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Marine Conservation: Science, Policy, and Management

December 2013, ©2013, Wiley-Blackwell
Marine Conservation: Science, Policy, and Management (EHEP003017) cover image
Providing a guide for marine conservation practice, Marine Conservation takes a whole-systems approach, covering major advances in marine ecosystem understanding. Its premise is that conservation must be informed by the natural histories of organisms together with the hierarchy of scale-related linkages and ecosystem processes. The authors introduce a broad range of overlapping issues and the conservation mechanisms that have been devised to achieve marine conservation goals. The book provides students and conservation practitioners with a framework for thoughtful, critical thinking in order to incite innovation in the 21st century.

"Marine Conservation presents a scholarly but eminently readable case for the necessity of a systems approach to conserving the oceans, combining superb introductions to the science, law and policy frameworks with carefully chosen case studies. This superb volume is a must for anyone interested in marine conservation, from students and practitioners to lay readers and policy-makers."
—Simon Levin, George M. Moffett Professor of Biology, Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University

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Contributors, ix

Preface, xii

About the companion website, xiv

1 IN PURSUIT OF MARINE CONSERVATION, 1

1.1 The emergence of modern marine conservation, 1

1.2 Defining "marine conservation", 4

1.3 Marine conservation’s scope, 4

1.4 Adapting marine conservation to the 21st century, 5

2 MARINE CONSERVATION ISSUES, 7

2.1 Igniting marine conservation concern, 7

2.2 Primary issues: loss of marine biodiversity, 7

2.3 Secondary issues: human activities, 13

2.4 Tertiary issues: emergent and unintended consequences, 30

2.5 The challenge for the 21st century, 35

3 MARINE CONSERVATION MECHANISMS, 43

3.1 The toolkit, 43

3.2 Biological conservation, 43

3.3 Spatially explicit conservation, 48

3.4 Governance: policy, strategy, tactics, 50

3.5 Policy instruments for marine conservation, 54

3.6 Management concepts, 65

3.7 Agents for conservation, 68

3.8 Conclusion, 70

4 MARINE SYSTEMS: THE BASE FOR CONSERVATION, 74

4.1 A systems approach, 74

4.2 Dynamic planetary forces, 74

4.3 Major ocean structures and conditions, 78

4.4 Planetary cycles, 81

4.5 Major planetary interfaces, 82

4.6 The dynamic coastal realm, 86

4.7 The coastal realm: an ecosystem of global importance, 92

4.8 The ecosystem concept, 97

4.9 Ecosystem base for conservation, 99

5 NATURAL HISTORY OF MARINE ORGANISMS, 105

5.1 What is natural history?, 105

5.2 Darwinian evolution, 105

5.3 Diversity of marine life, 106

5.4 Life history, 112

5.5 Biological associations, 123

5.6 Biogeographic patterns in space and time, 126

5.7 Biotic functional diversity, 127

5.8 "Seascape" as an organizing principle, 131

5.9 Natural history: the basis for conservation, 132

6 CHESAPEAKE BAY: ESTUARINE RESTORATION WITH AN ENVIRONMENTAL DEBT, 137

6.1 The great shellfish bay, 137

6.2 Ecological linkages to natural wealth, 137

6.3 Eastern oyster: quintessential estuarine species, 151

6.4 From resource abundance to ecosystem change, 154

6.5 Bay restoration: chartering a course, 163

6.6 People shall judge, 165

7 BERING SEA SEALS AND WALRUSES: RESPONSES TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE, 171
G. Carleton Ray, Gary L. Hufford, Thomas R. Loughlin and Igor Krupnik

