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A History of Modern Psychology, 5th Edition

January 2015, ©2015
A History of Modern Psychology, 5th Edition (EHEP003171) cover image


The enhanced 5th Edition of Goodwin's series, A History of Modern Psychology, explores the modern history of psychology including the fundamental bases of psychology and psychology's advancements in the 20th century.

Goodwin's 5th Edition focuses on the reduction of biographical information with an emphasis on more substantial information including ideas and concepts and on ideas/research contributions.

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Table of Contents



Why Take This Course? 2

Why Study History? 2

Why Study Psychology’s History? 4

Key Issues in Psychology’s History 6

Presentism versus Historicism 7

Internal versus External History 9

Personalistic versus Naturalistic History 10

Close-Up: Edwin G. Boring (1886–1968) 10

This Book’s Point of View 13

Historiography: Doing and Writing History 13

Sources of Historical Data 14

From the Miles Papers: Miles Meets His Academic Grandfather 16

Problems with the Writing of History 17

Data Selection Problems 17

Interpretation Problems 19

Approaching Historical Truth 20

Summary 21

Study Questions 22


A Long Past 25

René Descartes (1596–1650): The Beginnings of Modern Philosophy and Science 25

Descartes and the Rationalist Argument 27

The Cartesian System 28

Descartes on the Reflex and Mind–Body Interaction 29

The British Empiricist Argument and the Associationists 32

John Locke (1632–1704): The Origins of British Empiricism 32

Locke on Human Understanding 32

Locke on Education 34

George Berkeley (1685–1753): Empiricism Applied to Vision 35

British Associationism 37

David Hume (1711–1776): The Rules of Association 37

David Hartley (1705–1757): A Physiological Associationism 39

Close-Up: Raising a Philosopher 41

John Stuart Mill (1806–1873): On the Verge of Psychological Science 42

Mill’s Psychology 43

Mill’s Logic 44

Rationalist Responses to Empiricism 45

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) 45

Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) 46

In Perspective: Philosophical Foundations 47

Summary 48

Study Questions 49


Heroic Science in the Age of Enlightenment 51

Functioning of the Nervous System 52

Reflex Action 53

The Bell–Magendie Law 54

The Specific Energies of Nerves 56

Helmholtz: The Physiologist’s Physiologist 57

Measuring the Speed of Neural Impulses 58

Helmholtz on Vision and Audition 59

Helmholtz and the Problem of Perception 61

Localization of Brain Function 62

The Phrenology of Gall and Spurzheim 62

Close-Up: The Marketing of Phrenology 65

Flourens and the Method of Ablation 68

The Clinical Method 69

The Remarkable Phineas Gage 70

Broca and the Speech Center 71

Mapping the Brain: Electrical Stimulation 73

Nervous System Structure 74

Neuron Theory 74

Sir Charles Sherrington: The Synapse 76

From the Miles Papers: Miles Visits Sherrington in Oxford 77

In Perspective: The Nervous System and Behavior 78

Summary 78

Study Questions 79


An Education in Germany 82

On the Threshold of Experimental Psychology: Psychophysics 83

Johann Herbart (1776–1841) 84

Ernst Weber (1795–1878) 85

Two-Point Thresholds 85

Weber’s Law 85

Gustav Fechner (1801–1889) 86

Fechner’s Elements of Psychophysics 87

Wundt Establishes a New Psychology at Leipzig 88

Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920): Creating a New Science 88

Wundt’s Conception of the New Psychology 90

Studying Immediate Conscious Experience 91

Studying Higher Mental Processes 92

Inside Wundt’s Laboratory 92

Sensation and Perception 92

Mental Chronometry 93

Close-Up: An American in Leipzig 95

Rewriting History: The New and Improved Wilhelm Wundt 96

The Source of the Problem 96

The Rediscovery of Wundt 97

The Real Wundt 97

The Wundtian Legacy 98

The New Psychology Spreads 99

Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909): The Experimental Study of Memory 99

The Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve 102

Other Contributions by Ebbinghaus 103

G. E. Müller (1850–1934): The Experimentalist Prototype 103

Oswald Külpe (1862–1915): The Würzburg School 104

Mental Sets and Imageless Thoughts 106

In Perspective: A New Science 107

Summary 107

Study Questions 108


The Species Problem 111

Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and the Theory of Evolution 112

