Musculoskeletal X-rays for Medical Students
August 2016, ©2016, Wiley-Blackwell
Musculoskeletal X-rays for Medical Students:
• Presents each radiograph twice, side by side – once as would be seen in a clinical setting and again with clearly highlighted anatomy or pathology
• Focuses on radiographic appearances and abnormalities seen in common clinical presentations, highlighting key learning points relevant to each condition
• Covers introductory principles, normal anatomy and common pathologies, in addition to disease-specific sections covering adult and paediatric practice
• Includes self-assessment to test knowledge and presentation techniques
Musculoskeletal X-rays for Medical Students is designed for medical students, junior doctors, nurses and radiographers, and is ideal for both study and clinical reference.
Part 1: Introduction, 1
1 Musculoskeletal X -rays, 3
Basic principles of requesting plain radiographs of bones and joints, 4
Basic principles of examining and reporting plain radiographs of bones and joints, 6
Normal anatomy on musculoskeletal X-rays, 8
Part 2: Pathology, 21
2 Trauma, 23
Bone and joint injuries, 23
Specific injuries, 41
Paediatric fractures, 67
Fractures in child abuse, 73
Further reading, 76
3 Arthritis, 77
Rheumatoid arthritis, 80
Crystal arthropathy, 83
Calcium pyrophosphate disease, 86
Psoriatic arthritis, 91
Axial spondyloarthritis (ankylosing spondylitis), 95
4 Tumours and tumour -like lesions, 98
Radiological evaluation of the patient, 98
X-rays – general principles, 101
Malignant tumours, 105
Bone metastases, 105
Multiple myeloma, 107
Ewing’s sarcoma, 113
Benign tumours, 114
Exostosis (Osteochondroma), 115
Osteoid osteoma, 116
Tumour -like lesions, 117
Simple bone cyst, 118
5 Metabolic bone disease, 120
Chronic kidney disease metabolic bone disorder, 124
6 Infection, 128
Routes of spread, 128
Causative organisms, 128
Septic arthritis, 134
Infective discitis, 136
7 Non -traumatic paediatric conditions, 138
Developmental dysplasia of the hip, 138
Perthes’ disease, 140
Tarsal coalition, 141
Osteochondritis dissecans, 143
8 Other bone pathology, 144
Paget’s disease of bone, 144
Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy (HOA), 147
Avascular necrosis, 147
9 Joint replacement, 149
Hardware failure and aseptic loosening, 149
Malalignment and instability, 155
Periprosthetic fracture, 156
Part 3, 157
Self-assessment questions, 159
Self-assessment answers, 172
Dr David King is a Consultant Musculoskeletal Radiologist based at The York Teaching Hospital. He teaches musculoskeletal radiology to medical students, trainees in radiology, orhopaedics and emergency medicine, as well as professionals allied to medicine.
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