: Direction, Speed, and Turbulence 636

11.7.3 Atmospheric Stability 636

11.7.4 Terrain Effects on Atmospheric Stability 642

11.8 Atmospheric Dispersion and the Gaussian Plume Dispersion Modeling 643

11.8.1 Fundamentals of Dispersion Modeling 643

11.8.2 Model Parameters 645

11.8.3 Forms of the Gaussian

Dispersion Equation 647

Key Terms 650

Chapter Eleven Problems 651

References 656

Answers to Selected Problems 657

Index 669

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New To This Edition

  • Coverage has been carefully aligned with the National Academy of Engineering’s focus on managing carbon and nitrogen. A section was added to what would traditionally be a water pollution and control chapter that focuses on nutrient management and recovery, offering examples related to advanced technologies to more effectively reclaim nitrogen and phosphorous.    
  • Updated topical coverage to keep the text current with rapidly changing environmental challenges and engineering solutions.    
  • Streamlined coverage to match a one-semester course.  With the new structure of 11 chapters, there is an increased emphasis on practical field orientated applications of engineering practice.  
  • The Chapter on Air Resources Engineering has been updated, now including a discussion and examples of application of Gaussian Plume Models and emphasis of demand management strategies along with traditional air pollution control technologies.
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The Wiley Advantage

  • A FOCUS ON SUSTAINABLE DESIGN: Design of products, processes, and systems will be essential not only in responding to the environmental issues in ways that the profession has done historically but also in informing the design of new products, processes, and systems to reduce or eliminate problems from occurring.  
  • MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCES AND LIFE CYCLE THINKING: The book provides a rigorous development of mass and energy and mass balance concepts with numerous easy-to-follow example problems. It also has appropriate coverage of life cycle assessment with an in-depth example problem and provides a life cycle thinking approach in discussion throughout other chapters.  
  • PEDAGOGY AND ASSESSMENT: Beyond including the elements mentioned previously to prepare engineers for the 21st century, this book also incorporates changes in pedagogy and assessment that provide structure for delivering this new information in a meaningful education experience.
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Wiley E-Text   
Environmental Engineering: Fundamentals, Sustainability, Design, 2nd Edition
ISBN : 978-1-118-83239-4
768 pages
December 2013, ©2014
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Environmental Engineering: Fundamentals, Sustainability, Design, 2nd Edition
ISBN : 978-1-118-74149-8
704 pages
January 2014, ©2014
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