The Shaping of a Naturalist 112

The Voyage of the Beagle 114

Darwin the Geologist 115

Darwin the Zoologist 115

The Galapagos Islands 116

The Evolution of Darwin’s Theory 116

Darwin’s Delay 118

Elements of the Theory of Evolution 120

After the Origin of Species 121

Darwin and Psychology’s History 122

The Origins of Comparative Psychology 123

Darwin on the Evolution of Emotional Expressions 123

Close-Up: Douglas Spalding and the Experimental Study of Instinct 125

George Romanes (1848–1894) and the Anecdotal Method 126

Conwy Lloyd Morgan (1852–1936) and his “Canon” 128

Comparative Psychology in America 130

Studying Individual Differences 130

Francis Galton (1822–1911): Jack of All Sciences 130

The Nature of Intelligence 131

The Anthropometric Laboratory 134

Investigating Imagery and Association 134

In Perspective: Darwin’s Century 136

Summary 136

Study Questions 137


Psychology in 19th-Century America 140

Faculty Psychology 140

American Psychology’s First Textbook 141

The Modern University 141

Education for Women and Minorities 142

William James (1842–1910): The First of the “New” Psychologists in America 146

The Formative Years 147

A Life at Harvard 147

Creating American Psychology’s Most Famous Textbook 149

On Methodology 150

Consciousness 150

Habit 151

Emotion 152

James’s Later Years 153

Spiritualism 153

Summing Up William James 154

G. Stanley Hall (1844–1924): Professionalizing the New Psychology 154

Hall’s Early Life and Education 155

From Johns Hopkins to Clark 156

Psychology at Clark 157

Close-Up: Creating Maze Learning 158

Hall and Developmental Psychology 160

Hall and Psychoanalysis 161

From the Miles Papers: Miles and the Invention of the Stylus Maze 163

Mary Whiton Calkins (1863–1930): Challenging the Male Monopoly 164

Calkins’s Life and Work 164

Graduate Education for Females 165

Calkins’s Research on Association 165

From Psychology to Philosophy 166

Other Women Pioneers: Untold Lives 167

Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847–1930) 167

Margaret Floy Washburn (1871–1939) 168

Other Pioneers: Ladd and Baldwin 169

George Trumbull Ladd (1842–1921) 169

James Mark Baldwin (1861–1934) 170

In Perspective: The New Psychology at the Millennium 171

Summary 172

Study Questions 173


Titchener’s Psychology: Structuralism 176

From Oxford to Leipzig to Cornell 176

Promoting Experimental Psychology at Cornell 177

The Manuals 179

The Experimentalists 181

Titchener’s Structuralist System 182

Close-Up: The Introspective Habit 183

The Structural Elements of Human Conscious Experience 184

Evaluating Titchener’s Contributions to Psychology 185

From the Miles Papers: Miles and the Carlisle Conference 186

America’s Psychology: Functionalism 187

The Chicago Functionalists 189

John Dewey (1859–1952): The Reflex Arc 189

James R. Angell (1869–1949): The Province of Functional Psychology 191

Harvey Carr (1873–1954): The Maturing of Functionalism 193

The Columbia Functionalists 194

James McKeen Cattell (1860–1944): An American Galton 194

Edward L. Thorndike (1874–1949): Cats in Puzzle Boxes 197

Robert S. Woodworth (1869–1962): A Dynamic Psychology 202

In Perspective: Structuralism and Functionalism 204

Summary 205

Study Questions 206


The Desire for Application 209

From the Miles Papers: Miles and Stanford Football 210

The Mental Testing Movement 212

Alfred Binet (1857–1911): The Birth of Modern Intelligence Testing 212

The Binet–Simon Scales 214

Henry H. Goddard (1866–1957): Binet’s Test Comes to America 215

The Kallikaks 217

Goddard and the Immigrants 219

Lewis M. Terman (1877–1956): Institutionalizing IQ 221

The Stanford–Binet IQ Test 221

Terman Studies the Gifted 222

Close-Up: Leta Hollingworth: Advocating for Gifted Children and Debunking Myths about Women 224