7.1 A short history of dramatic change, 171

7.2 Biophysical setting, 172

7.3 Marine mammals of the southeastern Bering Sea, 174

7.4 Ice-dependent pinnipeds of the northern Bering Sea, 179

7.5 Do large marine mammals matter?, 186

7.6 The conflict arena, 191

7.7 Cultural factors: subsistence hunting, traditional knowledge, and community well-being, 194

7.8 Are Beringian pinnipeds and the Bering Sea ecosystem at risk?, 197

8 THE BAHAMAS: CONSERVATION FOR A TROPICAL ISLAND NATION, 200

8.1 A nation of islands, 200

8.2 Biophysical and social setting, 200

8.3 Conservation issues, 207

8.4 Governance for sustainability, 222

8.5 Island system at a crossroads, 230

9 THE ISLES OF SCILLY: SUSTAINING BIODIVERSITY, 234
Richard M. Warwick

9.1 Setting the scene, 234

9.2 Physical and biogeographic setting, 234

9.3 Measuring and measures of biodiversity, 237

9.4 Sustaining biodiversity from possible threats, 253

9.5 Conservation legislation, mechanisms, and voluntary actions, 256

9.6 The conservation status of Scilly, 260

10 GWAII HAANAS: FROM CONFLICT TO COOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT, 262
N. A. Sloan

10.1 Nation-to-nation pursuit of land-sea conservation, 262

10.2 Natural heritage, 263

10.3 Cultural and commercial heritage, 272

10.4 Integrating land-sea conservation, 278

10.5 Crucible for ecosystem-based management, 284

11 SOUTH AFRICA: COASTAL-MARINE CONSERVATION AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN A DYNAMIC SOCIO-POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT, 288
Barry Clark and Allan Heydorn

11.1 A challenge for governance, 288

11.2 South Africa’s coastal realm: physical, biotic, and human setting, 289

11.3 Major conservation issues of South African coasts, 294

11.4 Coastal resource management: past and present, 303

11.5 In pursuit of the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve, 306

11.6 The future of coastal management in South Africa, 311

12 SPECIES-DRIVEN CONSERVATION OF PATAGONIAN SEASCAPES, 315
Claudio Campagna, Valeria Falabella, and Victoria Zavattieri

12.1 Darwin's Patagonia, 315

12.2 A conservation dilemma, 316

12.3 Oceanographic and biogeographic settings, 319

12.4 Conservation setting: the status of a non-pristine ocean, 322

12.5 Seascape species: a first approach to setting conservation priorities, 323

12.6 From seascape spaces to important foraging areas, 324

12.7 The concept of "Large Ocean Reserves", 326

12.8 A first step towards a Patagonian Sea LOR: candidate areas for conservation, 331

12.9 Making slow progress, 335

References, 336

Suggested readings, 337

13 FROM BEING TO BECOMING: A FUTURE VISION, 339

13.1 The new normal, 339

13.2 From being . . . , 339

13.3 . . . to becoming, 340

13.4 Emerging concepts for marine conservation, 344

13.5 Look to the future, 353

References, 353

Species index, 357

Subject index, 361

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G. CARLETON RAY is Research Professor of Environmental Sciences at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA. He has conducted basic and applied research in polar and temperate regions and in the tropics, concentrating on natural history of fishes and marine mammals, biodiversity, and conservation science. He has also been actively engaged in marine conservation policy development and marine protected area establishment nationally and internationally.

JERRY MCCORMICK-RAY is Senior Scientist at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA. Her research has focused on marine mammals and marine invertebrates, physiological effects of pollution, and benthic faunal ecology in estuaries and in the Arctic. She has been actively engaged in marine conservation science and its application to policy and protected areas nationally and internationally.

Artist: ROBERT L SMITH JR grew up in West Virginia and studied art and biology at West Virginia University. He resides in Albemarle County Virginia where he illustrates books and takes care of his small-scale poultry farm. Bob has done illustration work for trade and text books, as well as for numerous journals and magazines.

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“This thorough, accessible, scholarly and lavishly illustrated text book with diverse contributions from many experienced scientists and practitioners will provide a solid underpinning for future careers in conservation as well as informing the public, holding in turn the possibility of future success in living sustainably with the marine environment.”  (The News Journal of the International Society for Reef Studies, 1 August 2014)

“This is critical reading for anyone interested in the marine environment. Summing up: Essential. All library collections."—CHOICE, G. C. Jensen, University of Washington

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Marine Conservation: Science, Policy, and Management
ISBN : 978-1-118-71443-0
384 pages
October 2013
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Marine Conservation: Science, Policy, and Management
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Marine Conservation: Science, Policy, and Management
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Marine Conservation: Science, Policy, and Management
ISBN : 978-1-118-71444-7
384 pages
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