Robert M. Yerkes (1876–1956): The Army Testing Program 226

Army Alpha and Army Beta 227

The Controversy over Intelligence 230

Applying Psychology to Business 232

Hugo Münsterberg (1863–1916): The Diversity of Applied Psychology 233

Münsterberg and Employee Selection 235

Other Leading Industrial Psychologists in America 237

Walter Van Dyke Bingham (1880–1952) 237

Lillian Moller Gilbreth (1878–1972) 238

Harry Hollingworth (1880–1956) 239

Applied Psychology in Europe—Psychotechnics 240

In Perspective: Applied Psychology 241

Summary 242

Study Questions 243


The Origins and Early Development of Gestalt Psychology 245

Max Wertheimer (1880–1943): Founding Gestalt Psychology 247

Koffka (1886–1941) and Köhler (1887–1967): Cofounders 249

Close-Up: A Case of Espionage? 251

Gestalt Psychology and Perception 252

Principles of Perceptual Organization 253

Behavioral versus Geographic Environments 255

The Gestalt Approach to Cognition and Learning 255

Köhler on Insight in Apes 256

Wertheimer on Productive Thinking 257

Other Gestalt Research on Cognition 258

Kurt Lewin (1890–1947): Expanding the Gestalt Vision 260

Early Life and Career 260

From the Miles Papers: Miles Learns about the Nazi Version of Academic Freedom 261

Field Theory 262

The Zeigarnik Effect 264

Lewin as Developmental Psychologist 264

Lewin as Social Psychologist 266

Action Research 267

Evaluating Lewin 268

In Perspective: Gestalt Psychology in America 268

Summary 269

Study Questions 271


Behaviorism’s Antecedents 273

Pavlov’s Life and Work 274

The Development of a Physiologist 275

Working in Pavlov’s Laboratory—The Physiology Factory 275

Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Research 277

Conditioning and Extinction 278

Generalization and Differentiation 279

Experimental Neurosis 279

A Program of Research 280

Pavlov and the Soviets 280

Pavlov and the Americans 282

Close-Up: Misportraying Pavlov’s Apparatus 283

From the Miles Papers: Miles Meets Pavlov 284

John B. Watson and the Founding of Behaviorism 285

The Young Functionalist at Chicago 285

The Watson–Carr Maze Studies 286

Opportunity Knocks at Johns Hopkins 288

Watson and Animal Behavior 288

Watson’s Behaviorist Manifesto 289

Watson’s APA Presidential Address 291

Studying Emotional Development 291

The Zenith and the Nadir of a Career: Little Albert 292

A New Life in Advertising 295

Popularizing Behaviorism 296

Evaluating Watsonian Behaviorism 297

In Perspective: Behaviorism’s Origins 299

Summary 299

Study Questions 300


Post-Watsonian Behaviorism 303

Logical Positivism and Operationism 304

Neobehaviorism 306

Edwin R. Guthrie (1886–1959): Contiguity, Contiguity, Contiguity 307

One-Trial Learning 308

Evaluating Guthrie 309

Edward C. Tolman (1886–1959): A Purposive Behaviorism 310

Tolman’s System 311

Molar versus Molecular Behavior 311

Goal-Directedness 312

Intervening Variables 312

From the Miles Papers: Miles and the Old Boys Network 314

Tolman’s Research Program 314

Latent Learning 315

Cognitive Maps 316

Evaluating Tolman 317

Clark Hull (1884–1952): A Hypothetico-Deductive System 319

Hull’s System 321

Postulate 4: Habit Strength 322

Reaction Potential 323

Evaluating Hull 323

B. F. Skinner (1904–1990): A Radical Behaviorism 325

The Experimental Analysis of Behavior 326

Operant Conditioning: A Primer 328

Skinner and Theory 329

Skinner and the Problem of Explanation 330

A Technology of Behavior 331

Close-Up: The IQ Zoo and the “Misbehavior of Organisms” 332

Evaluating Skinner 334

In Perspective: Neobehaviorism 335

Summary 336

Study Questions 337


Early Treatment of the Mentally Ill 340

“Enlightened” Reform: Pinel, Tuke, Rush 340

The 19th-Century Asylum Movement 342

Reforming Asylums: Dix and Beers 345

Close-Up: Diagnosing Mental Illness 346

Mesmerism and Hypnosis 347

Mesmerism and Animal Magnetism 348

From Mesmerism to Hypnosis 349

The Hypnotism Controversies 350

Sigmund Freud (1856–1939): Founding Psychoanalysis 352

Early Life and Education 352

Breuer and the Catharsis Method 354

Creating Psychoanalysis 356

The Importance of Sex 357

Psychoanalysis Enters the 20th Century 358

The Evolution of Psychoanalytic Theory 358

Freud’s Followers: Loyalty and Dissent 360

Psychoanalysis in America 361

Evaluating Freud 362

Contributions 363

Criticisms 363

In Perspective: Treating Mental Illness 364

Summary 364

Study Questions 366


The Medical Approach to Mental Illness 368

A Shock to the System: Fever, Insulin, Metrazol, and Electricity 369

Close-Up: Shell Shock 370

No Reversal: Lobotomy, Transorbital and Otherwise 371

Clinical Psychology before World War II 373

Lightner Witmer (1867–1956): Creating Psychology’s First Clinic 374

Clinical Psychology Between the World Wars 376

The Emergence of Modern Clinical Psychology 377

The Boulder Model 378

The Eysenck Study: Problems for Psychotherapy 379

Behavior Therapy 380

The Humanistic Approach to Psychotherapy 381

Abraham Maslow and the Goal of

Self-Actualization 381

Carl Rogers and Client-Centered Therapy 382

Evaluating Humanistic Psychology 385

The Vail Conference and the PsyD Degree 385

Psychology and the World of Business and Industry 387

The Hawthorne Studies 389

In Perspective: Psychology’s Practitioners 391

Summary 392

Study Questions 393


Cognitive Psychology Arrives (Again) 396

The Roots of Modern Cognitive Psychology 396

Jean Piaget (1896–1980): A Genetic Epistemology 396

Frederick C. Bartlett (1886–1969): Constructing Memory 398

A Convergence of Influences 400

Influences within Psychology 400

Influences External to Psychology 401

Close-Up: What Revolution? 403

Magical Numbers, Selective Filters, and TOTE Units 404

Neisser and the “Naming” of Cognitive Psychology 407

The Evolution of Cognitive Psychology 408

Evaluating Cognitive Psychology 410

Other Research Areas 410

The Brain and Behavior 411

Karl Lashley (1890–1958) 411

From the Miles Papers: Miles Visits Lashley 413

Donald O. Hebb (1904–1985) 414

The Psychology of Perception 415

James J. Gibson (1904–1979) 415

Eleanor Gibson (1910–2002) 417

Social Psychology 418

Leon Festinger (1919–1989) 419

Stanley Milgram (1933–1984) 421

Personality Psychology 423

Henry Murray (1893–1988) 423

Gordon Allport (1897–1967) 424

In Perspective: Psychology’s Researchers 426

Summary 427

Study Questions 428


Researchers and Practitioners 429

The Growth and Diversity of Psychology 430

Women in Psychology’s History 431

Minorities in Psychology’s History 432

Trends in Modern Psychology 433

The Future: Psychology or Psychologies? 434

Summary 436

Study Questions 437





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New To This Edition

  • In order to keep up with scholarship in the history of psychology, there is a net increase of 50 references in this new edition.

  • Biographical information has been reduced and replaced with more information on psychology’s important concepts, research, and theories.

  • A new type of boxed insert, From the Miles Papers, appears in 9 of the 15 chapters. These involve excerpts taken from documents in the Walter Miles papers, included to add depth to chapter topics, and to give students some insight into the kind of material likely to be found in archival collections.

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The Wiley Advantage

  • Each chapter concludes with a detailed Summary of the chapter’s contents and a brief annotated list of articles and/or books in For Further Reading.

  • Key Date sections identify years that corresponds to especially important events in psychology’s history.

  • To further enable students to make links between psychology and the rest of the world, timelines are included within the front and back inside covers of the text.

  • An online Student Study Guide includes a guided concept review and several different forms of sample test material, with feedback.
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Instructors Resources
Wiley Instructor Companion Site
Instructor's Solutions Manual
Contains detailed solutions to all questions, exercises, and problems in the textbook.
PowerPoint Presentations
Our PowerPoint presentations contain a combination of key concepts allowing you to illustrate important topics with images, figures, and problems from the textbook.
Test Bank
Test your students' comprehension with this digital collection of fill-in-the-blank, multiple-choice, true/false, and free-response questions.
Digital evaluation copy available for this title
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Students Resources
Wiley Student Companion Site
Concept Check
Questions on main concepts are included for students to answer after they finish reading and studying each main section of the chapter.
Key Terms
Key terms are provided for students to test their understanding by filling in the definitions.
Self Tests
There are 10-15 multiple choice, matching, and fill-in-the-blank questions per chapter for students to test their mastery of the material.
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Purchase Options
Wiley E-Text   
A History of Modern Psychology, 5th Edition
ISBN : 978-1-119-02593-1
512 pages
January 2015, ©2015
$64.00   BUY

A History of Modern Psychology, 5th Edition
ISBN : 978-1-118-83375-9
512 pages
January 2015, ©2015
$194.95   BUY

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